Yakut Language
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Yakut Language
Yakutian
Sakha tyla
? ?, saxa t?la
Pronunciation[saxa t?la]
Native toRussia
RegionYakutia
EthnicityYakuts (2010 census)
Native speakers
450,000 [1] (2010 census)
Cyrillic
Official status
Official language in
 Russia
Language codes
sah
sah
Glottologyaku1245
Yakut and Dolgan languages.png
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Yakut,[2][3] also known as Yakutian, Sakha, Saqa or Saxa, is a Turkic language with around 450,000 native speakers spoken in Sakha (Yakutia), a federal republic in the Russian Federation, by the Yakuts.

The Yakut language differs from all other Turkic languages in the presence of a layer of vocabulary of unclear origin (possibly Paleo-Asian). There are also a large number of words of Mongolian origin related to ancient borrowings, as well as numerous recent borrowings from Russian. Like most Turkic languages and their ancestor Proto-Turkic, Yakut is an agglutinative language and employs vowel harmony.

Classification

Yakut is a member of the Northeastern Common Turkic family of languages, which includes Shor, Tuvan and Dolgan in addition to Yakut. Like most Turkic languages, Yakut has vowel harmony, is agglutinative and has no grammatical gender. Word order is usually subject-object-verb. Yakut has been influenced by Tungusic and Mongolian languages.[4]

Geographic distribution

Yakut is spoken mainly in the Sakha Republic. It is also used by ethnic Yakuts in Khabarovsk Region and a small diaspora in other parts of the Russian Federation, Turkey, and other parts of the world. Dolgan, a close relative of Yakut, considered by some[who?] a dialect, is spoken by Dolgans in Krasnoyarsk Region. Yakut is widely used as a lingua franca by other ethnic minorities in the Sakha Republic - more Dolgans, Evenks, Evens and Yukagirs speak Yakut than their own languages. About 8% of the people of other ethnicities than Yakut living in Sakha claimed knowledge of the Yakut language during the 2002 census.[5]

Phonology

One characteristic feature of Yakut is vowel harmony. For example, if the first vowel of a Yakut word is a front vowel, the second and other vowels of the same word are usually the same vowel or another front vowel: (kelin) "back": ? (e) is open unrounded front, ? (i) is close unrounded front. Yakut initial s- corresponds to initial h- in Dolgan and played an important operative rule in the development of proto-Yakut, ultimately resulting in initial Ø- < *h- < *s- (example: Dolgan huoq and Yakut suox, both meaning "not"). The hypothetical change of *s > h (debuccalization) is well known and is far from unusual, being characteristic of such languages as Greek and Indo-Iranian in their development from Proto-Indo-European, as well as such Turkic languages as Bashkir, e.g. höt 'milk' < *süt. [6]

Consonants

Consonant phonemes of Yakut
Bilabial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ? ?
Plosive voiceless p t c k
voiced b d ? ?
Fricative voiceless s x h*
voiced ?
Approximant plain j
nasalized
lateral l ?*
Flap ?

*In dialects spoken in the northern districts of Yakutia, the letter ? is pronounced as when it is at the beginning of a word and the letter is pronounced as when it stands after ? within a word. This feature likely exists as a result of influence by the Yukaghir languages and/or Tungusic languages.

Sakha language (expect of Dolgan language) is the only Turkic language without hushing sibilants. Also, Sakha and Khorasani Turkic are the only known Turkic languages with voiced palatal nasal .

Vowels

Vowel phonemes of Yakut
Front Back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
Close short i y ? u
long i: y: ?: u:
Diphthong ie yø (wø) ?a (?:) uo (wo)
Open short e ø a o
long e: ø: a: o:

Orthography

Yakut is written using the Cyrillic script: the modern Yakut alphabet, established in 1939 by the Soviet Union, consists of the usual Russian characters but with five additional letters?, , , , .

The language has a highly phonemic orthography except for some dialects. While ? may be pronounced as or depending on the word, the distinction is not as relevant nowadays.

Yakut alphabet (Saxal suruk-biçik):

Letter Name IPA Note Latin translit.[]
? ? ? /a/ A a
? ? /b/ B b
? ? /v/ found only in Russian loanwords [7] V v
? ? /?/ G g
? ? /?, ?/ ? ?
? ? /d/ D d
/?/ C c
? ? ? /e, je/ found only in Russian loanwords Ye ye or e
? ? ? /jo/ found only in Russian loanwords Yo yo
? ? /?/ found only in Russian loanwords J j
? ? /z/ found only in Russian loanwords Z z
? ? ? /i/ ? i
? ? /j, / Nasalization of the glide is not indicated in the orthography Y y
? ? /k/ K k
? ? /l/ L l
? ? /m/ M m
? ? /n/ N n
? ? /?/ Ñ ñ
/?/ Ny ny
? ? ? /o/ O o
? ? ? /ø/ Ö ö
? ? /p/ P p
? ? /?/ R r
? ? /s/ S s
? ? /h/ H h
? ? /t/ T t
? ? ? /u/ U u
? ? ? /y/ Ü ü
? ? /f/ found only in Russian loanwords F f
? ? /q~x/ Q q
? ? /ts/ found only in Russian loanwords Ts ts
? ? /c/ Ç ç
? ? /?/ found only in Russian loanwords ? ?
? ? /?:/ found only in Russian loanwords
? ? /?./ found only in Russian loanwords "
? ? ? /?/ I ?
? ? // natively in and (see above); otherwise only in Russian loanwords '
? ? ? /e/ E e
? ? ? /ju/ found only in Russian loanwords Yu yu
? ? ? /ja/ found only in Russian loanwords Ya ya

Grammar

Syntax

The typical word order can be summarized as subject - adverb - object - verb; possessor - possessed; noun - adjective.

Nouns

Nouns have plural and singular forms. The plural is formed with the suffix /-LAr/, which may surface as - (-lar), - (-ler), - (-lör), - (-lor), - (-tar), - (-ter), - (-tör), - (-tor), - (-dar), - (-der), - (-dör), - (-dor), - (-nar), - (-ner), - (-nör), or - (-nor), depending on the preceding consonants and vowels. The plural is used only when referring to a number of things collectively, not when specifying an amount. Nouns have no gender.

Final sound basics Plural affix options Examples
Vowels, ? -, -, -, - ? (beasts), (bears), (children), ? (wolves)
?, ?, ?, ?, ? -, -, -, - (horses), (shadows), (herbs), (groups)
?, ? -, -, -, - ? (rich people)*, ? (young people)*, (eagles), (birds)
?, ?, ? -, -, -, - ? (sparks), ? (fishing nets), ? (beds), (they're large)*

Notes

* Nouns can also be adjectives, which also have plural forms. So, for example, is big and is bigs or correctly they are big.

There are exceptions: (boy) -- (boys) and ? (girl) -- (girls).

Pronouns

Personal pronouns in Yakut distinguish between first, second, and third persons and singular and plural number.

Singular Plural
1st (min) (bihigi)
2nd (en) (ehigi)
3rd human ? (kini) ? (kiniler)
non-human (ol) ? (olor)

Although nouns have no gender, the pronoun system distinguishes between human and non-human in the third person, using ? (kini, 'he/she') to refer to human beings and (ol, 'it') to refer to all other things.[8]

Questions

Question words in Yakut remain in-situ; they do not move to the front of the sentence. Sample question words include: ? (tuox) "what", (kim) "who", (xaydax) "how", (xas) "how much", (xanna) "where", and (xann?k) "which".

Vocabulary

Yakut (Cyrillic) Yakut (Latin) Turkish Azerbaijani English Mongolian (Cyrillic)

/Mongolian (Latin)

açç?ktahin açl?k acl?q hunger / ölsgölön
açç?k ac hungry / ölssön
aat ad ad name / ner
bal?k bal?k bal?q fish
bal?ks?t bal?kç? bal?qç? fisherman
yy uu su su water /us
timir demir d?mir iron /tömör
? küöl göl göl lake ? /nuur
? atax ayak ayaq foot
murun burun burun nose
battax saç saç hair /üs
? ilii el ?l hand
kün gün gün day, sun
? muus buz buz ice /mös
?t it it dog
sürex yürek ür?k heart ? /zürx
sars?n yar?n sabah tomorrow
bügün bugün bugün today
b?l?t bulut bulud cloud
? xaar kar qar snow
? xaan kan qan blood
et et ?t meat
? tiis di? di? tooth
at at at horse
? taas ta? da? stone
üüt süt süd milk /süü
? ?nax inek in?k cow ? /ünee
? xara kara qara black / xar
s?tt?k yast?k yast?q pillow
b?hax b?çak b?çaq knife
b?t?k b?y?k b mustache
, k?s, k?h?n k, kn q, qn winter
? tuus tuz duz salt
t?l dil dil tongue, language /xel
c a saxa t?la saha dili, sahaca saxa dili, saxaca Yakut language
? ks k?z q?z girl, daughter
uol o?ul, o?lan o?ul, o?lan son, boy
? üöreteeççi ö?retici, ö?retmen mü?llim teacher
? üöreneeççi ö?renci,talebe ?agird, t?l?b? student
? uhun uzun uzun long, tall
? kulgaax kulak qulaq ear
s?l y?l il year /jil
? kihi ki?i insan, ki?i human, man /hün
? suol yol yol road, way
asç?t a?ç? a?baz cook
taraax tarak daraq comb
? orto orta orta middle
kün ortoto gün ortas? günorta midday, noon
kül gülmek gülm?k to laugh
öl ölmek ölm?k to die
is içmek içm?k to drink
bil bilmek bilm?k to know
kör görmek görm?k to see /xar
üören ö?renmek öyr?nm?k to learn
üöret ö?retmek öyr?tm?k to teach
? ?t?r ?s?rmak di?l?m?k to bite
xas kazmak qazmaq to dig
tik diki? dikmek, dikmek tiki?, tikm?k to sew
kel gelmek g?lm?k to come
salaa yalamak yalamaq to lick
taraa taramak daramaq to comb
? bier vermek verm?k to give
bul bulmak tapmaq to find
die demek dem?k to say
? kiir girmek girm?k to enter
? ihit i?itmek e?itm?k to hear
as açmak açmaq to open
tut tutmak tutmaq to hold

Numbers

In this table, the Yakut numbers are written in Latin transcription (see Writing system).

Old Turkic Azerbaijani Turkish Yakut English
bir bir bir biir one
eki iki iki ikki two
üç üç üç üs three
tört dörd dört tüört four
be? be? be? bies five
alt? alt? alt? alta six
yeti yeddi yedi sette seven
sekiz s?kkiz sekiz a?is eight
tokuz doqquz dokuz to?us nine
on on on uon ten

Literature

The first printing in Yakut was a part of a book by Nicolaas Witsen published in 1692 in Amsterdam.[9]

In 2005, Marianne Beerle-Moor, director of the Institute for Bible Translation, Russia/CIS, was awarded the Order of Civil Valour by the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) for the translation of the New Testament into Yakut.[10]

Oral traditions

The Yakut have a tradition of oral epic in their language called "Olonkho", traditionally performed by skilled performers. Only a very few older performers of this Olonkho tradition are still alive. They have begun a program to teach young people to sing this in their language and revive it, though in a modified form.[11]

Examples

Article 1 of Universal Declaration of Human Rights:

Novgorodov's alphabet 1920-1929. (Latin alphabet/IPA) n bar?ta beje sSakhaUo.pngltat?gar SakhaUo.pngnna b?ra:b?gar te? bSakhaUo.pnglan tSakhaOeSmall.pngry:ler. kiniler bar? SakhaOeSmall.pngrkSakhaOeSmall.png:n SakhaOeSmall.pngjdSakhaOeSmall.png:q,
sSakhaUo.pngbasta:q bSakhaUo.pnglan tSakhaOeSmall.pngry:ler, SakhaUo.pngnna beje bejeliger t?lga ki:riniges b?h?:lara drd?hu t?:nn?:q
bSakhaUo.pnglSakhaUo.pngqta:q.
Latin alphabet 1929--1939. (Yañalif) Çon ?ar?ta ?eje suoltat?gar uonna raagar te? ?uolan t?ryyler. Kiniler ?ar? ?rkn ?jdq, suo?astaaq ?uolan t?ryyler, uonna ?eje ?ejeliger t?lga kiiriniges hlara do?ordohu tnnaaq ?uoluoqtaaq.
Modern Cyrillic 1939--present. ? ? ? . ? ? , ? , ? ? .
English All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

See also

References

  1. ^ [1], Russian census 2010
  2. ^ [2], Yakut language, Omniglot
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forke, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2020). "Sakha". Glottolog 4.3.
  4. ^ Forsyth, James (1994). A History of the Peoples of Siberia: Russia's North Asian Colony 1581-1990. Cambridge University Press. p. 56. ISBN 9780521477710. Their language...Turkic in its vocabulary and grammar, shows the influence of both Tungus and Mongolian
  5. ^ Russian Census 2002. 6. ? ( ) ? , ? ? ? ? ? ? (Knowledge of languages other than Russian by the population of republics, autonomous oblast and autonomous districts) (in Russian)
  6. ^ Ubrjatova, E. I. 1960 Opyt sravnitel'nogo izuc?enija fonetic?eskix osobennostej naselenija nekotoryx rajonov Jakutskoj ASSR. Moscow. 1985. Jazyk noril'skix dolgan. Novosibirsk: "Nauka" SO. In Tugnusic Languages 2 (2): 1-32. Historical Aspects of Yakut (Saxa) Phonology. Gregory D. S. Anderson. University of Chicago.
  7. ^ Krueger, John R. (1962). Yakut Manual. Bloomington: Indiana U Press.
  8. ^ Kiri?çio?lu, M. Fatih (1999). Saha (Yakut) Türkçesi Grameri. Ankara: Türk Dil Kurumu. ISBN 975-16-0587-3.
  9. ^ " ? ". . Retrieved .
  10. ^ "People". Institute for Bible Translation, Russia/CIS. Retrieved 2016.
  11. ^ Robin Harris. 2012. Sitting "under the mouth": decline and revitalization in the Skha epic tradition "Olonkho". Doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia.

External links

Language-related

Content in Yakut


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