Xumi Language
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Xumi Language
Shixing
Shuhi
Native toChina
Native speakers
1,800 (2000)[1]
Language codes
sxg
Glottologshix1238
ELPShixing

Shixing, also rendered Shuhi, is a poorly-attested Qiangic language of Sichuan and the Tibet Autonomous Region. Two thirds of its speakers are monolingual.

Shixing is also known by its Tibetan name Xumi ( Xùm?); it is spoken by about 1800 people living by the Shuiluo River in Shuiluo Township , Mili Tibetan Autonomous County.[2]

Katia Chirkova reports two varieties.[3]

  • Upper Xumi (autonymuh? ?uh?)
  • Lower Xumi (autonym?h? h?)

Phonology

Consonants

Xumi features a very unusual phonemic contrast between voiceless and voiced alveolo-palatal lateral approximants.[4][5]

Consonant phonemes[6][7]
Labial Alveolar Postalveolar Velar Uvular Glottal
Palato-
alveolar
Retroflex Alveolo-
palatal
Nasal voiceless m? n?
voiced m n ? ?
Plosive aspirated p? t? k? q?
plain p t k q
voiced b d ? ?
Affricate aspirated ts? t t
plain ts t? t?
voiced dz d? d?
Fricative voiceless s ? ? ? x ? h
voiced z ? ? ? ? ? ?
Lateral voiceless l?
voiced l ?
Approximant ? j w

In the table above, gold phonemes only appear in the Upper Xumi dialect while blue phonemes only appear in the Lower Xumi dialect. All others appear in both Upper and Lower Xumi.

Vowels

Oral monophthongs of Lower Xumi, from Chirkova & Chen (2013:369)

Oral

  • Upper Xumi has the following oral vowels: /i, ?, u, e, o, ?, ?, ?, ?/.[8]
  • Lower Xumi has the following oral vowels: /i, ?, u, e, o, ?, ?, ?/.[9]/o, ?, ?/ generally correspond to Upper Xumi /u, ?, ?/, respectively.[10]
    • /?/ is phonetically close-mid .[11]

Nasal

  • Upper Xumi has the following nasal vowels: /?, ?, , , /, as well as the marginal , which occurs only in the word m?d? [LPmd?][clarification needed] 'on the roof / upstairs'.[8]
  • Lower Xumi has the following nasal vowels: /?, õ, , , /, as well as the marginal , which occurs only in the word m?d? ?o [LPmd? o][clarification needed] 'on the roof / upstairs'.[9]/?, õ, , / generally correspond to Upper Xumi /?, ?, , /, respectively.[10]

References

Bibliography

  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya (2013), "Xumi, Part 1: Lower Xumi, the Variety of the Lower and Middle Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 363-379, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000157[permanent dead link]
  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya; Kocjan?i? Antolík, Tanja (2013), "Xumi, Part 2: Upper Xumi, the Variety of the Upper Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 381-396, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000169[permanent dead link]
  • Sun Hongkai []. 2014. A study of Shixing [Shixingyu yanjiu ]. Beijing: Minzu University Press.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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