Wuhan Metro
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Wuhan Metro
Wuhan Metro
Wuhan Metro Logo.svg
Rolling stock NO. A62 of Wuhan Metro Line 1.jpg
The train of Line 1 departing from Zongguan Station
?.jpg
Overview
OwnerWuhan Metro Group Co., Ltd.
LocaleWuhan City, China
Transit typeRapid transit
Number of lines9
Number of stations228[1][Nb 1]
Daily ridership
  • 3.642 million (April 2019)[2]
  • 4.465 million (Maximum, 4 April 2019)[3]
Annual ridership1.22 billion (2019)[2]
Websitewww.wuhanrt.com
Operation
Began operation28 July 2004; 16 years ago (2004-07-28)
Operator(s)Wuhan Metro Group Co., Ltd.
CharacterElevated and underground
Train length4 or 6 cars
Headway2.5 - 9 min
Technical
System length339 km (210.6 mi)[1]
Track gauge
System map

Wuhan Metro System Map.svg

Wuhan Metro
Simplified Chinese?
Traditional Chinese?
Alternative Chinese name
Simplified Chinese
Traditional Chinese

Wuhan Metro is a rapid transit system serving the city of Wuhan, China. Owned and operated by Wuhan Metro Group Co., Ltd., the network now includes 9 lines, 228 stations, and 339 km (211 mi) of route length. Line 1, the first line in the system, opened on 28 July 2004, which made Wuhan become the seventh city in mainland China with rapid transit system, after Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Changchun, and Dalian.[4] Line 2 opened on 28 December 2012 and is the first underground rail line crossing the Yangtze River. Commuting across the Yangtze River and Han River has been the bottleneck of Wuhan traffic. However, the appearance of Wuhan Metro greatly relieved this problem. With 1.22 billion annual passengers in 2019, Wuhan Metro is the sixth-busiest rapid transit system in mainland China.[2] There are a number of lines or sections under construction. The government of Wuhan City promised the citizens that at least two lines or sections open every year.[5] Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the entire network was out of service from 23 January 2020 to 27 March 2020.

Wuhan Metro Headquarters
Wuhan Yangtze River Tunnel of Road & Rail, and Wuhan Metro Line 1 in the distance

History

Evolution of the Wuhan Metro

Preliminary studies of urban rail transit systems were prompted by the city shortly after a Belgian Railways delegation visit in 1984. Following the demolition of old Beijing-Hankou Railway, the city of Wuhan planned to utilize the corridor to construct the city's first rapid transit rail line. In September 1992, the Wuhan Metro Construction Group was established by Wuhan Municipal Construction Commission and a supervision group, led by the mayor Qian Yunlu, was subsequently formed in 1993 to facilitate the project's funding, planning, logistics, and organization. Yet, it was seven years before the city was able to fund construction.

In October 1999, the National Planning Commission (predecessor of the National Development and Reform Commission) approved the Wuhan "Light Rail" project (Line 1, phase 1), signalling the start of serious work on the rail transit project. On October 2, 2000, the Wuhan Municipal Government ratified the establishment of the Wuhan Rail Transit Co., Ltd., and contracted construction, operation, administration and related real estate development to the corporation.

In December 2000, the National Planning Commission accepted a feasibility report on the project and approved construction on phase 1 of Line 1. On December 23, 2000, the project broke ground and comprehensive construction began.

In 2002, with the anticipation of an economic boom and increasing demand for urban rail transit, Wuhan Municipal Government approved the city's first long-term rail transit master plan. On July 28, 2004, the ten-station long "light rail" line was opened to the public and entered revenue service in August. However, low ridership discouraged the city from funding the extension project, for which ground had been broken on December 15, 2005, and a 4-year delay in construction ensued. In April 2006, the NDRC ratified a six-year construction/operation plan, but it was not until a year later on April 9, 2007, that NDRC accepted the feasibility report for line 1, phase 2 (the extension project) and approved construction on the project.

In the interim, construction began on the Fanhu station of the fully underground line 2 on November 16, 2006, as a response to the six-year plan adopted by NDRC earlier. Construction also began on the underground line 4 stations of Wuchang railway station in June, and Wuhan railway station in September, as parts of the integral capital project to revamp and construct the Wuhan Railway Hub.

In May 2007, the Hubei Provincial Development and Reform Commission (HDRC) approved preliminary designs on Line 1, phase 2, and comprehensive construction subsequently commenced in June. On May 15, the city government approved the establishment of Wuhan Metro Group Co., Ltd., which would replace the Wuhan Rail Transit Co., Ltd and assume its responsibilities and benefits.

On September 12, 2007, the NDRC accepted the feasibility report to Line 2, phase 1, and preliminary designs were approved by the HDRC in December 2007. However, it was not until September 2008 that land purchases and funding were facilitated and comprehensive construction began to take place. In October 2009, drilling of the Yangtze River tunnel started.

On March 13, 2009, the NDRC accepted a feasibility report to Line 4, phase 1. On May 13, 2009, the HDRC ratified preliminary designs on Line 4, phase 1. Comprehensive construction ensued on the Wuchang segment of Line 4. A more ambitious urban rapid transit plan was submitted for NDRC review in October 2009, and in late November, on-site panel investigations were conducted by China International Engineering Consulting Corporation.

In February 2010 (Wuhan Metro)'s first commercial property topped out in Hanxi 1st Road station. On July 29, Line 1 phase 2 entered revenue service from Dijiao to Dongwu Boulevard. Despite plans to extend the westernmost terminus to Jinshan Avenue in Dongxihu District, the station was never built. A short stub with crossover tracks was constructed behind Dongwu Boulevard. Zhuyehai, a station in Qiaokou District, remained non-operational in spite of the existence of complete platforms. Neither exits nor staircases had been built yet. It was due to open when the Wuhan IKEA store was completed in late 2014.[6]

A revised and more detailed construction plan was accepted by the NDRC on January 31, 2011. The plan specified the city's plan to complete construction on Line 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8 before 2017. Beginning on March 1, Line 1 subdivided its fare zones from 3 to 5 and lowered maximum fare from 5 CNY / ride to 4 CNY / ride. Wuhan Tong cardholders will receive a 20 percent discount on single ride fares.[7] On April 9, Line 1 welcomed its 100,000,000th customer, who was awarded a one-year pass to the Metro.[8] On September 9, preliminary designs on Line 4, phase 2 (Hanyang segment) was approved by HDRC.

On February 17, 2012, the NDRC accepted a feasibility report on line 3, phase 1, the fourth line in Wuhan Metro's grid and the first to cross the Han River, connecting the boroughs of Hankou and Hanyang. A feasibility report to Line 6--the second Hankou-Hanyang connection--was also approved by the NDRC on December 21, 2012. Seven days later, line 2 entered revenue service, connecting some of the most populated areas of Hankou, Wuchang, and the Optics Valley.

On April 12, 2013, the NDRC granted acceptance to a feasibility report of Line 8, phase 1, which connects Hankou and Wuchang via the Second Yangtze River Bridge corridor. Construction began in June 2013 and was completed in December 2017.

Wuhan Metro requests passengers to wear masks throughout their journeys during COVID-19 pandemic.

On 23 January 2020, the entire metro network was shut down, along with all other public transport in the city, including national railway and air travel, to halt the spread of COVID-19 pandemic in Hubei.[9][10]

On 28 March 2020, six lines (Line 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7) resumed operations, after a two-month lockdown.[11] On 8 April 2020, Line 8 Phase 1 resumed operations.[12] On 22 April 2020, Line 8 Phase 3, Line 11, Yangluo line resumed operations.[13]

Timeline of service expansion

Segment description Date opened Station(s) # of new stations Length (km)
Phase I of Line 1 28 July 2004 Zongguan -- Huangpu Road 10[note 1] 9.769
Phase II of Line 1 29 July 2010 Dongwu Boulevard -- Zongguan;
Huangpu Road -- Dijiao
16[note 2] 18.494
Phase I of Line 2 28 December 2012 Jinyintan -- Optics Valley Square 21 27.152
Phase I of Line 4[15] 28 December 2013 Wuchang Railway Station -- Wuhan Railway Station 15 15.429
Hankou North extension of Line 1 28 May 2014 Dijiao -- Hankou North 3 5.555
Phase II of Line 4 28 December 2014 Huangjinkou -- Wuchang Railway Station 13 17.974
Phase I of Line 3[16] 28 December 2015 Zhuanyang Boulevard -- Hongtu Boulevard 24 29.660
Phase I of Line 6 28 December 2016[17] Jinyinhu Park -- Dongfeng Motor Corporation 27 35.512
North extension of Line 2[note 3] Tianhe International Airport -- Jinyintan 7 19.957
Phase I of Line 8 26 December 2017 Jintan Road -- Liyuan 12 16.204
Yangluo Line Houhu Boulevard -- Jintai 16 34.575
Jinghe extension of Line 1 Dongwu Boulevard -- Jinghe 3 4.118
Phase I of Line 7 1 October 2018[18] Garden Expo North -- Yezhihu 19 30.413
Phase I of Line 11 Optics Valley Railway Station -- Zuoling 13 18.744
South extension of Line 7 28 December 2018 Yezhihu -- Qinglongshan Ditiexiaozhen 7 16.550
South extension of Line 2 19 February 2019 Optics Valley Square -- Fozuling 10 13.195
West extension of Line 4[19] 25 September 2019 Bailin -- Huangjinkou 9 16.288
Phase III of Line 8[1] 6 November 2019 Yezhihu -- Military Athletes' Village 3 4.832
  1. ^ in which Taipingyang Station's opening was postponed until 8 April 2006.
  2. ^ in which Zhuyehai Station's opening was postponed until 17 September 2014.[14]
  3. ^ also known as Airport Line

Lines

Notes:
(1) Transfer at Xujiapeng sta. between Line 7 and 8 won't be open until Line 5 comes into operation;
(2) Passagers transferring between Xinrong sta. of Line 1 and Xinrong Long-distance Bus sta. of Yangluo Line have to exit and enter the system again, as the direct transfer passage is still under construction;
(3) Line 8 currently consists of two separate parts. To distinguish the two sections, the longer one opening in 2017 is identified as Line 8 Phase 1; the shorter one opening in 2019 is identified as Line 8 Phase 3. The two parts will be joined by Line 8 Phase 2 by the end of 2020.
Current system
Line Name Termini Opened Last extension Length[20] Stations Layout
Line 1 Jinghe Hankou North 28 July 2004 26 December 2017 37.936 km (23.572 mi) 32 Elevated
Line 2 Tianhe International Airport Fozuling 28 December 2012 19 February 2019 60.304 km (37.471 mi) 38 Elevated & underground
Line 3 Zhuanyang Boulevard Hongtu Boulevard 28 December 2015 -- 29.660 km (18.430 mi) 24 Underground
Line 4 Bailin[21] Wuhan Railway Station 28 December 2013 25 September 2019 49.693 km (30.878 mi) 37 Elevated & underground
Line 6 Jinyinhu Park Dongfeng Motor Corporation 28 December 2016 -- 35.512 km (22.066 mi) 27 Underground
Line 7 Garden Expo North Qinglongshan Ditiexiaozhen 1 October 2018 28 December 2018 46.963 km (29.181 mi) 26 Underground
Line 8 Phase I Jintan Road Liyuan 26 December 2017 -- 16.204 km (10.069 mi) 12 Underground
Line 8 Phase III Yezhihu Military Athletes' Village 6 November 2019 -- 4.832 km (3.002 mi) 3 Underground
Line 11 Optics Valley Railway Station Zuoling 1 October 2018 -- 18.744 km (11.647 mi) 13 Underground
Yangluo Line[note 1] Houhu Boulevard Jintai 26 December 2017 -- 34.575 km (21.484 mi) 16 Elevated & underground
Total 339 km (211 mi) 228[note 2]
  1. ^ Yangluo Line is also known as Line 21.
  2. ^ Transfer stations are counted repeatedly.
Line 1 is fully elevated.

Line 1

Line 1 is a 37.788 km (23.480 mi) elevated urban rail line entirely located in the borough of Hankou. It runs a northwest-southeast route that approximately parallels with Jiefang Avenue for its entire length. There are 27 planned stations, among which 25 are operational. Line 1 operates 33 four-car train sets, 12 of which are manufactured by Changchun Railway Vehicles, and 21 by Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Co., Ltd.

On July 28, 2004, the first phase of Line 1 began service from Huangpu Road to Zongguan. On July 28, 2010, Line 1 extended from both ends after the completion of phase 2.[22] The phase 3 expansion, which extends the northeast terminus to Hankou North Station, entered revenue service on May 28, 2014.[23] The phase 4 expansion, which extends to Jinghe Station from Dongwu Boulevard. The phase 4 opened on Dec 26th, 2017. Line 1's color is blue.

Line 2

Line 2 is a 27.895 km (17.333 mi) underground subway connecting the boroughs of Hankou and Wuchang. Upon completion, Line 2 was the first subway in China to cross the mighty Yangtze River.[24] It runs in a northwest-southeast route and crosses the Yangtze River near Jianghan Road, and Jiyuqiao in Wuchang. Tunnel drilling concluded on February 26, 2012.[24] Revenue service of Line 2 began on December 28, 2012.[25][26] Line 2 operates 41 six-car train sets, all of which were manufactured by Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Co., Ltd.

Line 2 was extended towards both directions. The southern extension brought the southeast terminus from Optics Valley Square to Fozuling, and the northwest extension plan brought the northwest terminus from Jinyintan to Tianhe International Airport, providing convenient access for airport and residential areas en route. Early on, construction work on both extensions was expected to commence in 2013, and the tentative completion dates was set at 2015. In May 2014, it was reported that the construction work on the southern extension would start within 2014, with construction completed by February 19, 2019. Line 2's color is pink.[27]

Line 3

Overall construction of Line 3 was approved by National Development and Reform Commission on Feb 23, 2012,[28] and officially started on Mar 31, 2012.[29] Line 3 went into operation on December 28, 2015. Line 3's color is dark yellow.[16] Line 3 cars are Type B and manufactured by CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles.

Line 4

Line 4 is mostly underground. It will run in an east-west route serving the Hanyang and Wuchang distincts. The first phase linking Wuchang and Wuhan railway stations opened on December 28, 2013; since that day, all three main railway stations of Wuhan are connected by the Metro. The second phase of Line 4 will crossing the Yangtze River to Hanyang opened in 2014. Line 4's color is light green.[30] Line 4 cars are Type B and manufactured by CRRC Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive.

Line 6

Line 6 opened in 2016.[17] And it is the first line of Wuhan Metro to use high capacity A size trains with overhead lines. Line 6's color is green. Line 6 uses Type A cars manufactured by CRRC Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive.

Line 7

Line 7 is a rapid transit line in Wuhan. The line runs from Garden Expo North in Dongxihu District to Qinglongshan Ditiexiaozhen in Jiangxia District. It serves residential & business areas such as Nanhu, Wuhan CBD and Wuhan Financial street. Line 7 reserves Wuhan Metro's highest capacity rolling stock to date featuring 8 Type-A car train sets accommodating 2480 people, compared to the standard 6 cars found on other lines. It is also the fastest urban line in the system, with trains capable of reaching the speed of 100 km/h (62 mph) compared to 80 km/h (50 mph) on other lines. [31]

Line 8

Line 8 currently consists of two separate parts. Line 8 Phase 1 was opened in 2017, and Line 8 Phase 3 was opened in 2019. Presently there are 12 stations on the Phase 1 section and 3 on the Phase 3 section. The Phase 2 that is under construction will connect the two parts by the end of 2020.

Line 11

Line 11 was opened on 1 October 2018 on National Day. Line 11 uses Type A cars manufactured by CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles.

Yangluo Line

The Yangluo Line is a rapid transit line that forms part of the Wuhan Metro system. Coloured magenta on the metro map, the line in its current form runs from Houhu Boulevard to Jintai, a total distance of 34.575 km (21.484 mi). The line connects the urban area of Hankou and Yangluo, Xinzhou District.

Services

Service routes

Short turns are used on Line 2, Line 4, and Line 7, while the other lines only operate the full length of the route. As far as Line 2, Line 4, and Line 7 are concerned, the short turns alternate with the full routes.

  • Line 2
    • Short turn: Jinyintan -- Optics Valley Railway Station
    • Full route: Tianhe International Airport -- Fozuling
  • Line 4
    • Short turn: Yulong Road -- Wuhan Railway Station
    • Full route: Bailin -- Wuhan Railway Station
  • Line 7
    • Short turn: Garden Expo North -- Banqiao
    • Full route: Garden Expo North -- Qinglongshan Ditiexiaozhen

Opening hours

The operating hours start at 6:00 on weekdays and 6:30 on weekends & holidays. The last trains of Yangluo Line depart from the terminis at 22:00 or 22:30, while other lines at 23:00. See the table below for more details. [32]

Line Weekdays Weekends and holidays
Yangluo Line To Jintai 6:00 - 22:30 6:30 - 22:30
To Houhu Boulevard 6:00 - 22:00 6:30 - 22:00
Other lines 6:00 - 23:00 6:30 - 23:00

Ticketing

Fares vary based on the distance travelled.[20]

¥2
0 ~ 4 km
¥3
4 ~ 8 km
¥4
8 ~ 12 km
¥5
12 ~ 18 km
¥6
18 ~ 24 km
¥7
24 ~ 32 km
¥8
32 ~ 40 km
¥9
40 ~ 50 km
+ ¥1
~ +20 km



Discount

Most Passagers enter and exit the system using a proximity card called Wuhan Tong, which is available at all metro stations. Passagers who pay metro fare with a Wuhan Tong Card can receive a 10% discount.[33]Besides the metro, Passengers can also pay tram, bus, and ferry fees by Wuhan Tong within Wuhan.

Multi-day pass

There are three kinds of multi-day pass cards valid for one, three, and seven days respectively.

  • One-day pass: ¥18 each and valid for 1 day;
  • Three-day pass: ¥45 each and valid for 3 days;
  • Seven-day pass: ¥90 each and valid for 7 days.

Cardholders may enjoy one, three, or seven days of unlimited rides in the metro system. The multi-day pass cards are available at the Customer Service Centres in the metro stations. In addition, a RMB 20 deposit is charged for each multi-day pass card.

Amenities

Lift on the platform

4G LTE services are provided in all stations and trains. As Line 1 was put into operation earlier, it lacks in some facilities. For more amenity information, plsease see the table below. It is worth mentioning that most of the restrooms are set outside the paid area.

Station Restroom Lift
Stations on Line 1 Youyi Road, Liji North Road,
Chongren Road, Qiaokou Road, Taipingyang Station
unavailable unequipped
Huangpu Road, Sanyang Road, Dazhi Road,
Xunlimen, Zongguan Station[34]
available unequipped
The rest available equipped
Stations on other lines available equipped

Rolling stock

Signalling

Wuhan Metro Line 1 is the first one equipped with moving block system in China.[35] All the lines are equipped with CBTC. In the future, a fully automated, driverless train system (GoA4), provided by Traffic Control Technology Corporation Limited, will be applied to Line 5.[36][37]

Ridership

Since 2012, the ridership of the entire network has grown as the new lines or sections come into operation every year. The following data were released by the Wuhan Statistics Bureau, however, the data before 2007 are unavailable.

Annual ridership
Year Ridership (in million)
2007[38]
2008[38]
2009[39]
2010[40]
2011[41]
2012[42]
2013[43]
2014[44]
2015[45]
2016[46]
2017[47]
2018[48]
2019[49]

Future expansion

Wuhan Metro Phase IV Construction Plan Diagram (2019-2024), in which the red and purple lines with a total length of 198.4km were newly approved on 25 December 2018, and the other gray parts are under construction or in operation

A number of lines are under construction. Line 12 will be a loop line. Line 5 is proposed to use automated driverless trains.[50] Line 9, 10, as well as Line 13, are being planned by the municipal authority.[51]

Lines and Liveries Termini Expected to open Total Length
in km
Stations Status
Phase II of Line 6 Zoumaling Jinyinhu Park 2020 7.0 5 Under construction
Phase II of Line 8 Liyuan Yezhihu 2020 17.4 11 Under construction
Phase II of Line 11 Wuchang Railway Station Optics Valley Railway Station 2021 12.41 7 Under construction
Phase III of Line 11 Zuoling Gedian South Railway Station (in Ezhou city) 2020 3.7 1 Under construction
Jiang'an Road Wuchang Railway Station 2021 4 2 Under construction
Huangjinkou Xinhanyang Railway Station TBD 2.2 2 Approved
Line 5 South Third Ring Road Wuhan Railway Station 2021 33.57 25 Under construction
Line 16 South International Expo Center Zhoujiahe 2021 32.4 12 Under construction
North extension of Line 7 Machi Huangpi Square 2022[52] 36.4 10 Under construction
Line 19 Wuhan Railway Station Optics Valley Free Trade Zone 2023 21.2 6 Under construction
Line 12 Kepu Gongyuan Qingling 2024[53] 22.0 15 Under construction
Completes Loop Line 2025[53] 37.9 22 Under construction
Xingang Line Wuhan Railway Station Shigang 2025 30.2 10 Approved
Line 10 Changfu Wuhan Railway Station TBD 61.4 29 Proposed
Phase II of Yangluo Line Zhongyi Road Houhu Boulevard TBD 3.2 2 Proposed
Line 13 New Hanyang Railway Station Future Tech-city TBD 40.4 27 Proposed
Line 14 Zhuyehai Dijiao TBD 27.2 21 Proposed
Line 20 Tianhe International Airport Wuhan Railway Station TBD 30.3 6 Proposed

Station

Almost all stations, except the stations on Line 1, are equipped with platform screen doors. There is a plan that stations on Line 1 will be equipped with platform screen doors in the future.[54][55] The metro stations are equipped to be disabled and elderly friendly, with automatic fare collection system, announcement system, electronic display boards, escalators and lifts. The stations are equipped with non-slippery flooring with grip-rails, audio announcements and Braille facilities to help visually challenged passengers.

Gallery

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Transfer stations are counted more than once. There are 23 two-line transfer stations and 2 three-line transfer stations. If transfer stations are counted only once, the result will be 201 stations.

References

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  2. ^ a b c WeChat@ (2020-02-15). !2019. ?.
  3. ^ 1615,42.
  4. ^ "> Asia > China > Wuhan Metro". UrbanRail.Net. Archived from the original on April 9, 2010. Retrieved 2010.
  5. ^ "? ". ?. 2015-12-28.
  6. ^ ? (in Chinese).
  7. ^ (in Chinese).
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  9. ^ "Public Transport In Wuhan Suspended Due To Coronavirus Concerns". NPR.org. Retrieved .
  10. ^ "Virus-hit Chinese city shuts public transport". BBC News. 2020-01-23. Retrieved .
  11. ^ "Wuhan buses hit the road after two-month lockdown". Xinhua. Retrieved .
  12. ^ Huang Lei;Wang Yang (2020-04-07). ":4?8 ". Hubei Daily.
  13. ^ "811?,22,". 2020-04-21.
  14. ^ (Zhuyehai station opened)
  15. ^ Section one of Metro Line 4 opens
  16. ^ a b "?". ? (in Chinese). 2015-12-24. Retrieved .
  17. ^ a b 6
  18. ^ 711. www.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved .
  19. ^ "!259". 2019-09-23.
  20. ^ a b "Ticketing regulations". Wuhan Metro Group Co., Ltd. 2019-11-05.
  21. ^ "? "bailin"". 2019-10-04.
  22. ^ "Wuhan light rail starts test run". China Daily. Retrieved .
  23. ^ ?1 (in Chinese).
  24. ^ a b "Subway to cross under Yangtze". Retrieved 2012.
  25. ^ 102? (?) (in Chinese). Retrieved 2012.
  26. ^ "Subway ticket price hearing held". Retrieved 2012.
  27. ^ Nowadays, Line 2 only have 6 cars, but in the future, it is possible to add 2 cars to carry more people when the population of passengers are growing up, and 6 cars are not enough. ?2019 ?2? (Work starting within this year; service opening in 2019. Ten stations announced for the Southern Extension of Line 2 of Wuhan Metro), 2014-05-28
  28. ^ ?3? . Retrieved 2012.
  29. ^ ?3 . Retrieved 2012.
  30. ^ 4?12?28? (in Chinese). . Retrieved .
  31. ^ http://en.hubei.gov.cn/news/newslist/201608/t20160812_881297.shtml
  32. ^ "".
  33. ^ "?9". 2019-07-29.
  34. ^ The restroom is located in Station Hall of another line but shared by the two lines because it is an interchange station.
  35. ^ "15,TA!". ?. 2019-07-17. 1?
  36. ^ "?5,!". ?. 2017-08-03.
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  44. ^ Wuhan Statistics Bureau (September 2015). Wuhan Statistical Yearbook-2015 (PDF) (in Chinese). Beijing, China: China Statistics Press. p. 183. ISBN 978-7-5037-7570-3.
  45. ^ Wuhan Statistics Bureau (September 2016). Wuhan Statistical Yearbook-2016 (PDF) (in Chinese). Beijing, China: China Statistics Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-7-5037-7913-8.
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  49. ^ "2019" (in Chinese). Wuhan Statistics Bureau. 2020-03-29.
  50. ^ ? 5?"". www.hb.chinanews.com. Retrieved .
  51. ^ ,4918 (in Chinese). Retrieved .
  52. ^ "2022?". huangpi.gov.cn. 2020-08-07. Retrieved .
  53. ^ a b "!12?_?_?__cjn.cn". news.cjn.cn. Retrieved .
  54. ^ ; (2015-05-04). "?1 ?". ?.
  55. ^ ; (2016-01-06). "1? ". .

External links


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