Womb Realm
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Womb Realm
The Womb Realm mandala. The center square represents the young stage of Vairocana. He is surrounded by eight Buddhas and bodhisattvas (clockwise from top: Ratnasambhava, Samantabhadra, Sa?kusumitar?ja, Manjushri, Amit?bha, Avalokite?vara, Amoghasiddhi and Maitreya)

In Vajrayana Buddhism, the Womb Realm (Sanskrit: garbhako?adh?tu, Japanese: taiz?kai) is the metaphysical space inhabited by the Five Compassion Buddhas. The Womb Realm is based on the Mahavairocana Tantra. The name of the mandala derives from chapter 2 of the sutra, where it is said that the buddha Mah?vairocana revealed the mandala's secret teachings to his disciple Vajrasattva from his "womb of compassion".[1] In other translations, the term Matrix Realm or Matrix Mandala are used.[2]

The Womb Realm is a very popular subject for mandalas, and along with the Diamond Realm (vajradh?tu) Mandala forms the Mandala of the Two Realms. This mandala, along with the Diamond Realm, form the core of Japanese Tendai and Shingon Buddhist rituals, including abhisheka "initiation". In this ritual, new initiates are blindfolded and asked to toss a flower upon a mandala. Where the flower lands helps decide which Buddhist figure the student should devote themselves to.[3]

In traditional Shingon halls, the Womb Realm Mandala is hung on the east wall, symbolizing the young stage of Mah?vairocana.[4]In this setting, the Diamond Realm Mandala is hung on the west wall symbolizing the final realization of Mah?vairocana.[5]

Womb Realm map

Outside Vajra Hall
Hall of Manjusri
Hall of
Hall of Shakyamuni
Hall of
Hall of Encompassing Knowledge Hall of

Eight Petal Hall
Hall of the Wisdom Kings
Hall of ?kagarbha
Susiddhi Hall

Center Eight Petal Hall

Dainichi is depicted in regal attire wearing a jewelled crown in the center of an eight-petaled lotus. Four Buddhas, representing the four directions, are depicted directly above, below, left, and right of Dainichi.[6] The Buddha of the East, H?d?, is illustrated on the top, the Buddha of the South, Kaifuke? to the right, the Buddha of the West, Amida, to the bottom, and the Buddha of the North, Tenkuraion, to the right.[6] Four bodhisattvas, Fugen, Monju, Kannon, and Miroku, are illustrated between the Buddhas.[6]

Vajras are illustrated between the petals of nine deities and symbolize the knowledge or wisdom (jnana) that crush illusions.[6]

Four vases containing a lotus and a three-pronged Vajra, are placed at the corners of the Center Hall. The hall is marked off by a five-colored boundary path with each color referring to one of the five buddhas, knowledges, directions, roots, conversions, syllables, elements, and forms.[7]

See also


  1. ^ Abe, Ryuichi (1999). The Weaving of Mantra: Kukai and the Construction of Esoteric Buddhist Discourse. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11286-6.
  2. ^ Hakeda, Yoshito S. (1972). K?kai and His Major Works. Columbia University Press. p. 26. ISBN 0-231-05933-7.
  3. ^ Hakeda, Yoshito S. (1972). K?kai and His Major Works. Columbia University Press. p. 44. ISBN 0-231-05933-7.
  4. ^ Hakeda, Yoshito S. (1972). K?kai and His Major Works. Columbia University Press. p. 87. ISBN 0-231-05933-7.
  5. ^ David, Gardiner (1996). "On Mandalas". Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies. 19.
  6. ^ a b c d ten Grotenhuis, Elizabeth (1999). Japanese Mandalas: Representations of Sacred Geography. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. pp. 60-61.
  7. ^ Snodgrass, Adrian (1988). The Matrix and Diamond World Mandala in Shingon Buddhism. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan.

Further reading

External links

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