Winston-Salem, North Carolina
|City of Winston-Salem|
Twin City, Cigarette City, Camel City, Winston
Urbs Condita Adiuvando (A city founded on cooperation)
|o Mayor||Allen Joines (D)|
|o City Manager||Lee D. Garrity|
|o City||133.7 sq mi (346.3 km2)|
|o Land||132.4 sq mi (343.0 km2)|
|o Water||1.2 sq mi (3.2 km2)|
|Elevation||970 ft (300 m)|
| o Estimate |
|o Rank||5th in North Carolina|
89th in United States
|o Density||1,700/sq mi (660/km2)|
|o Urban||391,204 (US: 96th)|
|o Metro||676,673 (US: 83rd)|
|o CSA||1,642,506 (US: 33rd)|
|Time zone||UTC−5 (Eastern)|
|o Summer (DST)||UTC−4 (EDT)|
|Primary Airport||Piedmont Triad International Airport|
Winston-Salem is a city in and the county seat of Forsyth County, North Carolina, United States. With a 2018 estimated population of 246,328 it is the second largest municipality in the Piedmont Triad region, the fifth most populous city in North Carolina, the third largest urban area in North Carolina, and the eighty-ninth most populous city in the United States. With a metropolitan population of 676,673 it is the fourth largest metropolitan area in North Carolina. Winston-Salem is home to the tallest office building in the region, 100 North Main Street, formerly the Wachovia Building and now known locally as the Wells Fargo Center.
Winston-Salem is called the "Twin City" for its dual heritage. "Camel City" is a reference to the city's historic involvement in the tobacco industry related to locally based R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company's Camel cigarettes. Many locals refer to the city as "Winston" in informal speech. Winston-Salem is also home to many colleges and institutions, most notably Wake Forest University and Winston-Salem State University.
In 2012, the city was listed among the ten best places to retire in the United States by CBS MoneyWatch. Winston-Salem has seen a surge in growth and revitalization in the downtown area with hotels, restaurants, and apartments under construction.
The city of Winston-Salem is a product of the merging of the two neighboring towns of Winston and Salem in 1913.
The origin of the town of Salem dates to January 1753, when Bishop August Gottlieb Spangenberg, on behalf of the Moravian Church, selected a settlement site in the three forks of Muddy Creek. He called this area "die Wachau" (Latin form: Wachovia) named after the ancestral estate of Count Nicolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf. The land, just short of 99,000 acres (400 km2), was subsequently purchased from John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville.
On November 17, 1753, the first settlers arrived at what would later become the town of Bethabara. This town, despite its rapid growth, was not designed to be the primary settlement on the tract. Some residents expanded to a nearby settlement called Bethania in 1759. Finally, lots were drawn to select among suitable sites for the location of a new town.
The town established on the chosen site was given the name of Salem (from "Shalom" meaning "Peace", after the Canaanite city mentioned in the Book of Genesis) chosen for it by the Moravians' late patron, Count Zinzendorf. On January 6, 1766, the first tree was felled for the building of Salem. Salem was a typical Moravian settlement congregation with the public buildings of the congregation grouped around a central square, today Salem Square. These included the church, a Brethren's House and a Sisters' House for the unmarried members of the Congregation, which owned all the property in town. For many years only members of the Moravian Church were permitted to live in the settlement. This practice had ended by the American Civil War. Many of the original buildings in the settlement have been restored or rebuilt and are now part of Old Salem Museums & Gardens.
Salem was incorporated as a town in December 1856. Salem Square and "God's Acre", the Moravian Graveyard, since 1772 are the site each Easter morning of the world-famous Moravian sunrise service. This service, sponsored by all the Moravian church parishes in the city, attracts thousands of worshipers each year.
In 1849, the Salem congregation sold land north of Salem to the newly formed Forsyth County for a county seat. The new town was called "the county town" or Salem until 1851 when it was renamed Winston for a local hero of the Revolutionary War, Joseph Winston. For its first two decades, Winston was a sleepy county town. In 1868, work began by Salem and Winston business leaders to connect the town to the North Carolina Railroad. That same year, Thomas Jethro Brown of Davie County rented a former livery stable and established the first tobacco warehouse in Winston. That same year, Pleasant Henderson Hanes, also of Davie, built his first tobacco factory a few feet from Brown's warehouse. In 1875, Richard Joshua Reynolds, of Patrick County, Virginia, built his first tobacco factory a few hundred feet from Hanes's factory. By the 1880s, there were almost 40 tobacco factories in the town of Winston. Hanes and Reynolds would compete fiercely for the next 25 years, each absorbing a number of the smaller manufacturers, until Hanes sold out to Reynolds in 1900 to begin a second career in textiles.
In the 1880s, the US Post Office began referring to the two towns as Winston-Salem. In 1899, after nearly a decade of contention, the United States Post Office Department established the Winston-Salem post office in Winston, with the former Salem office serving as a branch. After a referendum the towns were officially incorporated as "Winston-Salem" in 1913.
The Reynolds family, namesake of the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, played a large role in the history and public life of Winston-Salem. By the 1940s, 60% of Winston-Salem workers worked either for Reynolds or in the Hanes textile factories. The Reynolds company imported so much French cigarette paper and Turkish tobacco for Camel cigarettes that Winston-Salem was designated by the United States federal government as an official port of entry for the United States, despite the city being 200 miles (320 km) inland. Winston-Salem was the eighth-largest port of entry in the United States by 1916.
In 1917, the Reynolds company bought 84 acres (340,000 m2) of property in Winston-Salem and built 180 houses that it sold at cost to workers, to form a development called "Reynoldstown." By the time R.J. Reynolds died in 1918, his company owned 121 buildings in Winston-Salem.
In 1929, the Reynolds Building was completed in Winston-Salem. Designed by William F. Lamb from the architectural firm Shreve, Lamb and Harmon, the Reynolds Building is a 314 feet (96 m) skyscraper that has 21 floors. When completed as the headquarters of R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, it was the tallest building in the United States south of Baltimore, Maryland, and it was named the best building of the year by the American Institute of Architects. The building is well known for being the predecessor and prototype for the much larger Empire State Building that was built in 1931 in New York City. In 1892, Simon Green Atkins founded Slater Industrial Academy, which later became Winston-Salem State University, a public HBCU University. In 1956, Wake Forest College, now known as Wake Forest University would move to Winston-Salem from its original location in Wake Forest, North Carolina.
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The governing body for the City of Winston-Salem is an eight-member City Council. Voters go to the polls every four years in November to elect the Mayor and Council. The Mayor is elected at large and council members are elected by citizens in each of the eight wards within the city. The City Council is responsible for adopting and providing for all ordinances, rules and regulations as necessary for the general welfare of the city. It approves the city budget and sets property taxes and user fees. The Council appoints the City Manager and City Attorney and approves appointments to city boards and commissions.
As of 2019 The members of the City Council are Denise Adams (North Ward), Mayor Pro Tempore Vivian Burke (Northeast Ward), Annette Scippio (East Ward), James Taylor, Jr. (Southeast Ward), John Larson (South Ward), Dan Besse (Southwest Ward), Robert Clark (West Ward), Jeff MacIntosh (Northwest Ward)., the mayor of Winston-Salem is Allen Joines (D), who was first elected in 2001 and is longest-serving mayor in the history of the city.
City officials appointed by the City Council include City Attorney Angela Carmon and City Manager Lee Garrity.
Winston-Salem is in the northwest Piedmont area of North Carolina, situated 65 miles (105 km) northwest of the geographic center of the state. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 133.7 square miles (346.3 km2), of which 132.4 square miles (343.0 km2) is land and 1.2 square miles (3.2 km2), or 0.93%, is water. The city lies within the Yadkin-Pee Dee River Basin, mainly draining via Salem Creek, Peters Creek, Silas Creek, and Muddy Creek.
Less than 30 miles (48 km) north of Winston-Salem are the remains of the ancient Sauratown Mountains, named for the Saura people who lived in much of the Piedmont area, including where is now Winston-Salem.
Community renovations are planned for the corner of Peters Creek Parkway and Academy Street. On September 11, 2018 The Winston-Salem Journal reported that The City of Winston-Salem Committee approved the Peters Creek Community Initiative project, which is an collaboration of The Shalom Project, North Carolina Housing Foundation, and The National Development Council. The group plans to purchase property where the Budget Inn currently stands and build 60 apartment units with a 4,000 square foot community space. PCCI plans to build a four-story building that will house The Shalom Project in the bottom floor, along with other businesses.
The city of Winston-Salem has a humid subtropical climate characterized by cool, sometimes moderately cold winters, and hot, humid summers. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is Cfa. The average high temperatures range from 51 °F (11 °C) in the winter to around 89 °F (32 °C) in the summer. The average low temperatures range from 28 °F (-2 °C) in the winter to around 67 °F (19 °C) in the summer.
|Climate data for Winston-Salem, North Carolina|
|Record high °F (°C)||79
|Average high °F (°C)||48.9
|Daily mean °F (°C)||39.5
|Average low °F (°C)||30.1
|Record low °F (°C)||-10
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||3.61
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||3.0
|Average precipitation days||6||6||8||7||9||9||10||8||8||7||7||7||83|
|Source: Southeast Regional Climate Center (normals and extremes 1899-2012)|
This article needs to be updated.February 2012)(
Winston-Salem's population grew by 6.5% from 2010 to 2018, making it the fifth largest city in North Carolina. As of the census of 2017, the population is 244,605, with 94,105 households and a population density of 1,846.08 people per square mile.
Winston-Salem is 53.0% female, and 27.8% of its firms are owned by women. The median age is 35 years. 23.9% of the population is under 18 years old, and 13.7% of the population is 65 years or older.
The racial composition of the city in 2017 was 56.1% White, 34.7% Black or African American, 2.2% Asian American, 0.3% Native American, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific native alone, and 2.3% two or more races. In addition, 14.8% was Hispanic or Latino, of any race. Non-Hispanic Whites were 45.8% of the population in 2017.
38.4% are married couples living together, 17.3% have a female householder with no husband present, and 39.7% are non-families. 33.1% of all households are made up of individuals and 10.3% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.38 and the average family size is 3.06.
The median income for a household in the city is $41,228, and the median income for a family is $53,222. The mean income for a household in the city is $60,637, and the mean income for a family is $74,938. Males have a median income of $41,064 versus $33,683 for females. The per capita income for the city is $24,728. 20.6% of the population and 15.7% of all families are below the poverty line. 26.2% of the total population, 31.6% of those under the age of 18 and 8.2% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.
Winston-Salem is the most religious city in North Carolina,' with 54.14% of the population being religiously affiliated. Christianity is the largest religion, with Baptists (15.77%) making up the largest religious group, followed by Methodists (12.79%) and Catholics (4.39%). Pentecostals (2.97%), Episcopalians (1.3%), Presbyterians (2.59%), Lutherans (0.96%), Mormons (0.90%) make up a significant amount of the Christian population as well. The remaining Christian population (11.93%) is affiliated with other churches such as the Moravians and the United Church of Christ. Islam (0.43%) is the second largest religion after Christianity, followed by Judaism (0.20%). Eastern religions (0.02%) make up the religious minority.
The city's long history with the Moravian church has had a lasting cultural effect. The Moravian star is used as the city's official Christmas street decoration. In addition, a 31-foot Moravian star, one of the largest in the world, sits atop the North Tower of Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center during the Advent and Christmas seasons. Another star sits under Wake Forest University's Wait Chapel during the Advent and Christmas seasons as well. Also, Moravian star images decorate the lobby of the city's landmark Reynolds Building.
It is the location of the corporate headquarters of HanesBrands, Inc., Krispy Kreme Doughnuts, Inc., Lowes Foods Stores, ISP Sports, Reynolds American (parent of R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company), Reynolda Manufacturing Solutions, K&W Cafeterias, and TW Garner Food Company (makers of Texas Pete).Blue Rhino, the nation's largest propane exchange company and a division of Ferrellgas, is also headquartered in Winston-Salem. Wachovia Corporation was based in Winston-Salem until it merged with First Union Corporation in September 2001; the corporate headquarters of the combined company was located in Charlotte, until it was purchased by Wells Fargo in December 2008. PepsiCo has its Customer Service Center located in Winston-Salem. BB&T was also based in Winston-Salem until it was merged with SunTrust Banks in December 2019; the corporate headquarters of the combined company were relocated to Charlotte.
Although traditionally associated with the textile and tobacco industries, Winston-Salem is transforming itself to be a leader in the nanotech, high-tech and bio-tech fields. Medical research is a fast-growing local industry, and Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center is the largest employer in Winston-Salem. In December 2004, the city entered into a deal with Dell, providing millions of dollars in incentives to build a computer assembly plant nearby in southeastern Forsyth County. Dell closed its Winston-Salem facility in January 2010 due to the poor economy. In January 2015, Herbalife opened a manufacturing facility in the space left vacant by Dell.
Public and private investment of $713 million has created the Wake Forest Innovation Quarter, an innovation district in downtown Winston-Salem which features business, education in biomedical research and engineering, information technology and digital media, as well as public gathering spaces, apartment living and community events.
According to the Winston-Salem Business Inc.'s 2012-2013 data report on major employers, the ten largest employers in the city were:
|#||Employer||# of Employees|
|1||Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center||11,750|
|3||Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Schools||6,692|
|5||Reynolds American, Inc.||3,000|
|9||Wake Forest University||1,680|
According to the Winston-Salem Business Inc.'s 2012 data report on major industries, the major industries in Winston-Salem/Forsyth County are by percentage:
|#||Employment by Sector||% Percentage|
|1||Health Care and Social Assistance||29%|
|2||Trade, Transportation and Utilities||19%|
|3||Professional and Business Services||14%|
|5||Leisure and Hospitality||10%|
Winston-Salem was officially dubbed the "City of Arts and Innovation" in 2014.
The city created the first arts council in the United States, founded in 1949, and because of the local art schools and attractions. These include the University of North Carolina School of the Arts, The Little Theatre of W-S, Winston-Salem Theatre Alliance, Spirit Gum Theatre Co., the Piedmont Opera Theater, the Winston-Salem Symphony, the Stevens Center for the Performing Arts, the Downtown Arts District, the Milton Rhodes Center for the Arts, the Hanesbrands Theater, Piedmont Craftsmen, and the Sawtooth School for Visual Arts.
The city's Arts District is centered around Sixth and Trade Streets, where there are many galleries, restaurants and workshops; nearby is also the ARTivity on the Green art park, established by Art for Art's Sake.
It is also home to the Southeastern Center for Contemporary Art (SECCA), and the Reynolda House Museum of American Art (the restored 1917 mansion built by the founder of the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company and now affiliated with Wake Forest University).
The city is also home to Carolina Music Ways, a grassroots arts organization focusing on the area's diverse, interconnected music traditions, including bluegrass, blues, jazz, gospel, old-time stringband, and Moravian music.
Once a year the city is also the home of the Heavy Rebel Weekender music festival, featuring over 70 bands, primarily rockabilly, punk and honky tonk, over three days.
The east end of downtown Winston-Salem is anchored by the Innovation Quarter, one of the fastest growing urban-based districts in the United States. Governed by Wake Forest School of Medicine, the Innovation Quarter is home to 90 companies, over 3,600 workers, 1,800 students seeking a college degree, and more than 8,000 workforce trainees. The Innovation Quarter is a place for research, business, biomedical science, digital media, and clinical services. It consists of over 1,900,000 square feet (180,000 m2) feet of office, laboratory, and educational space covering more than 330 acres (130 hectares). There are more than 1,000 residential units within the Innovation Quarter. The goal is to drive even more economic development and create programs for tenants and residents for new ideas. Because of its location in downtown Winston-Salem, the Innovation Quarter serves as an urban, creative, and welcoming place for scientists, innovators, and technology leaders.
In 2019, the Innovation Quarter became one of the first nine steering committee members of the Global Institute on Innovation Districts, making it one of the leading districts of its kind in the world.
Winston-Salem is home to Hanes Mall, the largest shopping mall in North Carolina, The area surrounding the mall along Stratford Road and Hanes Mall Boulevard has become one of the city's largest shopping districts.
Other notable shopping areas exist in the city, including The Thruway Center (the city's first shopping center), Hanes Point Shopping Center, Hanes Commons, Stratford Commons, Stratford Village, Reynolda Village, Pavilions, Shoppes at Hanestowne Village, Burke Mill Village Shopping Center, Oak Summit Shopping Center, Stone's Throw Plaza, Cloverdale Plaza Shopping Center Silas Creek Crossing, and the Marketplace Mall.
|Winston-Salem State University Rams||Basketball||NCAA||C. E. Gaines Center|
|Winston-Salem State University Rams||American Football||NCAA||Bowman Gray Stadium|
|Winston-Salem State University Rams||Softball||NCAA||Washington Park|
|Winston-Salem State University Rams||Tennis||NCAA||WSSU Tennis Center|
|Winston-Salem State University Rams||Track & Field||NCAA||Civitan Park|
|Winston-Salem Dash||Baseball||Carolina League||BB&T Ballpark|
|Carolina Thunderbirds||Ice Hockey||FPHL||Winston-Salem Fairgrounds Annex|
|Wake Forest football||American football||NCAA||BB&T Field|
|Wake Forest basketball||Basketball||NCAA||LJVM Coliseum|
The Winston-Salem Dash is a Class A Minor-League baseball team currently affiliated with the Chicago White Sox. After 52 years at historic Ernie Shore Field, the Dash now plays its home games at the new BB&T Ballpark, which opened in 2010. Previous names for the team include the Winston-Salem Cardinals, Twins, Red Sox, Spirits and, most recently, the Winston-Salem Warthogs. Its players have included Vinegar Bend Mizell, Earl Weaver, Bobby Tiefenauer, Harvey Haddix, Stu Miller, Ray Jablonski, Don Blasingame, Gene Oliver, Rico Petrocelli, Jim Lonborg, George Scott, Sparky Lyle, Bill "Spaceman" Lee, Dwight Evans, Cecil Cooper, Butch Hobson, Wade Boggs, Carlos Lee, Joe Crede, Jon Garland, and Aaron Rowand, all of whom have played extensively at the major league level.
Wake Forest University is an original member of the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC). Wake Forest's football team plays its games at BB&T Field (formerly Groves Stadium), which seats 32,500. Wake Forest's soccer program made four consecutive final four appearances (2006-2009) and were NCAA champions in 2007.
The Lawrence Joel Veterans Memorial Coliseum is home to Wake Forest and some Winston-Salem State basketball games.NASCAR Whelen All-American Series racing takes place from March until August at Bowman Gray Stadium. The K&N Pro Series East also races here. It is NASCAR's longest running racing series, dating to the 1940s. In the fall, the stadium is used for Winston-Salem State Rams football games.
Winston-Salem hosts an ATP tennis tournament every year.
Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Schools has most of its schools inside Winston-Salem. WS/FC Schools include 51 elementary schools, 25 middle schools and 13 high schools. The school with the largest student body population is West Forsyth High School with over 2,400 students as of the 2017-2018 school year. The district is the most diverse school system in North Carolina. Winston-Salem/Forsyth County School System is the fourth largest school system in North Carolina with about 59,000 students and over 90 schools operating in the district.
Private and parochial schools also make up a significant portion of Winston-Salem's educational establishment.
Winston-Salem has a number of colleges and universities, including:
The Winston-Salem Journal is the main daily newspaper in Winston-Salem. Yes! Weekly is a free weekly paper covering news, opinion, arts, entertainment, music, movies and food. Triad City Beat is a free weekly paper in the Triad area that covers Winston-Salem. The Winston-Salem Chronicle is a weekly newspaper that focuses on the African-American community.
These radio stations are located in Winston-Salem, and are listed by call letters, station number, and name. Many more radio stations can be picked up in Winston-Salem that are not located in Winston-Salem.
Winston-Salem makes up part of the Greensboro/Winston-Salem/High Point television designated market area. These stations are listed by call letters, channel number, network and city of license.
The Winston-Salem Transit Authority (WSTA) has the responsibility of providing public transportation. It took over from the Safe Bus Company, founded in the 1920s as the largest black-owned transportation company in the United States, in 1972. Operating out of the Clark Campbell Transportation Center at 100 West Fifth Street, WSTA operates 30 daytime bus routes, 24 of which provide night service; 24 routes that operate from morning until midnight on Saturday and 16 Sunday routes. WSTA makes nearly 3 million passenger trips annually. In February 2010 WSTA added 10 diesel-electric buses to its fleet.
The Piedmont Authority for Regional Transportation (PART) operates a daily schedule from the Campbell center connecting Winston-Salem to Boone, Mt. Airy, High Point and Greensboro, where other systems provide in-state routes to points east. PART also offers the Route 5 (Amtrak Connector) which provides daily service to and from the Amtrak Station in High Point with multiple times during the day.
Greyhound lines also provides interstate transportation from the Campbell Center.
US 52 (which runs concurrent with NC 8) is the predominant north-south freeway through Winston-Salem; it passes near the heart of downtown. US 421 is the main east-west freeway through downtown Winston-Salem; this was the original routing of I-40, and was the main east-west route through the city until 1993, when a bypass loop of I-40 was built. US 421 splits in the western part of the city onto its own freeway west (signed north) toward Wilkesboro, North Carolina and Boone, North Carolina. I-74 links Winston-Salem to High Point (southeast).
The Winston-Salem Northern Beltway is a proposed freeway that will loop around the city to the north, providing a route for the Future I-74 on the eastern section and the Future Auxiliary Route I-274 on the western section. The NCDOT plans for this project to begin after 2010.
As of November 2018, US 52 south of I-40 is signed Spur Route I-285.
Major thoroughfares in Winston-Salem include NC 67 (Silas Creek Parkway & Reynolda Road), NC 150 (Peters Creek Parkway), US 158 (Stratford Road), University Parkway, Hanes Mall Boulevard, Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, North Point Boulevard, Country Club Road, Jonestown Road, Patterson Avenue, Fourth Street, Trade Street, Third Street, Liberty Street, and Main Street.
Winston-Salem is served by Piedmont Triad International Airport. The airport also serves much of the surrounding Piedmont Triad area, including Greensboro and High Point; the Authority that manages the airport is governed by board members appointed by all three cities as well as both of their counties, Guilford and Forsyth.
A smaller airport, known as Smith Reynolds Airport, is located within the city limits, just northeast of downtown. It is mainly used for general aviation and charter flights. Every year, Smith Reynolds Airport hosts an air show for the general public. The Smith Reynolds Airport is home to the Winston-Salem Civil Air Patrol Composite Squadron, also known as NC-082. The Civil Air Patrol is a non-profit volunteer organization.
Winston-Salem is one of the larger cities in the South that is not directly served by Amtrak. However, an Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach operates three times daily in each direction between Winston-Salem and the Amtrak station in nearby High Point, 16 miles east. Buses depart from the Winston-Salem Transportation Center, then stop on the Winston-Salem State University campus before traveling to High Point. From the High Point station, riders can board the Crescent, Carolinian or Piedmont lines. These lines run directly to local North Carolina destinations as well as cities across the Southeast, as far west as New Orleans and as far north as New York City.