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A cup of hot chocolate topped with whipped cream from a pressurized can.
A slice of pumpkin pie topped with a whipped cream rose
Whipped cream is cream that is whipped by a whisk or mixer until it is light and fluffy. Whipped cream is often sweetened and sometimes flavored with vanilla. Whipped cream is also called Chantilly cream or Crème chantilly (pronounced [km tiji]).
Whipped cream is a culinary colloid produced when heavy cream is subjected to mechanical aeration. Air is incorporated into cream containing at least 35% fat by one of two processes: mechanical agitation with a high-speed blade or whip, or injecting a gas under high pressure, which expands rapidly when released from pressurized containment.
During whipping, partially coalesced fat molecules create a stabilized network which traps air bubbles. The resulting colloid is roughly double the volume of the original cream. If, however, the whipping is continued, the fat droplets will stick together destroying the colloid and forming butter. Lower-fat cream (or milk) does not whip well, while higher-fat cream produces a more stable foam.
Methods of whipping
Cream is usually whipped with a whisk, an electric or hand mixer, or a food processor. Results are best when the equipment and ingredients are cold.
Whipped cream may also be made in a whipping siphon, typically using nitrous oxide as the gas, as carbon dioxide tends to give a sour taste (cf.soda syphon). The siphon may have replaceable cartridges or be sold as a pre-pressurized retail package. The gas dissolves in the butterfat under pressure, and when the pressure is released, produces bubbles and thus whipped cream.
Whipped cream, often sweetened and aromatised, was popular in the 16th century, with recipes in the writings of Cristoforo di Messisbugo (Ferrara, 1549),Bartolomeo Scappi (Rome, 1570), and Lancelot de Casteau (Liège, 1604). It was called milk or cream snow (neve di latte, neige de lait, neige de crème). A 1545 English recipe, "A Dyschefull of Snow", includes whipped egg whites as well, and is flavored with rosewater and sugar. (cf.snow cream) In these recipes, and until the end of the 19th century, naturally separated cream is whipped, typically with willow or rush branches, and the resulting foam on the surface would from time to time be skimmed off and drained, a process taking an hour or more. By the end of the 19th century, centrifuge-separated, high-fat cream made it much faster and easier to make whipped cream.
The French name crème fouettée 'whipped cream' is attested in 1629, and the English name "whipped cream" in 1673. The name "snow cream" continued to be used in the 17th century.
Les mousses se font avec de la crême bien douce & peu épaisse; on la fouette, ce qui la fait mousser, & c'est de cette mousse qu'on fait usage: on peut lui donner tel goût que l'on veut, aromates, fleurs, fruits, vins, ou liqueurs.
Mousses are made with sweet cream, not very thick; one whips it, which makes it foam, and it is this foam that one uses: one may give it whatever flavor one wants, with aromatics, flours, fruits, wines, or liqueurs.
Various desserts consisting of whipped cream in pyramidal shapes with coffee, liqueurs, chocolate, fruits, and so on either in the mixture or poured on top were called crème en mousse 'cream in a foam', crème fouettée, crème mousseuse 'foamy cream', mousse 'foam', and fromage à la Chantilly 'Chantilly-style molded cream', as early as 1768. Modern mousses, including mousse au chocolat, are a continuation of this tradition.
Cream whipped in a whipping siphon with nitrous oxide was invented in the 1930s by both Charles Getz, working with G. Frederick Smith, and Marshall Reinecke. Both filed patents, which were later litigated. The Getz patents were originally deemed invalid, but were upheld on appeal.
Crème Chantilly is another name for whipped cream. The difference between "whipped cream" and "crème Chantilly" is not systematic. Some authors distinguish between the two, with crème Chantilly being sweetened, and whipped cream not. However, most authors treat the two as synonyms, with both being sweetened, neither being sweetened, or treating sweetening as optional. Many authors use only one of the two names (for the sweetened or unsweetened version), so it is not clear if they distinguish the two.
The names "crème Chantilly", "crème de Chantilly", "crème à la Chantilly", or "crème fouettée à la Chantilly" only become common in the 19th century. In 1806, the first edition of Viard's Cuisinier Impérial mentions neither "whipped" nor "Chantilly" cream, but the 1820 edition mentions both.
The name Chantilly was probably used because the château had become a symbol of refined food.
Imitation whipped cream
Imitations of whipped cream, often sold under the name whipped topping or squirty cream, are commercially available. They may be used for various reasons:
To provide extended shelf life (often in the freezer).
To reduce the price although some popular brands cost twice as much as whipped cream.
Artificial whipped cream normally contains some mixture of partially hydrogenated oil, sweeteners, water, and stabilizers and emulsifiers added to prevent syneresis, similar to margarine instead of the butter fat in the cream used in whipped cream.
It may be sold frozen in plastic tubs (e.g., Cool Whip) or in aerosol containers (e.g.Reddi-wip), or in liquid form in cartons, reminiscent of real whipping cream.
^Jules Gouffée et al., Le livre de pâtisserie, 1873 p. 138
^ abÉmile Bernard Urbain Dubois, La Cuisine classique: études pratiques, raisonnées et démonstratives de l'Ecole française appliquée au service à la russe, 1868, p. 122: "La chantilly n'est autre chose que la crème double, amenée à consistance, et rendue mousseuse par le travail du fouet et l'action de l'air."
^ abAeration Processes, Inc. v. Lange et al., 196 F.2d 981, 93 USPQ 332, United States Court of Appeals Eighth Circuit, May 20, 1952.
^ abTerence Scully, trans., The Opera of Bartolomeo Scappi (1570): L'arte et prudenza d'un maestro Cuoco; The Art and Craft of a Master Cook, 2008, ISBN0-8020-9624-7, p. 105, note 2.39, with many menus including "neve di latte servita con zuccaro sopra" 'milk snow with sugar on top', passim
^Michelle Berriedale-Johnson, Festive Feasts Cookbook (British Museum), 2004, ISBN0-299-19510-4, p. 33, citing Messisbugo's Banchetti, composizioni di vivande e apparecchio generale
^Dictionarium Rusticum, Urbanicum & Botanicum, 1726, s.v. 'Syllabub' full text
^Sarah Harrison, The house-keeper's pocket-book, and compleat family cook, 1749, p. 173. full text
^ abM. Emy (officier), L'Art de bien faire les glaces d'office... avec un traité sur les mousses, Paris, 1768 p. 222
^Alexandre-Balthazar-Laurent Grimod de La Reynière, Néo-Physiologie du gout par order alphabétique ou Dictionnaire générale de la cuisine française, 1839, p. 184
^Jim Chevallier, A History of the Food of Paris: From Roast Mammoth to Steak Frites, 2018, ISBN1442272821, p. 195
^"Tante Marie", La Véritable cuisine de famille, comprenant 1.000 recettes et 500 menus, 18, p. 296 "Crème fouettée (ou Fromage à la Chantilly)"
^Mrs. Beeton, The book of household management, 1888, p. 927
^Charles Getz, "Process of making aerated food products", U.S. Patent 2294172A, filed 26 September 1935, issued 25 August 1942 full text; also U.S. Patent 2435682 (continuation in part)
^George Frederick Smith (1891-1976), Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-11-04. Retrieved . Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
^Marshall C. Reinecke, "Device for producing aerated expanded food products", U.S. Patent 2120297A, filed 15 August 1935, issued 14 June 1938 full text
^recipe entitled "Crème fouettée et crème Chantilly", in Robert J. Courtine, ed., Curnonsky: Cuisine et Vins de France, Larousse, 1974, p. 535
^Le Petit Robert (1972): "Crème fouettée, dite aussi crème Chantilly"
^Paul Bocuse, La cuisine du marché (1980), p. 414: "Crème Chantilly (crème fouettée)"
^La cuisine de Madame Saint-Ange (1927), p. 916f: "Crème fouettée dite « crème Chantilly »... Selon le cas, on ajoute du sucre en poudre, vanillé ou non, dans la crème fouettée."
^Julia Child et al., Mastering the Art of French Cooking, defines Crème Chantilly as "lightly beaten cream", then refers to it as "whipped cream". With added sugar or flavorings, she calls it "Flavored whipped cream" (I:580). In volume 2, one recipe for crème Chantilly is unsweetened (II:422), another is sweetened (II:450).
^recipe for "fromage à la chantilly glacé", a sort of ice cream topped with whipped cream, in Menon's Les soupers de la cour, 1755, p. "chantilly" 313-314
^Mémoires de la baronne d'Oberkirch, vol. 2, p. 112: "Jamais je n'ai mangé d'aussi bonne crème, aussi appétissante et aussi bien apprêtée." "I have never eaten such good cream, so appetising and so well prepared."
^"Naissance de la crème chantilly", Tables princières à Chantilly, du XVIIe au XIXe siècle, exhibit at the Musée Condé, 16 September 2006 - 8 January 2007 PDF