Whakapapa (M?ori pronunciation: ['fakapapa], M?ori pronunciation: ['?a-]), or genealogy, is a fundamental principle in M?ori culture. A person reciting their whakapapa proclaims their identity, places themselves in a wider context, and links themselves to land and tribal groupings and the mana of those.
Experts in whakapapa can trace and recite a lineage not only through the many generations in a linear sense, but also between such generations in a lateral sense.
Raymond Firth, an acclaimed New Zealand economist and anthropologist during the early 20th century, asserted that there are four different levels of Maori kinship terminology that are as follows:
|Te reo M?ori term||Literal Translation||Kingroup term|
|wh?nau||to give birth||extended family|
Some scholars have attributed this type of genealogical activity as being tantamount to ancestor worship. Most M?ori would probably attribute this to ancestor reverence. Tribes and sub-tribes are mostly named after an ancestor (either male or female): for example, Ngati Kahungunu means 'descendants of Kahungunu ' (a famous chief who lived mostly in what is now called the Hawke's Bay region).
Many physiological terms are also genealogical in 'nature'. For example, the terms 'iwi', 'hapu', and 'wh?nau' (as noted above) can also be translated in order as 'bones', 'pregnant', and 'give birth'. The prize winning M?ori author, Keri Hulme, named her best known novel as The Bone People: a title linked directly to the dual meaning of the word 'iwi as both 'bone' and '[tribal] people'.
Most formal orations (or whaik?rero) begin with the "nasal" expression - Tihei Mauriora! This is translated as the 'Sneeze of Life'. In effect, the orator (whose 'sneeze' reminds us of a newborn clearing his or her airways to take the first breath of life) is announcing that 'his' speech has now begun, and that his 'airways' are clear enough to give a suitable oration.
Whakapapa is defined as the "genealogical descent of all living things from the gods to the present time. "Since all living things including rocks and mountains are believed to possess whakapapa, it is further defined as "a basis for the organisation of knowledge in the respect of the creation and development of all things".
Hence, whakapapa also implies a deep connection to land and the roots of one's ancestry. In order to trace one's whakapapa it is essential to identify the location where one's ancestral heritage began; "you can't trace it back any further". "Whakapapa links all people back to the land and sea and sky and outer universe, therefore, the obligations of whanaungatanga extend to the physical world and all being in it".
While some family and community health organisations may require details of whakapapa as part of client assessment, it is generally better if whakapapa is disclosed voluntarily by whanau, if they are comfortable with this. Usually details of a client's whakapapa are not required since sufficient information can be obtained through their iwi identification. Cases where whakapapa may be required include adoption cases or situations where whakapapa information may be of benefit to the client's health and well-being.
Whakapapa is also believed to determine an individual's intrinsic tapu. "Sharing whakapapa enables the identification of obligations...and gaining trust of participants". Additionally, since whakapapa is believed to be "inextricably linked to the physical gene", concepts of tapu would still apply. Therefore, it is essential to ensure that appropriate cultural protocols are adhered to.
Misuse of such private and privileged information is of great concern to M?ori. While whakapapa information may be disclosed to a kaimatai hinengaro in confidence, this information may be stored in databases that could be accessed by others. While most health professions are embracing technological advances of data storage, this may be an area of further investigation so that confidential information pertaining to a client's whakapapa cannot be disclosed to others.
Additionally, it may be beneficial to find out if the client is comfortable with whakapapa information being stored in ways that have the potential to be disclosed to others. To combat such issues, a M?ori Code of Ethics has been suggested. A M?ori Code of Ethics may prevent "the mismanagement or manipulation of either the information or the informants".
Although this rule was not rigorously applied in the past, people today have to prove whakapapa to become members of the international M?ori All Blacks rugby union team, New Zealand M?ori rugby league team and New Zealand M?ori cricket team to qualify.