|Native to||Iran (Persia)|
|80 million (2015)|
Official language in
|Regulated by||Academy of Persian Language and Literature|
Western Persian or Iranian Persian is the most widely spoken dialect of Persian language. It is natively known as Farsi or Parsi. It is officially spoken in Iran and also by various minorities in Iraq and the Persian Gulf states. It is mutually intelligible with Dari, the dialect of Persian spoken in Afghanistan, and Tajiki, the dialect of Persian of Tajikistan.
The term Persian is an English derivation of Latin Persi?nus, the adjectival form of Persia, itself deriving from Greek Persís (), a Hellenized form of Old Persian P?rsa (?), which means "Persia" (a region in southwestern Iran, corresponding to modern-day Fars). According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the term Persian as a language name is first attested in English in the mid-16th century.
Farsi, which is the Persian word for the Persian language, has also been used widely in English in recent decades, more commonly to refer to the standard Persian of Iran. However, the name Persian is still more widely used. The Academy of Persian Language and Literature has called for avoiding the use of the endonym Farsi in foreign languages and has maintained that Persian is the appropriate designation of the language in English, as it has the longer tradition in western languages and better expresses the role of the language as a mark of cultural and national continuity. Eminent Iranian historian and linguist Ehsan Yarshater, founder of Encyclopædia Iranica and the Center for Iranian Studies at Columbia University, mentions the same concern in an academic journal on Iranology, rejecting the use of Farsi in foreign languages.
Etymologically, the Persian term F?rsi derives from its earlier form P?rsi (P?rsik in Middle Persian), which in turn comes from the same root as the English term Persian. The phonemic shift from /p/ to /f/ is a result of the medieval Arabic influences that followed the Arab conquest of Iran, and is due to the lack of the phoneme /p/ in Standard Arabic.
Iran's standard Persian has been called, apart from Persian and Farsi, by names such as Iranian Persian and Western Persian, exclusively. Officially, the official language of Iran is designated simply as Persian (, f?rsi).
Dari Persian ( , f?rsi-ye dari), that is the standard Persian of Afghanistan, has been officially named Dari (, dari) since 1958. Also referred to as Afghan Persian in English, it is one of Afghanistan's two official languages together with Pashto. The term Dari, meaning "of the court", originally referred to the variety of Persian used in the court of the Sasanian Empire in capital Ctesiphon, which was spread to the northeast of the empire and gradually replaced the former Iranian dialects of Parthia (Parthian).
Tajik Persian (? ?, forsi-i tojik?), that is the standard Persian of Tajikistan, has been officially designated as Tajik (, tojik?) since the time of the Soviet Union. It is the name given to the varieties of Persian spoken in Central Asia, in general.
The international language-encoding standard ISO 639-1 uses the code
fa, as its coding system is mostly based on the native-language designations. The more detailed standard ISO 639-3 uses the name "Persian" (code
fas) for the dialect continuum spoken across Iran and Afghanistan. This consists of the individual languages Dari (Afghan Persian) and Iranian Persian.
There are phonological, lexical, and morphological differences between Afghan Persian and Iranian Persian. There are no significant differences in the written forms, other than regional idiomatic phrases.
The principal differences between standard Iranian Persian, based on the dialect of the capital Tehran, and Afghan Persian, as based on the Kabul dialect, are:
The dialects of Dari spoken in Northern, Central and Eastern Afghanistan, for example in Kabul, Mazar, and Badakhshan, have distinct features compared to Iranian Persian. However, the dialect of Dari spoken in Western Afghanistan stands in between the Afghan and Iranian Persian. For instance, the Herati dialect shares vocabulary and phonology with both Dari and Iranian Persian. Likewise, the dialect of Persian in Eastern Iran, for instance in Mashhad, is quite similar to the Herati dialect of Afghanistan.
The Kabuli dialect has become the standard model of Dari in Afghanistan, as has the Tehrani dialect in relation to the Persian in Iran. Since the 1940s, Radio Afghanistan has broadcast its Dari programs in Kabuli Dari, which ensured the homogenization between the Kabuli version of the language and other dialects of Dari spoken throughout Afghanistan. Since 2003, the media, especially the private radio and television broadcasters, have carried out their Dari programs using the Kabuli variety.
There began a general promotion of the Pashto language at the expense of Farsi -- previously dominant in the educational and administrative system (...) -- and the term 'Dari' for the Afghan version of Farsi came into common use, being officially adopted in 1958.
It is derived from the word for dar (court, lit., "gate"). Dar? was thus the language of the court and of the capital, Ctesiphon. On the other hand, it is equally clear from this passage that dar? was also in use in the eastern part of the empire, in Khorasan, where it is known that in the course of the Sasanian period Persian gradually supplanted Parthian and where no dialect that was not Persian survived. The passage thus suggests that dar? was actually a form of Persian, the common language of Persia. (...) Both were called p?rs? (Persian), but it is very likely that the language of the north, that is, the Persian used on former Parthian territory and also in the Sasanian capital, was distinguished from its congener by a new name, dar? ([language] of the court).
Northeast. Khorasan, the homeland of the Parthians (called abar?ahr "the upper lands" in MP), had been partly Persianized already in late Sasanian times. Following Ebn al-Moqaffa?, the variant of Persian spoken there was called Dar? and was based upon the one used in the Sasanian capital Seleucia-Ctesiphon (Ar. al-Maden). (...) Under the specific historical conditions that have been sketched above, the Dari (Middle) Persian of the 7th century was developed, within two centuries, to the Dari (New) Persian that is attested in the earliest specimens of NP poetry in the late 9th century.
All this affected translation activities in Persian, seriously undermining the international character of the language. The problem was compounded in modern times by several factors, among them the realignment of Central Asian Persian, renamed Tajiki by the Soviet Union, with Uzbek and Russian languages, as well as the emergence of a language reform movement in Iran which paid no attention to the consequences of its pronouncements and actions for the language as a whole.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)