Wenceslaus I, Duke of Bohemia
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Wenceslaus I, Duke of Bohemia
Wenceslaus I
Emma Czeska i ?w. Wac?aw.JPG
Wenceslaus adored by his sister-in-law Emma (from the 10th-century Gumpold's Codex)
Duke of Bohemia
Reign13 February 921 -
28 September 935 or 929
PredecessorVratislaus I
SuccessorBoleslaus I
Bornc. 911[1]
Stochov, Bohemia
Died28 September 935
(aged c. 24) or
28 September 929
(aged c. 18)
Stará Boleslav, Bohemia
FatherVratislaus I
ReligionChalcedonian Christianity

Wenceslaus I (Czech: Václav ['va:tslaf] ; c. 911 - 28 September 935 or 929), Wenceslas I or Václav the Good[2] was the duke (kní?e) of Bohemia from 921 until his death probably either in 935 or 929 (although 935 is favored today). His younger brother, Boleslaus the Cruel, is commonly considered the perpetrator of Wenceslaus' assassination by the Czech public and the Roman Catholic Church. However, there is a debate on whether his death was an accident or a murder. According to some historians (e. g. Du?an T?e?tík or Martin Wihoda) it was the result of a quarrel between the two brothers or their parties (probably after a night of drinking). Boleslaus' men then killed Wenceslaus in the subsequent chaotic fight.

His martyrdom and the popularity of several biographies gave rise to a reputation for heroic virtue that resulted in his elevation to sainthood. He was posthumously declared to be a king and came to be seen as the patron saint of the Czech state. He is the subject of the well-known "Good King Wenceslas", a carol for Saint Stephen's Day.


Wenceslaus was the son of Vratislaus I, Duke of Bohemia from the P?emyslid dynasty. His grandfather, Bo?ivoj I of Bohemia, was converted to Christianity by Cyril and Methodius. His mother, Drahomíra, was the daughter of a pagan tribal chief of the Havelli, but was baptized at the time of her marriage. His paternal grandmother, Ludmila of Bohemia, saw to it that he was educated in the Old Slavonic language and, at an early age, Wenceslaus was sent to the college at Bude?.[3]

In 921, when Wenceslaus was about thirteen, his father died and his grandmother became regent. Jealous of the influence that Ludmila wielded over Wenceslaus, Drahomíra arranged to have her killed. Ludmila was at Tetín Castle near Beroun when assassins murdered her on 15 September 921. She is said to have been strangled by them with her veil. She was at first buried in the church of St. Michael at Tetín, but her remains were later removed, probably by Wenceslaus,[4] to the church of St. George in Prague, which had been built by his father.[5]

Drahomíra then assumed the role of regent and immediately initiated measures against Christians. When Wenceslaus was 18, those Christian nobles who remained rebelled against Drahomira. The uprising was successful, and Drahomira was sent into exile to Bude?.


Seal of Wenceslaus I

With the support of the nobles, Wenceslaus took control of the government.[5] He "...reined in the dependent dukes who had become restive under the regency and used Christianity to strengthen his state."[6]

After the fall of Great Moravia, the rulers of the Bohemian Duchy had to deal both with continuous raids by the Magyars and the forces of the Saxon and East Frankish king Henry the Fowler, who had started several eastern campaigns into the adjacent lands of the Polabian Slavs, homeland of Wenceslaus's mother. To withstand Saxon overlordship, Wenceslaus's father Vratislaus had forged an alliance with the Bavarian duke Arnulf, a fierce opponent of King Henry at that time. The alliance became worthless, however, when Arnulf and Henry reconciled at Regensburg in 921.

Early in 929, the joint forces of Duke Arnulf of Bavaria and King Henry I the Fowler reached Prague in a sudden attack that forced Wenceslaus to resume the payment of a tribute first imposed by the East Frankish king Arnulf of Carinthia in 895.[7] Henry had been forced to pay a huge tribute to the Magyars in 926 and needed the Bohemian tribute, which Wenceslaus probably refused to pay after the reconciliation between Arnulf and Henry.[] Another possible reason for the attack was the formation of the anti-Saxon alliance between Bohemia, the Polabian Slavs, and the Magyars.

Wenceslaus introduced German priests into his realm and favoured the Latin rite instead of the old Slavic, which had gone into disuse in many places for want of priests.[3] He also founded a rotunda consecrated to St. Vitus at Prague Castle in Prague that was the basis of present-day St. Vitus Cathedral.


Wenceslaus flees from his brother who is wielding a sword, but the priest closes the door of the church (from Gumpold's Codex)

In September 935, a group of nobles allied with Wenceslaus's younger brother Boleslav plotted to kill him. After Boleslav invited Wenceslaus to a celebration of the feast of Saints Cosmas and Damian in Stará Boleslav, three of Boleslav's companions (Tira, ?esta, and Hn?vsa) fell on the duke and stabbed him to death.[8] As the duke fell, Boleslav ran him through with a lance.[5]

According to Cosmas of Prague, in his Chronica Boëmorum of the early 12th century, one of Boleslav's sons was born on the day of Wenceslaus's death. Because of the ominous circumstance of his birth, the infant was named Strachkvas, which means "a dreadful feast".[8]

There is also a tradition that Wenceslaus's loyal servant Podevin avenged his death by killing one of the chief conspirators, an act for which he was executed by Boleslav.[9]


Wenceslaus I, Duke of Bohemia
Wenzeslaus by Peter Parler.JPG
Statue of Saint Wenceslaus in St. Vitus Cathedral, Prague. The head of the statue apparently fits the measurements of Wenceslaus's skull.
Bornc. 911
Prague, Bohemia
Died28 September 935
Stará Boleslav, Bohemia
Venerated inCatholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church
St Vitus Cathedral, Prague
Feast28 September
AttributesCrown, dagger, burning eagle on a banner
PatronagePrague, Bohemia, Czech Republic

Wenceslaus was considered a martyr and saint immediately after his death, when a cult of Wenceslaus grew up in Bohemia and in England.[10] Within a few decades, four biographies of him were in circulation.[11][12] These hagiographies had a powerful influence on the High Middle Ages concept of the rex justus (righteous king), a monarch whose power stems mainly from his great piety as well as his princely vigor.[13]

Referring approvingly to these hagiographies, the chronicler Cosmas of Prague, writing in about the year 1119, states:[14]

But his deeds I think you know better than I could tell you; for, as is read in his Passion, no one doubts that, rising every night from his noble bed, with bare feet and only one chamberlain, he went around to God's churches and gave alms generously to widows, orphans, those in prison and afflicted by every difficulty, so much so that he was considered, not a prince, but the father of all the wretched.

Several centuries later this legend was asserted as fact by Pope Pius II.[15]

Although Wenceslaus was only a duke during his lifetime, Holy Roman Emperor Otto I posthumously "conferred on [Wenceslaus] the regal dignity and title", which is why he is referred to as "king" in legend and song.[3]

The hymn "Svatý Václave" (Saint Wenceslaus) or "Saint Wenceslas Chorale" is one of the oldest known Czech songs. Traceable to the 12th century AD, it is still among the most popular religious songs in the Bohemian lands. In 1918, at the founding of the modern Czechoslovak state, the song was discussed as a possible choice for the national anthem. During the Nazi occupation, it was often played along with the Czech anthem.

Wenceslaus's feast day is celebrated on September 28.[16][17] On this day, celebrations and a pilgrimage are held in the city of Stará Boleslav, whereas the translation of his relics, which took place in 938, is commemorated on March 4.[18] Since 2000, the September 28 feast day has been a public holiday in the Czech Republic, celebrated as Czech Statehood Day.

In legend

Cardinal Miloslav Vlk with the skull of Saint Wenceslaus during a procession on September 28, 2006

According to legend, one Count Radislas rose in rebellion and marched against King Wenceslaus. The latter sent a deputation with offers of peace, but Radislas viewed this as a sign of cowardice. The two armies were drawn up opposite each other in battle array, when Wenceslaus, to avoid shedding innocent blood, challenged Radislas to single combat. As Radislas advanced toward the king, he saw by Wenceslaus's side two angels, who cried: "Stand off!" Thunderstruck, Radislas repented his rebellion, threw himself from his horse at Wenceslaus's feet, and asked for pardon. Wenceslaus raised him and kindly received him again into favor.

A second enduring legend claims an army of knights sleeps under Blaník, a mountain in the Czech Republic. They will awake and, under the command of Wenceslaus, bring aid to the Czech people in their ultimate danger. There is a similar legend in Prague which says that when the Motherland is in danger or in its darkest times and close to ruin, the equestrian statue of King Wenceslaus in Wenceslaus Square will come to life, raise the army sleeping in Blaník, and upon crossing the Charles Bridge his horse will stumble and trip over a stone, revealing the legendary sword of Bruncvík. With this sword, King Wenceslaus will slay all the enemies of the Czechs, bringing peace and prosperity to the land.[19] Ogden Nash wrote a comic epic poem--"The Christmas that Almost Wasn't", loosely based on the same legend--in which a boy awakens Wenceslaus and his knights to save a kingdom from usurpers who have outlawed Christmas.[20]


Wenceslaus is the subject of the popular Saint Stephen's Day (celebrated on December 26 in the West) carol "Good King Wenceslas". It was published by John Mason Neale in 1853, and may be a translation of a poem by Czech poet Václav Alois Svoboda[]. The usual American English spelling of the duke's name, "Wenceslaus", is occasionally encountered in later textual variants of the carol, although it was not used by Neale in his version.[21] Wenceslaus is not to be confused with King Wenceslaus I of Bohemia (Wenceslaus I Premyslid), who lived more than three centuries later.

Statue of Saint Wenceslas on the eponymous square in Prague

An equestrian statue of Saint Wenceslaus and other patrons of Bohemia (St. Adalbert, St. Ludmila, St. Prokop and St. Agnes of Bohemia) are located on Wenceslaus Square in Prague. The statue is a popular meeting place in Prague. Demonstrations against the Communist regime were held there.[22]

His helmet and armour are on display inside Prague Castle.[23]

In popular culture

The lavish 1930 silent film St. Wenceslas was at the time the most expensive Czech film ever made.

The 1994 television film, Good King Wenceslas, is a highly fictional account of his early life. The film stars Jonathan Brandis in the title role, supported by Leo McKern, Stefanie Powers, and Joan Fontaine as Ludmila.[24]

See also


  1. ^ "Bohemia 1".
  2. ^ Christiansen, Rupert. "The story behind the carol: Good King Wenceslas", The Telegraph, 14 December 2007
  3. ^ a b c Mershman,Francis. "St. Wenceslaus." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 15. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 8 January 2016
  4. ^ Ott, Michael. "St. Ludmilla." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 9. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 8 January 2016
  5. ^ a b c Butler, Alban. "St. Wenceslas, Duke of Bohemia, Martyr", The Lives of the Saints, Vol. IX 1866
  6. ^ Agnew, Hugh LeCaine. The Czechs and the Lands of the Bohemian Crown United States, Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University, 2004. n.p., ISBN 9780817944926
  7. ^ Bohemia to the Extinction of the Premyslids, Kamil Krofta, The Cambridge Medieval History: Victory of the Papacy, Vol. VI, ed. J.R. Tanner, C.W. Previt-Orton and Z.N. Brook, (Cambridge University Press, 1957), 426.
  8. ^ a b Newton, Michael. "Wenceslaus I (907-935)", Famous Assassinations in World History, ABC-CLIO, 2014 ISBN 9781610692861
  9. ^ Gibbs, C.H., "Good King Wenceslaus", The Mitre, Volume XXXVII, No.3, December 1929, p. 8, University of Bishop's College, Lennoxville, Quebec
  10. ^ Describing the Codex Gigas, a thirteenth-century manuscript from Bohemia in the Swedish National Library in Stockholm, it is stated: "All this bears witness to the outstanding importance of the cult of Vaclav in Bohemia at the time of the Devil's Bible's compilation. Moreover, all three festivals are inscribed in red ink, denoting their superlative degree."
  11. ^ The First Slavonic Life (in Old Church Slavonic), the anonymous Crescente fide, the Passio by Gumpold, bishop of Mantua (d. 985), and The Life and Passion of Saint Václav and his Grandmother Saint Ludmilla by Kristian.
  12. ^ Wolverton, Lisa (2001-07-25). Hastening Toward Prague: Power and Society in the Medieval Czech Lands - Lisa Wolverton - Google Boeken. ISBN 0812236130. Retrieved .
  13. ^ "Defries--St. Oswald's Martyrdom". Mun.ca. Archived from the original on 2013-11-09. Retrieved .
  14. ^ Book I of the Chronica Boëmorum, Quoted in Wolverton, op. cit.
  15. ^ "Good King Wenceslas". Kresadlo.cz. Retrieved .
  16. ^ September 28/October 11 Archived 2014-11-29 at the Wayback Machine. Orthodox Calendar (PRAVOSLAVIE.RU).
  17. ^ Martyr Wenceslaus the Prince of the Czechs. OCA - Lives of the Saints.
  18. ^ March 4/17 Archived 2014-11-29 at the Wayback Machine. Orthodox Calendar (PRAVOSLAVIE.RU).
  19. ^ Ko?ná?, Julius (2008). Staropra?ské pov?sti a legendy. Prague: Nakladatelství XYZ. p. 289. ISBN 978-80-86864-86-0.
  20. ^ Ogden Nash, The Christmas that Almost Wasn't, Little, Brown and Company, 1957 OCLC 1211904
  21. ^ Wencesla-us is the Mediaeval Latin Second Declension form of the name.
  22. ^ "St. Wenceslas Monument in Prague", Prague.cz
  23. ^ "Prague Castle: St Wenceslas Chapel". Prague Castle. Retrieved .
  24. ^ Good King Wenceslas (1994) at IMDb

External links

Preceded by Duke of Bohemia
Succeeded by

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