|Phonemic representation||w, v, o, u|
|Position in alphabet||6|
|Alphabetic derivatives of the Phoenician|
Waw/Vav (w?w "hook") is the sixth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician w?w , Aramaic waw , Hebrew vav ?, Syriac waw ? and Arabic w?w ? (sixth in abjadi order; 27th in modern Arabic order).
It represents the consonant in Paleo Hebrew, and in Block Hebrew, as well as the vowels and . In text with niqqud, a dot is added to the left or on top of the letter to indicate, respectively, the two vowel pronunciations.
In Block Hebrew,the origin is certainly not Egyptian pictograph. the word vav is used to mean both "hook" and the letter's name (the name is also written ?).
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|Writing system||Arabic script|
|Language of origin||Arabic language|
The letter ? is named w?w and is written in several ways depending on its position in the word:
W?w is used to represent four distinct phonetic features:
As a vowel, w?w can serve as the carrier of a hamza: ?.
W?w serves several functions in Arabic. Perhaps foremost among them is that it is the primary conjunction in Arabic, equivalent to "and"; it is usually prefixed to other conjunctions, such as ? wa-l?kin, meaning "but". Another function is the "oath", by preceding a noun of great significantly valued by the speaker. It is often literally translatable to "By..." or "I swear to...", and is often used in the Qur'an in this way, and also in the generally fixed construction wall?h ("By Allah!" or "I swear to God!").
in Sorani Kurdish; in Arabic-based Kazakh; in Uyghur.
Thirty-fourth letter of the Azerbaijani Arabic script, represents Ô .
It is also used for short vowel or in a lot of languages,[specify] for example "u" in bull ()
in Uyghur and also in other languages[specify] with a similar vowel.
in Southern Kurdish.
In Jawi script: Used for .
|Various print fonts||Cursive
Hebrew spelling: or ? or ?.
|Variant (with Niqqud)||Without Niqqud||Name||Phonemic value||Phonetic realisation||English example|
as initial letter:?
(Hebrew: Vav Itsurit ?)
|as middle letter:|
|as final letter:? or |
|Vav Shruka ([väv ?ru'kä] / ) or
Shuruq ([?u'ruk] / )
|Vav Chaluma ([väv ?älu'mä] / ) or
Holam Male ([?o?'läm ma'le?] / )
In modern Hebrew, the frequency of the usage of vav, out of all the letters, is about 10.00%.
Consonantal vav (?) generally represents a voiced labiodental fricative (like the English v) in Ashkenazi, European Sephardi, Persian, Caucasian, Italian and modern Israeli Hebrew, and was originally a labial-velar approximant /w/.
Some non standard spellings of the sound are sometimes found in modern Hebrew texts, such as word-initial double-vav: - /'wala/ (word-medial double-vav is both standard and common for both and , see table above) or, rarely, vav with a geresh: ? - /'wiljam/.
Vav can be used as a mater lectionis for an o vowel, in which case it is known as a ?olam male, which in pointed text is marked as vav with a dot above it. It is pronounced (phonemically transcribed more simply as /o/).
The distinction is normally ignored, and the HEBREW POINT HOLAM (U+05B9) is used in all cases.
The vowel can be denoted without the vav, as just the dot placed above and to the left of the letter it points, and it is then called ?olam ?aser. Some inadequate typefaces do not support the distinction between the ?olam male ??ֹ? /o/, the consonantal vav pointed with a ?olam ?aser ??ֺ? /vo/ (compare ?olam male ?ֹ?? /ma'tsot/ and consonantal vav-?olam ?aser ?ֺ?? /mits'vot/). To display a consonantal vav with ?olam ?aser correctly, the typeface must either support the vav with the Unicode combining character "HEBREW POINT HOLAM HASER FOR VAV" (U+05BA, HTML Entity (decimal) ֺ) or the precomposed character (U+FB4B).
Compare the three:
Shuruk and vav with a dagesh look identical ("") and are only distinguishable through the fact that in text with niqqud, vav with a dagesh will normally be attributed a vocal point in addition, e.g. (/?uk/), "a market", (the "" denotes a shuruk) as opposed to ? (/?i'vek/), "to market" (the "" denotes a vav with dagesh and is additionally pointed with a zeire, " ? ", denoting /e/). In the word (/?i'vuk/), "marketing", the first ("") denotes a vav with dagesh, the second a shuruk, being the vowel attributed to the first.
Vav at the beginning of the word has several possible meanings:
(Note: Older Hebrew did not have "tense" in a temporal sense, "perfect," and "imperfect" instead denoting aspect of completed or continuing action. Modern Hebrew verbal tenses have developed closer to their Indo-European counterparts, mostly having a temporal quality rather than denoting aspect. As a rule, Modern Hebrew does not use the "Vav Consecutive" form.)
The single vov may be written with a dot on the left when necessary to avoid ambiguity and distinguish it from other functions of the letter. For example, the word vu 'where' is spelled ?, as tsvey vovn followed by a single vov; the single vov indicating is marked with a dot in order to distinguish which of the three vovs represents the vowel. Some texts instead separate the digraph from the single vov with a silent aleph.
Loanwords from Hebrew or Aramaic in Yiddish are spelled as they are in their language of origin.
In the Syriac alphabet, the sixth letter is ?. Waw () is pronounced [w]. When it is used as a mater lectionis, a waw with a dot above the letter is pronounced [o], and a waw with a dot under the letter is pronounced [u]. Was has an alphabetic-numeral value of 6.
|Unicode name||HEBREW LETTER WAW/VAV||ARABIC LETTER WAW||SYRIAC LETTER WAW||SAMARITAN LETTER BAA||HEBREW LETTER VAV WITH DAGESH||HEBREW LETTER VAV WITH HOLAM|
|UTF-8||215 149||D7 95||217 136||D9 88||220 152||DC 98||224 160 133||E0 A0 85||239 172 181||EF AC B5||239 173 139||EF AD 8B|
|Numeric character reference||ו
|Unicode name||UGARITIC LETTER WO||IMPERIAL ARAMAIC LETTER WAW||PHOENICIAN LETTER WAU|
|UTF-8||240 144 142 134||F0 90 8E 86||240 144 161 133||F0 90 A1 85||240 144 164 133||F0 90 A4 85|
|UTF-16||55296 57222||D800 DF86||55298 56389||D802 DC45||55298 56581||D802 DD05|
|Numeric character reference||𐎆