Wagaydyic Languages
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Wagaydyic Languages

Wagaydyic
Geographic
distribution
Daly River
Linguistic classificationNorthern Daly ?
Subdivisions
GlottologNone
wadj1254  [1]

The Wagaydyic languages (nowadays more often referred to as the Anson Bay languages[2]) are a pair of closely related but otherwise unclassified Australian Aboriginal languages: the moribund Wadjiginy (also known as Wagaydy and Batjamalh) and the extinct Kandjerramalh (Pungupungu).

Tryon (1980) notes that the two languages are 79% cognate based on a 200-item wordlist, but there are serious grammatical differences that prevent them from being considered dialects of a single language.[3][4]

The unattested Giyug may have been a dialect of Wadjiginy or otherwise related.[5]

The Wagaydyic languages have previously been classified with Malak-Malak into a Northern Daly family, but similarities appear to be due to lexical and morphological borrowing from Malak-Malak, at least in Wadjiginy.[]

Vocabulary

The following basic vocabulary items of Wadjiginy and Pungupungu are from Tryon (1968).[6]

no. gloss Wadjiginy Pungupungu
1 head bi?æ poe?æ
2 hair mæræbi?æ mæræpoe?æ
3 eyes mibæ mibæ
4 nose wi?a wu?æ
5 ear bibara pibæræ
6 tooth diRæ diRæ
7 tongue ?adal ?adal
8 shoulder ?ælmæ ?ælmæ
9 elbow ?in ?in
10 hand ?ælæ ?ælæ
11 breasts wi? wï?
12 back bæbæra ra?
13 belly dawara wunæ
14 navel ?oera? ?oera?
15 heart ?oenmana? doepmadoepma
16 urine kæwælæ? kawala?
17 excrete guk kuk
18 thigh bælæm pædlæm
19 leg kæræl kæræl
20 knee kara?ok mira?ok
21 foot ?oet ?oet
22 skin yæræ? yæræ?
23 fat wudæwæl woedawæl
24 blood kawæ? kawa?
25 bone bwik bwik
26 man ?ana? ?ana?
27 woman ?awola? ?awala?
28 father bapa papalak
29 mother kala? kala?
30 grandmother maka? æ?æ
31 policeman wænæn dukmækæ
32 spear wælæra wælæræ
33 woomera kalan kalan
34 boomerang wi?i?gi? wï?ï?gï?
35 nullanulla langur langur
36 hair-belt bulka? pulka?
37 canoe wutï?ge winæ
38 axe li?puruk li?purp
39 dilly bag wargade waRgade
40 fire wi? win
41 smoke wï?gal wungæl
42 water wiyïk wik
43 cloud guk pærk
44 rainbow bana?ak pulipuli
45 barramundi pæn?at pæn?æt
46 sea ?algïn ?algïn
47 river ?akaR wikmagat
48 stone ma? ma?
49 ground wut wut
50 track kal kæl
51 dust boena? poena?
52 sun gæyïk kayïk
53 moon kara kalakkalak
54 star moertæ moerta
55 night ?ura?a ?urïn?e
56 tomorrow yi?mæk yi?mæk
57 today ?aR ?ær
58 big pamala? pamala?
59 possum ?ædæræ? ?ada?
60 dog moyi? moyi?
61 tail kalpæ kælpæ
62 meat mæ?æm mæ?æm
63 snake kulgamala? walan
64 red kangaroo mu? kænga
65 porcupine nïminï?a? mæn?
66 emu ?oeroen ?oeroe?ul
67 crow wak wak
68 goanna ?aran ?aran
69 blue tongue lizard bwikmida? wiri?
70 mosquito woeRa? woera?
71 sugar-bag ?inæ? ?ini?
72 camp rak ræk
73 black kalalk kalalk
74 white baybaymala? baybaymala?
75 red wïrewïre wurewure
76 one ?an?i? ?an?i?
77 two bakatamala? parkata?gæ?
78 when? ænæ? anikinæ
79 what? ?ini? ?ini?
80 who? naga naga
81 I ?a?a ?æ?æ
82 you kænæ kænæ
83 he ?amoyi? ?amoyi?
84 grass woerak woerak
85 vegetable food mænæ? mænæ?
86 tree wi? wi?
87 leaf kalkal kalkal
88 pandanus ?ï?ara? nura?
89 ironwood mælæ mælæ
90 ripe baramu? paramu?
91 good ?arak? ?arak?
92 bad ?alkma ?alkma
93 blind kulyuk kuluk
94 deaf ?amama ?amama
95 saliva wudak wudak

See also

References

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Wadjiginy". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Nordlinger, Rachel. 2017. "The languages of the Daly River region (Northern Australia)." In Michael Fortescue, Marianne Mithun, & Nicholas Evans (eds.), Oxford handbook of polysynthesis. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  3. ^ N11 Pungupungu at the Australian Indigenous Languages Database, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
  4. ^ Tryon, Darrell. 1980. "Pungupungu and Wadyiginy: Typologically Constrastive Dialects." In Bruce Rigsby and Peter Sutton (eds.), Papers in Australian Linguistics No.~13: Contributions to Australian Linguistics, 277-287. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.
  5. ^ N226 Giyug at the Australian Indigenous Languages Database, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
  6. ^ Tryon, Darrell T. "The Daly River Languages: A Survey". In Aguas, E.F. and Tryon, D. editors, Papers in Australian Linguistics No. 3. A-14:21-49. Pacific Linguistics, The Australian National University, 1968. doi:10.15144/PL-A14.21

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