Vuvuzela
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Vuvuzela

Vuvuzela
Vuvuzela red.jpg
A modern plastic Vuvuzela
Brass instrument
Classification

Brass[]

Hornbostel-Sachs classification 423.121.22
(Tubular end-blown trumpet with mouthpiece)
Playing range

Varies by instrument, typically around B?
Related instruments

Kudu, bugle
A black and yellow striped vuvuzela

The vuvuzela , also known as lepatata (its Tswana name),[] is a plastic horn, about 65 centimetres (2 ft) long, which produces a loud monotone note, typically around B 3[1] (the B below middle C).[2] Some models are made in two parts to facilitate storage, and this design also allows pitch variation. Many types of vuvuzela, made by several manufacturers, may produce various intensity and frequency outputs.[3] The intensity of these outputs depends on the blowing technique and pressure exerted.[3]

Traditionally made and inspired from a kudu horn, the vuvuzela was used to summon distant villagers to attend community gatherings.[4][dubious ] The vuvuzela is commonly used at football matches in South Africa,[5] and it has become a symbol of South African football as the stadiums are filled with its sound.[4] The intensity of the sound caught the attention of the global football community during the 2009 FIFA Confederations Cup in anticipation of South Africa hosting the 2010 FIFA World Cup.[4]

The vuvuzela has been the subject of controversy when used by spectators at football matches. Its high sound pressure levels at close range can lead to permanent hearing loss for unprotected ears after exposure,[6] with a sound level of 120 dB(A) (the threshold of pain) at 1 metre (3.3 ft) from the device opening.[4]

Origin

Kudu vuvuzela blown by a N'anga in Zimbabwe in 1989.
The Dinner Horn (Blowing the Horn at Seaside), by Winslow Homer, 1870.

Plastic aerophones, like corneta and similar devices, have been used in Brazil and other Latin American countries since the 1960s.

These plastic horns have been marketed and available in the United States as "Stadium Horns" since the mid-1960s.[7] Similar horns have been in existence for much longer. An instrument that looks like a vuvuzela appears in Winslow Homer's 1870 woodcut "The Dinner Horn".[8]

The origin of the device is disputed. The term vuvuzela was first used in South Africa from the Zulu language or Nguni dialect meaning to make a vuvu sound (directly translated: vuvu-ing).[] Controversies over the invention arose in early 2010. South African Kaizer Chiefs fan Freddie "Saddam" Maake claimed the invention of the vuvuzela by fabricating an aluminium version in 1965 from a bicycle horn and has photographic evidence of himself holding the aluminium vuvuzela in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s.[9] He also claimed to have coined vuvuzela from the Zulu language for "welcome", "unite" and "celebration".[10] Plastics factory Masincedane Sport popularised the ubiquitous plastic vuvuzela commonly heard at South African football games in 2002,[11] and the Nazareth Baptist Church claimed the vuvuzela belonged to their church.[12]

International tournaments

A 2010 FIFA World Cup crowd blowing vuvuzelas

The world association football governing body, FIFA, proposed banning vuvuzelas from stadiums, as they were seen as potential weapons for hooligans and could be used in ambush marketing. Columnist Jon Qwelane described the device as "an instrument from hell".[13] South African football authorities argued that the vuvuzela was part of the South African football experience.[14] The Spanish midfielder Xabi Alonso said, "Those trumpets? That noise I don't like ... FIFA must ban those things ... it is not nice to have a noise like that".[15] Dutch coach Bert van Marwijk remarked, "... it was annoying ... in the stadiums you get used to it but it is still unpleasant".[16]

Commentator Farayi Mungazi said, "Banning the vuvuzela would take away the distinctiveness of a South African World Cup ... absolutely essential for an authentic South African footballing experience".[17] FIFA President Sepp Blatter responded, "we should not try to Europeanise an African World Cup ... that is what African and South Africa football is all about - noise, excitement, dancing, shouting and enjoyment".[17][16] Despite the criticisms, FIFA agreed to permit their use in stadiums during the 2009 FIFA Confederations Cup and 2010 FIFA World Cup.[18] The South African football authority argued that during FIFA World Cup 2010, vuvuzelas achieved great popularity, though TV spectators suffered a lot due to vuvuzela noise pollution.[16]

2010 FIFA World Cup

Marketing

Hyundai constructed the world's largest working vuvuzela as part of a marketing campaign for the World Cup. The 35-metre (115 ft) blue vuvuzela mounted on the Foreshore Freeway Bridge, Cape Town was intended to be used at the beginning of each match; however, it had not yet sounded a note during the World Cup as its volume was a cause of concern to city authorities.[19]

Reception

Its ubiquity led to many suggestions for limiting its use, muffling its sound, and even an outright ban.[20][21]

Broadcasting organisations experienced difficulties with their presentations. Television and radio audiences often heard only the sound of vuvuzelas.[22][23][24][25] The BBC, RTÉ, ESPN and BSkyB have examined the possibility of filtering the ambient noise while maintaining game commentary.[22][23]

The vuvuzelas raised health and safety concerns. Competitors believed the incessant noise hampered the ability of the players to get their rest, and degraded the quality of team performance.[26][27] Other critics remarked that vuvuzelas disrupted team communication and players' concentration during matches.[28][29] Demand for earplugs to protect from hearing loss during the World Cup outstripped supply, with many pharmacies out of stock.[30] One major vuvuzela manufacturer even began selling its own earplugs to spectators.[31]

Audio filtration

Notch filtering, an audio filtration technique, is proposed to reduce the vuvuzela sound in broadcasts and increase clarity of commentary audio. The vuvuzela produces notes at a frequency of approximately 235 Hz and its first partial at 465 Hz.[32] However, this filtration technique affects the clarity of commentary audio. Proposals of adaptive filters by universities and research organisations address this issue by preserving the amplitude and clarity of the commentators' voices and crowd noise.[33][34][35] Such filtration techniques have been adopted by some cable television providers.[36]

2018 FIFA World Cup

The vuvuzelas made a comeback at the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia, and have been used mainly by Iranian supporters.[37] Much like in 2010, there has been a backlash against the use of vuvuzelas.[38][39]

Health effects and regulation

Health concerns

Some vuvuzelas carry a safety warning graphic.

A study in 2010 by Dr Ruth McNerney of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and colleagues, concluded that the spread of diseases by means of vuvuzelas was possible.[40][41] McNerney found tiny droplets at the bottom of a vuvuzela that can carry flu and cold germs that are small enough to stay suspended in the air for hours, and can enter into the airways of a person's lungs. The vuvuzelas can infect others on a greater scale than coughing or shouting.

The vuvuzelas have the potential to cause noise-induced hearing loss.[3][4][6][40] Prof James Hall III, Dr Dirk Koekemoer, De Wet Swanepoel and colleagues at the University of Pretoria found that vuvuzelas can have a negative effect when a listener's eardrums are exposed to the instrument's high-intensity sound. The vuvuzelas produce an average sound pressure of 113 dB(A) at 2 metres (6.6 ft) from the device opening.[4] The study finds that subjects should not be exposed to more than 15 minutes per day at an intensity of 100 dB(A).[4] The study assumes that if a single vuvuzela emits a sound that is dangerously loud to subjects within a 2-metre radius, and numerous vuvuzelas are typically blown together for the duration of a match, it may put spectators at a significant risk of hearing loss.[4] Hearing loss experts at the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommend that exposure at the 113 dB(A) level not exceed 45 seconds per day.[42] A newer model has a modified mouthpiece that reduces the volume by 20 dB.[43]

Noise levels and bans

Concerns about the constant intensities produced by the vuvuzelas during the 2010 FIFA World Cup matches were raised independently by representatives of international football teams, spectators and sports commentators. The noise levels that were demonstrated during the 2010 FIFA World Cup prompted various sporting organisations to ban the vuvuzela at future events and venues, even including future World Cups:

Wesley Sneijder blowing on a vuvuzela

Some shopping centres in South Africa banned the use of vuvuzelas.[66][67][68] They were also banned at the 2010 Baltimore anime convention Otakon,[69] the convention committee declared that any attendee carrying a vuvuzela could have it confiscated from them, and that anyone blowing one could face expulsion from the event.[69][70]

Another such action was taken in response to the prevalence of the vuvuzelas at the 2010 Anime Expo based in Los Angeles, attended by representatives of Otakon who felt the disruption led to discomfort for some of the attendees of Anime Expo which they wished to avoid at the later Baltimore event.[70]

Nine English Premier League clubs have banned the device. Five clubs (Arsenal,[71]Birmingham City, Everton, Fulham and Liverpool) have banned them due to health and safety reasons while Sunderland, West Ham United, and West Bromwich Albion have barred them because of policy against musical instruments. Manchester United banned vuvuzelas from Old Trafford on August 13, 2010. However, two clubs (Manchester City and Stoke City) have allowed them.[]

The organisers of the 2012 Olympic Games placed a ban on vuvuzelas at the sporting event.[72]

Usage in protests

On July 13, 2010, protesters with vuvuzelas converged on BP's London headquarters to protest the company's handling of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.[73]

In Wisconsin, the Anti-Walker, pro-union protesters have made extensive use of vuvuzelas. A Madison DJ, Nick Nice, ordered 200 and distributed them to his fellow protesters. The Madison police even issued permits for use of the vuvuzelas inside the capitol.[]

In March 2012, German protesters used vuvuzelas during the official traditional torchlight ceremony, the Großer Zapfenstreich, which bid farewell to President of Germany Christian Wulff. Wulff had resigned earlier over corruption allegations, yet he still received the honor of the military ceremony, which left Germany divided. [3]

Usage in music

Usage of vuvuzela in art music is limited. One of the few compositions made for it is a baroque-style double concerto in C major for vuvuzela, organ (or harpsichord) and string orchestra, written by Timo Kiiskinen, Professor of Church Music in Sibelius Academy, Helsinki; organ version of this concerto was premiered on 21st October 2010 at the Organ Hall of Sibelius Academy, and harpsichord version on 19th December 2010 at Pro Puu gallery in Lahti.[74][75]

Alternative rock band Catzo Music All-Stars used two vuvuzelas as the basis of its 2010 song "Larissa Riquelme (reprise)".

See also

References

  1. ^ "10 things about the vuvuzela". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. June 15, 2010. 
  2. ^ "Trumping the trumpets: how audio engineering helps tone down vuvuzela disruption" (Press release). Queen Mary College University of London. June 18, 2010. 
  3. ^ a b c Swanepoel, De Wet; Hall III, James W; Koekemoer, Dirk (April 2010). "Vuvuzela sound measurements" (PDF). South African Medical Journal. Cape Town, South Africa. 100 (4): 192. PMID 20459951. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Swanepoel, De Wet; Hall III, James W; Koekemoer, Dirk (February 2010). "Vuvuzela - good for your team, bad for your ears" (PDF). South African Medical Journal. Cape Town, South Africa. 100 (4): 99-100. PMID 20459912. 
  5. ^ "V is for Vuvuzela". Fédération Internationale de Football Association. Retrieved 2008. 
  6. ^ a b Swanepoel, D Wet; Hall III, James W (April 2010). "Football match spectator sound exposure and effect on hearing: A pretest-post-test study". South African Medical Journal. Cape Town, South Africa. 100 (4): 239-42. PMID 20459971. 
  7. ^ Ken Burns (September 27, 1994). "8th Inning - A Whole New Ballgame". Baseball. Season 1. 82 minutes in. PBS. at 1:22:12, crowd shot of Fenway Park. In the upper left corner of the frame, two mass-produced type plastic Stadium Horns/Vuvuzelas are clearly visible. 
  8. ^ "The Dinner Horn". Brooklyn Museum of Art. 
  9. ^ Moyo, Phathisani (January 8, 2010). "Vuvuzela creator blown off?". Mail & Guardian. South Africa. 
  10. ^ Maake, Freddie (July 10, 2010). "Experience: I invented the vuvuzela". The Guardian. London: Guardian News and Media Limited. 
  11. ^ Casert, Raf (June 18, 2010). "Vuvuzela innovator cashes in on success at WCup". Yahoo! Inc. Associated Press. Archived from the original on June 22, 2010. 
  12. ^ Fisher, Jonah (January 16, 2010). "Unholy row over World Cup trumpet". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2010. 
  13. ^ Qwelane, Jon (February 7, 2005). "Ban the vuvuzela". News24. South Africa: 24.com. 
  14. ^ Makhaye, Chris (July 13, 2008). "Blasts of joy as vuvuzelas unbanned". IOL. 
  15. ^ "Ban the noisy vuvuzela, says Alonso". Cape Argus. Cape Argus & Independent Online. June 18, 2009. 
  16. ^ a b c "Dutch coach joins chorus to ban vuvuzela". ESPNsoccernet. Walt Disney Internet Group. Reuters. June 20, 2009. Retrieved 2009. 
  17. ^ a b Mungazi, Farayi (June 19, 2009). "In defence of the vuvuzela". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2010. 
  18. ^ "Fifa gives Vuvuzelas thumbs up". News24. South Africa: 24.com. South African Press Association. July 11, 2008. 
  19. ^ Hudson, Alexandra (June 18, 2010). "Giant vuvuzela waits for council go-ahead to toot". Thomson Reuters Corporate. Reuters Africa. Retrieved 2010. 
  20. ^ Schy, Steve (June 14, 2010). "Noisy Vuvuzelas Cause Concern at World Cup". Voice of America. Washington, DC, United States of America: Federal Government of the United States. Retrieved 2010. 
  21. ^ "Organizers consider silencing vuvuzelas". ESPNsoccernet. Walt Disney Internet Group. Retrieved 2010. 
  22. ^ a b "BBC receives 545 vuvuzela complaints over World Cup". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. June 15, 2010. Retrieved 2010. 
  23. ^ a b "Host broadcasters to 'filter' noise". ESPNsoccernet. Walt Disney Internet Group. Associated Press. June 15, 2010. 
  24. ^ "BBC mulls vuvuzela-free option for irked viewers". Yahoo! Inc. Associated Press. June 15, 2010. Retrieved 2010. 
  25. ^ Valenti, Elio (June 13, 2010). "Buzz off, vuvuzelas!". New York Post. NYP Holdings, Inc. 
  26. ^ "World Cup 2010: Organisers will not ban vuvuzelas". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. June 13, 2010. Retrieved 2010. 
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  28. ^ "It is impossible to communicate, it's like being deaf: Messi". The Hindu. Deutsche Presse-Agentur. Retrieved 2010. 
  29. ^ "Ronaldo hits out at vuvuzelas". Radio Nederland Wereldomroep. Netherlands National News, Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on June 17, 2010. Retrieved 2010. 
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  32. ^ Pash, Adam (June 15, 2010). "How to Silence Vuvuzela Horns in World Cup Broadcasts". Lifehacker. Gawker Media. Retrieved 2010. 
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  38. ^ "Vuvuzelas are back at the World Cup and people are fuming". inews.co.uk. June 16, 2018. Retrieved 2018. 
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  40. ^ a b Snyman, Mia (June 10, 2010). "Study: Vuvuzela could spread colds and flu". Boston.com. Associated Press. Retrieved 2015. 
  41. ^ Brian Mossop (May 24, 2011). "Besides Noise, Vuvuzelas May Spread Airborne Germs". Wired magazine. 
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  44. ^ "Rules & Regulations". Wembley Stadium. Retrieved 2013. 
  45. ^ Simpson, Connor (June 4, 2014). "Wooomp: FIFA Bans Vuvuzelas from Brazilian World Cup". Retrieved 2018. 
  46. ^ "2018 World Cup: Roll up for 'obese person' tickets". Retrieved 2018. 
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  48. ^ Summers, Chris (June 16, 2010). "Wimbledon crackdown on vuvuzelas". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2010. 
  49. ^ Elkes, Neil (July 9, 2010). "Call to ban vuvuzelas at Edgbaston". Retrieved 2018. 
  50. ^ Doherty, Elissa (June 17, 2010). "Vuvu gets big no-no from AFL". Herald Sun. News Corporation. Retrieved 2010. 
  51. ^ "Ground Entry Conditions - WACA Western Australia Cricket Association". www.waca.com.au. Retrieved 2018. 
  52. ^ http://www.couriermail.com.au/sport/the-ashes-2017-barmy-armys-new-chants-revealed-before-gabba-test/news-story/217258319be9b13bc92cd43d70ef06aa
  53. ^ "Attending the ODI between Australia and India at the SCG". Retrieved 2018. 
  54. ^ Marks, Vic; Wilson, Andy; Smyth, Rob (September 8, 2010). "County cricket - as it happened! - Andy Wilson, Rob Smyth and Vic Marks". the Guardian. Retrieved 2018. 
  55. ^ "Vuvuzelas BANNED From Yankee Stadium". The Huffington Post. June 17, 2010. Retrieved 2010. 
  56. ^ "?". FujiRockFestival.com. SMASH Corporation. July 15, 2010. 
  57. ^ Kristi E. Swartz. "SEC: leave your vuvuzelas at home". Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved . 
  58. ^ "No Vuvuzelas allowed at UFC card". ESPN. Associated Press. June 30, 2010. 
  59. ^ "GAA bans vuvuzelas before they blow away the Croke Park atmosphere - The Irish Times - Fri, Jun 18, 2010". The Irish Times. June 18, 2010. Retrieved . 
  60. ^ "Guest Guide". Portland Timbers. Archived from the original on January 27, 2011. Retrieved 2011. 
  61. ^ UEFA Enacts Vuvuzelas Ban, ESPN.com, September 1, 2010
  62. ^ "Euro 2016: UEFA bans toilet roll, painted faces, and vuvuzelas". May 31, 2016. Retrieved 2018. 
  63. ^ "No vuvuzelas at RWC 2011". SARugby.com. SARugby.com. June 29, 2010. Archived from the original on July 3, 2010. 
  64. ^ ? ? (in Russian). Kontinental Hockey League. July 23, 2010. Retrieved 2010. 
  65. ^ "Pasaulio krep?inio ?empionate vuvuzel? negird?sime - DELFI ?inios". Sportas.delfi.lt. Retrieved . 
  66. ^ Child, Katharine (June 12, 2010). "No vuvuzelas inside Sandton City". Eyewitness News. Primedia Broadcasting. Archived from the original on October 6, 2011. 
  67. ^ Dardagan, Colleen (June 16, 2010). "Shopping mall silences vuvuzela". IOL. South African Press Association. 
  68. ^ Fengu, Msindisi (June 18, 2010). "Vuvuzelas get red card in malls". Daily Dispatch Online. Avusa Media Limited. 
  69. ^ a b Lou, Arruda (July 11, 2010). "Vuvuzela ban in effect". Otakon.com. 
  70. ^ a b "No Vuvuzelas at Otakon". Anime News Network. July 14, 2010. 
  71. ^ "Vuvuzelas not welcome at Emirates Stadium!". Arsenal.com. July 20, 2010. Retrieved . 
  72. ^ "No frisbees, picnic hampers or vuvuzelas: items banned from the London 2012 Olympics". BBC News. July 12, 2012. Retrieved 2012. 
  73. ^ CNN Wire Staff (July 13, 2010). "Vuvuzela protest planned at BP HQ". CNN.com Breaking News. CNN. 
  74. ^ https://cris.uniarts.fi/crisyp/disp/_/fi/cr_redir_all/fet/fet/sea?direction=2&id=3477372 (in Finnish)
  75. ^ "Barokkiyhtyeen joulukonsertissa soi vuvuzela" [2]. Etelä-Suomen sanomat 16.12.2010 (in Finnish)

External links


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Vuvuzela
 



 



 
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