|Javier Ortega Smith|
|Founded||17 December 2013|
|Split from||People's Party|
|European affiliation||European Conservatives and Reformists Party|
|European Parliament group||European Conservatives and Reformists|
|Congress of Deputies|
|Mayors in Spain|
Vox (Latin for "voice", often stylized as VOX; Spanish pronunciation: ['boks]) is a political party in Spain founded on 17 December 2013, by former members of the People's Party (PP). The party is described variously as right-wing,right-wing populist, or far-right.
Vox was founded on 17 December 2013, and publicly launched at a press conference in Madrid on 16 January 2014 as a split from the People's Party. This schism was interpreted as an offshoot of "neocon" or "social conservative" PP party members. The party platform sought to rewrite the constitution to abolish regional autonomy and parliaments. Several of their promoters (for example: Alejo Vidal-Quadras, José Antonio Ortega Lara or Santiago Abascal) had been members of the platform "reconversion.es" that issued a manifesto in 2012 vouching for the recentralization of the State. Vidal-Quadras was proclaimed as the first chairman in March 2014.[n. 1]
In September 2014 the party elected Santiago Abascal, one of the founders, as new President, and Iván Espinosa de los Monteros, also a founder, as General Secretary. Eleven members of the National Executive Committee were also elected.
After the Catalan referendum of 2017 and the start of a Spanish constitutional crisis, Vox opted to not participate in the Catalan regional elections of 2017. After the Catalan declaration of independence, the party sued the Parliament of Catalonia and several independentist politicians.
On 10 September 2018 Vox enlisted an independent legislator in the regional parliament of Extremadura (who had dropped out of the PP parliamentary group) as party member. On 2 December 2018 they won 12 parliamentary seats in the Andalusian regional election, entering a regional parliament for the first time. It supported the coalition regional government by Ciudadanos and the Popular Party. With this result, Vox was also given a first seat in the Senate of Spain, which was taken by Francisco José Alcaraz.
The party obtained 10.26% of votes in the April 2019 general election, electing 24 Deputies and entering the Congress of Deputies for the first time in its history. Later, the party entered for its first time in the European Parliament with 6.2% of the votes and 3 eurodeputies, which after Brexit will become 4. After this election, the party joined the European Conservatives and Reformists group and the Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe. In the second general election of the year in November, Vox came third and increased its number of deputies from 24 to 52.
Starting with a focus in economically liberal stances and recentralization proposals, the focus of their message shifted towards stances compatible with European right-wing populism, endorsing anti-Islam as well as criticism of multiculturalism and criticizing immigration from Muslim countries, but at the same time promoting immigration from countries of Latin America in order to repopulate Spain. Their view of European Union is that of a soft euroscepticism, arguing that Spain should make no sovereignty concessions to the EU, because they consider Spanish sovereignty to reside in the Spanish nation alone. They propose to eliminate Spain's autonomous communities. In addition, they seek the return of Gibraltar to full Spanish sovereignty.
Vox is considered antifeminist, and wants to repeal the gender violence law, which they see as "discriminant against one of the sexes" and replace it with a "family violence law that will afford the same protection to the elderly, men, women and children who suffer from abuse".
The party pleads for the closure of fundamentalist mosques as well as the arrest and expulsion of extremist imams. Vox has openly called for the deportation of tens of thousands of Muslims from Spain. In 2019, the party's leader demanded a Reconquista or reconquest of Spain, explicitly referencing a new expulsion of Muslim immigrants from the country.
According to Xavier Casals, the warlike ultranationalism in Vox, unifying part of its ideology up to this point, is identified by the party with a palingenetic and biological vision of the country, the so-called "España Viva", but also with a Catholic-inspired culture. The party discourse has also revived the myth of the Antiespaña ("Anti-Spain"), an umbrella term created in the 1930s by the domestic ultranationalist forces to designate the (inner) "Enemies of Spain".
According to Guillermo Fernández Vázquez, Vox's discourse, which he described as "economically anti-statist and neoliberal" as well as "morally authoritarian", is similar to Ronald Reagan, Jörg Haider's FPÖ or Jean Marie Le Pen's National Front from the 1980s, thus likening the emergence of the party to an archaic stage of current radical right parties, more worried about the need to modernize their image than Vox; the later's approach to cultural issues would be in line with old school Spanish nationalist parties, restricting the scope of "culture" to "language and tradition".
Vox openly endorses the State of Israel. The party has also appealed to conspiracy theories invoking the figure of Jewish philanthropist George Soros as mastermind behind Catalan separatism and the alleged "Islamization" of Europe. Vox has also featured some former neo-Nazis in party cadres and lists; some of them have been expelled from the party or have resigned. In November 2018, during a party event in Murcia, the party leader Santiago Abascal defined his party as "antifascist, antinazi and anticommunist".
|Election||Congress||Senate||Leader||Status in legislature|
|2015||58,114||0.23%||15th||0||0||Santiago Abascal||No seats||2015-2019|
|2019 (Apr)||2,688,092||10.26%||5th||24||0||None (Snap election)||2019|
|Last election||Vote||%||Score||Seats||Status in legislature|
|Basque Country||2016||771||0.07%||12th||No seats|
|Canary Islands||2019||22,021||2.47%||7th||No seats|
|Castile and León||2019||75,731||5.50%||4th||Opposition|
|Castilla-La Mancha||2019||75,813||7.02%||4th||No seats|
|La Rioja||2019||6,314||3.87%||6th||No seats|
Su ideario parece hallarse aún en construcción y tiene como eje vertebrador un ultranacionalismo bélico asociado a la "Reconquista" o a una "Covadonga 2.0", El partido lo identifica con una visión biológica y palingenética de la patria, la "España viva", pero también con una cultura de inspiración católica.
Diría eso de que "con esto a Vox se le ha caído la careta", pero es que no creo que Vox se haya puesto nunca caretas que oculten su vertiente neoliberal y de servidumbre a las élites financieras.
su nacionalismo se conjuga con [...] un discurso económico liberal
Torreblanca added that Vox is [...] very liberal economically," rejecting the statist economics of France's National Rally, for example. "I'd say it's a 'neocon' party in the American sense," he added
Es el nuevo encuadre de la derecha neocon, [...] desde Bolsonaro a Abascal [...] con Vox
The extreme right was disconcerted by transition to democracy and unable to react: soon it was divided into several groups, each of them claiming to be the true heirs of Falange Española, losing a common leadership. They gradually lost the voters they had gathered in 1979, who fled towards the Alianza Popular or abstention, and they have not gained near 1 per cent of the vote in parliamentary elections since. During the two last decades they have not even reached 0.5 per cent in those elections. Their most salient success was the 2 per cent of all votes obtained in the 2014 European elections by a new party, Vox, led by a former Partido Popular leader, who almost managed to obtain a seat. But this same party won less than 0.3 per cent in the 2015 and 2016 parliamentary elections (figure 20).
Vistalegre dibuja a Vox como la expresión de que una parte de la derecha "neocon" española se ha desgajado de la nave nodriza del Partido Popular
Bertrand Ndongo (Vox): "España no debería permitir la invasión de los musulmanes"
Santiago Abascal alertó a los presentes acerca de "ese 4% de musulmanes que hay en España y que, para algunos, puede resultar una minoría simpática". Su advertencia fue muy concreta: "No queremos que se conviertan en un problema".
Porque estamos convencidos de que nación y soberanía son conceptos íntimamente relacionados. Si somos soberanos es porque somos una Nación y no tenemos derecho a entregar lo que hemos recibido de nuestros mayores. España debe estar en Europa pero sin complejos, reivindicando el papel histórico, industrial y agrícola que merecemos. No debemos ser vasallos de Merkel ni de Tsipras. Ni camareros de Merkel ni paganos de las propinas de Tsipras. Las Cortes de Cádiz proclamaron que la Nación española era libre e independiente y que no podía ser patrimonio de ninguna familia o persona. Proclamaron asimismo que la soberanía reside esencialmente en la Nación, que es la única que tiene derecho a establecer sus leyes fundamentales. Esta declaración de soberanía ha sido una constante en toda nuestra historia constitucional.
A tenor de lo que muestra el programa, cultura es para Vox lengua y tradición, siguiendo el viejo lema de los partidos nacionalistas.
Según informa Vox Alcalá de Henares en un comunicado, Bonito ya ha presentado ante la Junta Electoral de Zona un «escrito de renuncia a formar parte de dicha candidatura y a su acta de concejal electo» en el caso de que la obtuviera.
Tanto a Ortega Smith como a Rocío Monasterio les ha faltado tiempo para desvincularse de Ruiz Puerta. Sostienen que nunca ha militado ni pertenecido a Vox, lo que desdice lo que él mismo ha publicado en redes sociales y también lo que manifestó en "Alt News". En el espacio radial dirigido y conducido por Santiago Fontenla sostuvo que él tenía "acceso directo" a Abascal y daba por consumada su incorporación a ese proyecto político.
Santiago Abascal [...]definió a su formación como «antifascista, antinazi»