Voiceless Velar Stop
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Voiceless Velar Stop
Voiceless velar stop
k
IPA Number109
Encoding
Entity (decimal)k
Unicode (hex)U+006B
X-SAMPAk
Braille? (braille pattern dots-13)
Audio sample

The voiceless velar stop or voiceless velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in almost all spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨k⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is k.

The [k] sound is a very common sound cross-linguistically. Most languages have at least a plain [k], and some distinguish more than one variety. Most Indo-Aryan languages, such as Hindi and Bengali, have a two-way contrast between aspirated and plain [k]. Only a few languages lack a voiceless velar stop, e.g. Tahitian.

Some languages have the voiceless pre-velar stop,[1] which is articulated slightly more front compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical voiceless velar stop, though not as front as the prototypical voiceless palatal stop.

Conversely, some languages have the voiceless post-velar stop,[2] which is articulated slightly behind the place of articulation of the prototypical voiceless velar stop, though not as back as the prototypical voiceless uvular stop.

Features

Features of the voiceless velar stop:

  • Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also oral, with no nasal outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely, and the consonant is a stop.
  • Its place of articulation is velar, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum) at the soft palate.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Varieties

IPA Description
k plain k
k? aspirated k
k? palatalized k
k? labialized k
k? k with no audible release
k? voiced k
k? tense k
k' ejective k

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz ?? ['akalak?] 'the city' See Abkhaz phonology
Adyghe Shapsug 'chicken' Dialectal; corresponds to [t] in other dialects.
Temirgoy ? [pskan] 'to cough'
Ahtna gistaann [k?st:n] 'six'
Aleut[3] kiikax? [ki:ka?] 'cranberry bush'
Arabic Modern Standard[4] ['katab?] 'he wrote' See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[5] ?? [k'k?] 'town' Contrasts with unaspirated form.
Assamese ?? [k?m] 'less'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic kuleh [kul?:] 'all' Used in most varieties, with the exception of the Urmia and Nochiya dialects
where it corresponds to .
Basque katu [kat?u] 'cat'
Bengali ?? [k?m] 'less' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Bengali phonology
Bulgarian ??? [kak] 'how' See Bulgarian phonology
Catalan[6] quinze ['kinz?] 'fifteen' See Catalan phonology
Chinese Cantonese ? / g? 'home' Contrasts with aspirated and or labialized forms. See Cantonese phonology
Hokkien ? koa [kua] 'song'
Mandarin ? / g?o 'high' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Mandarin phonology
Czech kost [kost] 'bone' See Czech phonology
Danish Standard[7] gås ['k:s] 'goose' Usually transcribed in IPA with ⟨⟩ or ⟨?⟩. Contrasts with aspirated form, which is usually transcribed in IPA with ⟨k?⟩ or ⟨k⟩. See Danish phonology
Dutch[8] koning ['ko:n] 'king' See Dutch phonology
English kiss 'kiss' See English phonology
Esperanto rakonto [ra'konto] 'tale' See Esperanto phonology
Estonian kõik [k?ik] 'all' See Estonian phonology
Esperanto kato [kato] 'cat'
Filipino kuto [ku'to] 'lice'
Finnish kakku [k?k:u] 'cake' See Finnish phonology
French[9] cabinet [kabin?] 'office' See French phonology
Georgian[10] ? [k?va] 'stone'
German Käfig ['k:f?ç] 'cage' See Standard German phonology
Greek ? / kalógeros [ka'loe?ro?s?] 'monk' See Modern Greek phonology
Gujarati [k?:nd?o:] 'onion' See Gujarati phonology
Hebrew / kesef ['kesef] 'money' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hiligaynon kadlaw [kad?law] 'laugh'
Hindustani / [k?:m] 'work' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindustani phonology
Hungarian akkor [?kkor] 'then' See Hungarian phonology
Italian[11] casa ['kaza] 'house' See Italian phonology
Japanese[12] ? / kaban [kaba?] 'handbag' See Japanese phonology
Kagayanen[13] kalag [kað?a?] 'spirit'
Korean / kamja [kamd?a] 'potato' See Korean phonology
Lakota kimímela [k?'m?mela] 'butterfly'
Luxembourgish[14] geess ['ke:s] 'goat' Less often voiced . It is usually transcribed in IPA as ⟨?⟩, and it contrasts with aspirated form, which is usually transcribed ⟨k⟩.[14] See Luxembourgish phonology
Macedonian ? [k?j] 'who' See Macedonian phonology
Marathi ? [kt?s] 'armour' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Marathi phonology
Malay kaki [käki] 'leg'
Norwegian kake [k?:k?] 'cake' See Norwegian phonology
Pashto [k?l] 'year'
Persian [kimti] 'kimchi'
Polish[15] buk 'beech tree' See Polish phonology
Portuguese[16] corpo ['ko?pu] 'body' See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi [k] 'do' Contrasts with aspirated form.
Romanian[17] când ['k?nd] 'when' See Romanian phonology
Russian[18] ??? 'short' See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[19] ? / kost [k?:s?t?] 'bone' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak kos? [ksc?] 'bone' See Slovak phonology
Spanish[20] casa ['käsä] 'house' See Spanish phonology
Swedish ko ['k?u:] 'cow' See Swedish phonology
Sylheti [k?t?à] 'what'
Telugu ? [k?ki] 'crow'
Thai i [k] 'chicken'
Turkish kulak [k?u?äk] 'ear' See Turkish phonology
Ubykh [kawar] 'slat' Found mostly in loanwords. See Ubykh phonology
Ukrainian[21] ? ['ks?] 'wheel' See Ukrainian phonology
Vietnamese[22] cam [kam] 'orange' See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisian keal [kl] 'calf' See West Frisian phonology
Yi ? / ge [k] 'foolish' Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms.
Zapotec Tilquiapan[23] canza [kanza] 'walking'

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Instead of "pre-velar", it can be called "advanced velar", "fronted velar", "front-velar", "palato-velar", "post-palatal", "retracted palatal" or "backed palatal".
  2. ^ Instead of "post-velar", it can be called "retracted velar", "backed velar", "pre-uvular", "advanced uvular" or "fronted uvular".
  3. ^ Ladefoged (2005), p. 165.
  4. ^ Thelwall (1990), p. 37.
  5. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009), p. 13.
  6. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 53.
  7. ^ Basbøll (2005:61)
  8. ^ Gussenhoven (1992), p. 45.
  9. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  10. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), p. 255.
  11. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 117.
  12. ^ Okada (1999), p. 117.
  13. ^ Olson et al. (2010), pp. 206-207.
  14. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013:67-68)
  15. ^ Jassem (2003), p. 103.
  16. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  17. ^ DEX Online : [1]
  18. ^ Padgett (2003), p. 42.
  19. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 66.
  20. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 255.
  21. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  22. ^ Thompson (1959), pp. 458-461.
  23. ^ Merrill (2008), p. 108.

References

  • Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5
  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (1-2): 53-56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 90-94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223
  • Danyenko, Andrii; Vakulenko, Serhii (1995), Ukrainian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 9783929075083
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L. (1993), "French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 23 (2): 73-76, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67-74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (2): 45-47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103-107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255-259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107-114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344
  • Okada, Hideo (1999), "Japanese", in International Phonetic Association (ed.), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, pp. 117-119, ISBN 978-0-52163751-0
  • Olson, Kenneth; Mielke, Jeff; Sanicas-Daguman, Josephine; Pebley, Carol Jean; Paterson, Hugh J., III (2010), "The phonetic status of the (inter)dental approximant", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 199-215, doi:10.1017/S0025100309990296
  • Padgett, Jaye (2003), "Contrast and Post-Velar Fronting in Russian", Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 21 (1): 39-87, doi:10.1023/A:1021879906505
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 117-121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2): 255-264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659
  • Thelwall, Robin (1990), "Arabic", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 20 (2): 37-41, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004266
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language, 35 (3): 454-476, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lon?ari?a, Mijo; Horga, Damir; ?kari?, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66-69, ISBN 978-0-521-65236-0

External links


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