Voiceless Labiodental Fricative
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Voiceless Labiodental Fricative
Voiceless labiodental fricative
f
IPA Number128
Encoding
Entity (decimal)f
Unicode (hex)U+0066
X-SAMPAf
Braille? (braille pattern dots-124)
Audio sample

The voiceless labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in a number of spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨f⟩.

Features

Features of the voiceless labiodental fricative:

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is labiodental, which means it is articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the central-lateral dichotomy does not apply.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz ?? [f?] 'lightning' See Abkhaz phonology
Adyghe ??? 'five' Corresponds to [x?] in Kabardian and Proto-Circassian
Albanian faqe [fac?] 'cheek'
Arabic Modern Standard[1] [ðrf] 'envelope' See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[2] ? 'football'
Assamese ? [bf] 'snow/ice'
Basque fin [fin] 'thin'
Bengali ? [ful] 'flower' Allophone of /p?/. See Bengali phonology
Catalan[3] fase ['faz?] 'phase' See Catalan phonology
Chechen ? / faks [faks] 'fax'
Chinese Cantonese ? / f?i 'to fly' See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin ? (traditional) / ?(simplified) / f?i See Mandarin phonology
Coptic ?? [ftow] 'four'
Czech foukat ['fokat] 'to blow' See Czech phonology
Dutch[4] fiets [fits] 'bike' See Dutch phonology
English All dialects fill 'fill' See English phonology
Cockney[5] think [fk] 'think' Socially marked,[6] with speakers exhibiting some free variation with (with which it corresponds to in other dialects).[7] See th-fronting.
Many British urban dialects[8]
Some younger New Zealanders[9][10]
Broad South African[11] More common word-finally.
Esperanto fajro ['faj?o] 'fire' See Esperanto phonology
Ewe[12] eflen [éflé̃] 'he spit off'
French[13] fabuleuse [fäby'lø:z?] 'fabulous' See French phonology
Galician faísca [fa'iska] 'spark' See Galician phonology
German fade ['fa:d?] 'bland' See Standard German phonology
Goemai [fat] 'to blow'
Greek ? / fys? ['fisi] 'nature' See Modern Greek phonology
Gujarati ?? / fa? [f] 'fruit' See Gujarati phonology
Hebrew ?? [so?fe] 'writer' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindustani / [s?:f] 'clean' See Hindustani phonology
Hungarian figyel [fil] 'he/she pays attention' See Hungarian phonology
Italian fantasma [fän?'t?äzmä] 'ghost' See Italian phonology
Kabardian ? [f?z] 'woman' Corresponds to [] in Adyghe and Proto-Circassian
Kabyle afus [afus] 'hand'
Macedonian ?? [f?netika] 'phonetics' See Macedonian phonology
Malay feri [feri] 'ferry' Only occurs in loanwords
Maltese fenek [fenek] 'rabbit'
Norwegian filter [filt] 'filter' See Norwegian phonology
Persian [fekr] 'thought'
Polish[14] futro 'fur' See Polish phonology
Portuguese[15] fala ['fal?] 'speech' See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi [f?:di] 'soldier'
Romanian[16] foc [fo?k] 'fire' See Romanian phonology
Russian[17] ??? [?rf?'?rafj?] 'orthography' Contrasts with palatalized form. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[18] ? / faza [f?:z?ä] 'phase' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak fúka? ['fu?:käc?] 'to blow' See Slovak phonology
Somali feex [f] 'wart' See Somali phonology
Spanish[19] fantasma [fã?n?'t?a?zma?] 'ghost' See Spanish phonology
Swahili kufa [kuf?] 'to die'
Swedish fisk ['f?sk] 'fish' See Swedish phonology
Turkish saf [säf] 'pure' See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[20] ? ['f?s?t?iw] 'Fastiv' See Ukrainian phonology
Vietnamese[21] pháo [fa:w] 'firecracker' See Vietnamese phonology
Welsh ffon [f?n] 'stick' See Welsh phonology
West Frisian fol [fo?] 'full' See West Frisian phonology
Yi ? / fu [fu?] 'roast'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[22] cafe [kaf?] 'coffee' Used primarily in loanwords from Spanish

See also

Notes

References

  • Altendorf, Ulrike; Watt, Dominic (2004), "The dialects in the South of England: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 181-196, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Bowerman, Sean (2004), "White South African English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 931-942, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Britain, David (2005), "Innovation diffusion: "Estuary English" and local dialect differentiation: The survival of Fenland Englishes", Linguistics, 43 (5): 995-1022
  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (1-2): 53-56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618
  • Clark, Lynn; Trousdale, Graeme (2010), "A cognitive approach to quantitative sociolinguistic variation: Evidence from th-fronting in Central Scotland", in Geeraerts, Dirk; Kristiansen, Gitte; Peirsman, Yves (eds.), Advances in Cognitive Linguistics, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-022645-4
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 90-94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223
  • Danyenko, Andrii; Vakulenko, Serhii (1995), Ukrainian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 9783929075083
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L (1993), "Illustrations of the IPA:French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 23 (2): 73-76, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874
  • Gordon, Elizabeth; Maclagan, Margaret (2008), "Regional and social differences in New Zealand: Phonology", in Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd (eds.), Varieties of English, 3: The Pacific and Australasia, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, pp. 64-76, ISBN 3110208415
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (2): 45-47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103-107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255-259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107-114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344
  • Padgett, Jaye (2003), "Contrast and Post-Velar Fronting in Russian", Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 21 (1): 39-87, doi:10.1023/A:1021879906505
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 117-121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language, 35 (3): 454-476, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232
  • Thelwall, Robin (1990), "Illustrations of the IPA: Arabic", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 20 (2): 37-41, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004266
  • Wells, John C. (1982), Accents of English, 2: The British Isles, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-24224-X
  • Wood, Elizabeth (2003), "TH-fronting: The substitution of f/v for ?/ð in New Zealand English", New Zealand English Journal, 17: 50-56
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lon?ari?a, Mijo; Horga, Damir; ?kari?, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66-69, ISBN 978-0-521-65236-0

External links


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