Voiceless Glottal Fricative
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Voiceless Glottal Fricative
Voiceless glottal fricative
h
IPA Number146
Encoding
Entity (decimal)h
Unicode (hex)U+0068
X-SAMPAh
Braille? (braille pattern dots-125)
Audio sample

The voiceless glottal fricative, sometimes called voiceless glottal transition, and sometimes called the aspirate,[1][2] is a type of sound used in some spoken languages that patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨h⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is h, although [h] has been described as a voiceless vowel because in many languages, it lacks the place and manner of articulation of a prototypical consonant as well as the height and backness of a prototypical vowel:

[h and ?] have been described as voiceless or breathy voiced counterparts of the vowels that follow them [but] the shape of the vocal tract [...] is often simply that of the surrounding sounds. [...] Accordingly, in such cases it is more appropriate to regard h and ? as segments that have only a laryngeal specification, and are unmarked for all other features. There are other languages [such as Hebrew and Arabic] which show a more definite displacement of the formant frequencies for h, suggesting it has a [glottal] constriction associated with its production.[3]

Lamé contrasts voiceless and voiced glottal fricatives.[4]

Features

Features of the "voiceless glottal fricative":

  • In some languages, it has the constricted manner of articulation of a fricative. However, in many if not most it is a transitional state of the glottis, with no manner of articulation other than its phonation type. Because there is no other constriction to produce friction in the vocal tract in the languages they are familiar with, many phoneticians[who?] no longer consider [h] to be a fricative. However, the term "fricative" is generally retained for historical reasons.
  • It may have a glottal place of articulation. However, it may have no fricative articulation, in which case the term 'glottal' only refers to the nature of its phonation, and does not describe the location of the stricture nor the turbulence. All consonants except for the glottals, and all vowels, have an individual place of articulation in addition to the state of the glottis. As with all other consonants, surrounding vowels influence the pronunciation [h], and [h] has sometimes been presented as a voiceless vowel, having the place of articulation of these surrounding vowels.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the central-lateral dichotomy does not apply.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe Shapsug ? [h] 'now' Corresponds to [x] in other dialects.
Albanian hire [hi][stress?] 'the graces'
Arabic Modern Standard[5] ? ['ha:l] 'enormous' See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[6] ? 'Armenian'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic ? [hajma:nu:t?a] 'faith'
Asturian gua?e ['?wahe?] 'child' Mainly present in eastern dialects.
Avar ? [ha] 'oath'
Azeri hin [hin] 'chicken coop'
Basque North-Eastern dialects[7] hirur [hi?ur] 'three' Can be voiced instead.
Bengali ? [hao?a] 'wind'
Berber aherkus [ah?rkus] 'shoe'
Chechen ?I / hara [h?r?] 'this'
Chinese Cantonese ? / hói 'sea' See Cantonese phonology
Taiwanese Mandarin ? / h?i A velar fricative [x] for Standard Chinese. See Standard Chinese phonology
Danish[4] hus ['hu:?s] 'house' Often voiced when between vowels.[4] See Danish phonology
English high [ha] 'high' See English phonology and H-dropping
Esperanto hejmo [hejmo] 'home' See Esperanto phonology
Eastern Lombard Val Camonica Bresa [br?ha] 'Brescia' Corresponds to /s/ in other varieties.
Estonian hammas [h?ms] 'tooth' See Estonian phonology
Faroese hon [ho:n] 'she'
Finnish hammas [h?m:?s] 'tooth' See Finnish phonology
French Belgian hotte ['h?t] 'pannier' Found in the region of Liège. See French phonology
Georgian[8] ? [h?v?] 'climate'
German[9] Hass [has] 'hatred' See Standard German phonology
Greek Cypriot[10] ? [maha'zi] 'shop' Allophone of /x/ before /a/.
Hawaiian[11] haka [haka] 'shelf' See Hawaiian phonology
Hebrew [har] 'mountain' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindi Standard[5] ['h?m] 'we' See Hindustani phonology
Hmong hawm [ha] 'to honor'
Hungarian helyes [h?j] 'right' See Hungarian phonology
Italian Tuscan[12] i capitani [i?hä?i'?ä:ni] 'the captains' Intervocalic allophone of /k/.[12] See Italian phonology
Japanese / suhada [su?hada] 'bare skin' See Japanese phonology
Korean / haru [hu] 'day' See Korean phonology
Kabardian ?? [th?] 'books'
Lakota ho [ho] 'voice'
Lao [ha:] 'five'
Leonese guaje ['wahe?] 'boy'
Lezgian [hek] 'glue'
Limburgish Some dialects[13][14] hòs [h?:s] 'glove' Voiced in other dialects. The example word is from the Weert dialect.
Luxembourgish[15] hei [h?] 'here' See Luxembourgish phonology
Malay hari [hari] 'day'
Mutsun hu?ekni? [hutkni?] 'dog'
Navajo hastiin [hàsd?ì:n] 'mister'
Norwegian hatt [h?t:] 'hat' See Norwegian phonology
Pashto [ho] 'yes'
Persian [hæft] 'seven' See Persian phonology
Pirahã hi [hì] 'he'
Portuguese Many Brazilian dialects[16] marreta [ma'het?] 'sledgehammer' Allophone of /?/. [h, ?] are marginal sounds to many speakers, particularly out of Brazil. See Portuguese phonology
Most dialects Honda ['hõ?d?] 'Honda'
Minas Gerais (mountain dialect) arte ['aht?] 'art'
Colloquial Brazilian[17][18] chuvisco [?u'vihku] 'drizzle' Corresponds to either /s/ or /?/ (depending on dialect) in the syllable coda. Might also be deleted.
Romanian h [h?ts] 'bridle' See Romanian phonology
Serbo-Croatian Croatian[19] hmelj [hmê] 'hops' Allophone of /x/ when it is initial in a consonant cluster.[19] See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Spanish[20] Andalusian higo ['hi?o?] 'fig' Corresponds to Old Spanish /h/, which was developed from Latin /f/ but muted in other dialects.
Many dialects obispo [o?'ihpo?] 'bishop' Allophone of /s/. See Spanish phonology
Some dialects jaca ['haka] 'pony' Corresponds to /x/ in other dialects.
Swedish hatt ['hat:] 'hat' See Swedish phonology
Sylheti [hamux] 'snail'
Thai [ha:] 'five'
Turkish hal? [hä'] 'carpet' See Turkish phonology
Ubykh [dwaha] 'prayer' See Ubykh phonology
Urdu Standard[5] ['h?m] 'we' See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Vietnamese[21] hi?u [hjew] 'understand' See Vietnamese phonology
Welsh haul ['ha?l] 'sun' See Welsh orthography
West Frisian hoeke ['huk?] 'corner'
Yi ? / hxa [ha?] 'hundred'

See also

Notes

References

  • Arvaniti, Amalia (1999), "Cypriot Greek" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 29 (2): 173-178, doi:10.1017/S002510030000654X
  • Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004), "Brazilian Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (2): 227-232, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001756
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67-74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278
  • Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 87-500-3865-6
  • Hall, Robert A. Jr. (1944). "Italian phonemes and orthography". Italica. American Association of Teachers of Italian. 21 (2): 72-82. doi:10.2307/475860. JSTOR 475860.
  • Heijmans, Linda; Gussenhoven, Carlos (1998), "The Dutch dialect of Weert" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 28: 107-112, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006307
  • Hualde, José Ignacio; Ortiz de Urbina, Jon, eds. (2003), A grammar of Basque, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, ISBN 3-11-017683-1
  • Kohler, Klaus (1999), "German", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, pp. 86-89, ISBN 0-521-63751-1
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lon?ari?, Mijo; Horga, Damir; ?kari?, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66-69, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
  • Laufer, Asher (1991), "Phonetic Representation: Glottal Fricatives", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 21 (2): 91-93, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004448
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255-259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373
  • Peters, Jörg (2006), "The dialect of Hasselt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (1): 117-124, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002428
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2): 255-264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659
  • Smyth, Herbert Weir (1920). A Greek Grammar for Colleges. American Book Company. Retrieved 2014 – via CCEL.
  • Thelwall, Robin (1990), "Illustrations of the IPA: Arabic", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 20 (2): 37-41, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004266
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language, 35 (3): 454-476, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232
  • Wright, Joseph; Wright, Elizabeth Mary (1925). Old English Grammar (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press.

External links


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