Voiceless Epiglottal Trill
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Voiceless Epiglottal Trill
Voiceless pharyngeal trill
(voiceless epiglottal fricative)
?
IPA Number172
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʜ
Unicode (hex)U+029C
X-SAMPAH\
Braille? (braille pattern dots-35)? (braille pattern dots-125)
Audio sample

The voiceless epiglottal or pharyngeal trill, or voiceless epiglottal fricative,[1] is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨?⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is H\.

The glyph is homoglyphic with the lowercase Cyrillic letter En (?).

Features

Features of the voiceless epiglottal trill/fricative:

  • Its manner of articulation is trill, which means it is produced by directing air over an articulator so that it vibrates.
  • Its place of articulation is epiglottal, which means it is articulated with the aryepiglottic folds against the epiglottis.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Agul[2] [m] 'whey'
Arabic[3] Iraqi[4] [?aj] 'alive' Corresponds to /?/ (?) in Standard Arabic. See Arabic phonology
Chechen [] 'you'
Dahalo [?a:?o] 'arrow'
Haida x?ants [nts] 'shadow'

See also

Notes

  1. ^ John Esling (2010) "Phonetic Notation", in Hardcastle, Laver & Gibbon (eds) The Handbook of Phonetic Sciences, 2nd ed., p 695.
  2. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:167-168)
  3. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:167-168)
  4. ^ Zeki Hassan, John Esling, Scott Moisik, & lise Crevier-Buchman (2011) "Aryepiglottic trilled variants of /?, ?/ in Iraqi Arabic". Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (pp. 831–834), Hong Kong.

References

  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996), The sounds of the World's Languages, Oxford: Blackwell, ISBN 0-631-19815-6

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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