Voiceless Bilabial Fricative
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Voiceless Bilabial Fricative
Voiceless bilabial fricative
?
IPA Number126
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɸ
Unicode (hex)U+0278
X-SAMPAp\
Braille? (braille pattern dots-46)? (braille pattern dots-124)
Audio sample

The voiceless bilabial fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨?⟩.

Features

Features of the voiceless bilabial fricative:

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is bilabial, which means it is articulated with both lips.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the central-lateral dichotomy does not apply.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Ainu[] [?u?t?i] 'grandmother'
Angor[] fi [?i] 'body'
Bengali Eastern dialects ?? [l] 'fruit' Allophone of in Bangladesh and Tripura, /p?/ used in Western dialects.
Ewe[1] é?á [é?á] 'he polished' Contrasts with /f/
Italian Tuscan[2] i capitani [i?hä?i'?ä:ni] 'the captains' Intervocalic allophone of .[2] See Italian phonology and Tuscan gorgia.
Itelmen ?? [t?u?t?u?] 'rain'
Japanese[3] / fuhai [hai] 'decay' Allophone of before /?/. See Japanese phonology
Kaingang fy [] 'seed'
Korean / hudugae [udug?] 'epiglottis' Allophone of before /u/. See Korean phonology
Kwama[] [kò:] 'basket'
Mao[] ['?] 'empty'
M?ori whakapapa [?akapapa] 'genealogy'
Odoodee[] pagai [?i] 'coconut'
Spanish Some dialects [4][5] fuera ['?wea?] 'outside' Non-standard variant of /f/. See Spanish phonology
Standard European[6] pub ['pa] 'pub' An approximant; allophone of /b/ before a pause.[6]
North-Central Peninsular[7] abdicar [aði'ka] 'abdicate' Allophone of /b/ in the coda. In this dialect, the unvoiced coda obstruents - /p, t, k/ - are realized as fricatives only if they precede a voiced consonant; otherwise, they emerge as stops.
Southern Peninsular[8] los vuestros [l '?:wt:] 'yours' It varies with [?:] in some accents. Allophone of /b/ after /s/.
Shompen[9] [ko?eoi] 'bench'
Sylheti ? [?ua] 'boy'
Tahitian ʻ?f? [?o:?i:] 'snake' Allophone of /f/
Turkish Some speakers[10] ufuk [u'?uk] 'horizon' Allophone of /f/ before rounded vowels and, to a lesser extent, word-finally after rounded vowels.[10] See Turkish phonology
Turkmen fabrik [?abrik] 'factory'

See also

References

  1. ^ Ladefoged (2005:156)
  2. ^ a b Hall (1944:75)
  3. ^ Okada (1999:118)
  4. ^ Boyd-Bowman (1953:229)
  5. ^ Cotton & Sharp (1988:15)
  6. ^ a b Wetzels & Mascaró (2001), p. 224.
  7. ^ "Microsoft Word - codaobs-roa.do" (PDF). Retrieved .
  8. ^ Pérez, Aguilar & Jiménez (1998:225-228)
  9. ^ "The language of the Shom Pen: a language isolate in the Nicobar Islands" (PDF). Mother Tongue XII: 179-202.
  10. ^ a b Göksel & Kerslake (2005:6)

Sources

External links


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