Voiceless Alveolo-palatal Fricative
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Voiceless Alveolo-palatal Fricative
Voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative
?
IPA Number182
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɕ
Unicode (hex)U+0255
X-SAMPAs\
Braille? (braille pattern dots-236)? (braille pattern dots-14)
Audio sample

The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some oral languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨?⟩ ("c", plus the curl also found in its voiced counterpart ⟨?⟩). It is the sibilant equivalent of the voiceless palatal fricative, and as such it can be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ç?⟩.

In British Received Pronunciation, /j/ after syllable-initial /p, t, k/ (as in Tuesday) is realized as a devoiced palatal fricative. The amount of devoicing is variable, but the fully voiceless variant tends to be alveolo-palatal [?] in the /tj/ sequence: . It is a fricative, rather than a fricative element of an affricate because the preceding plosive remains alveolar, rather than becoming alveolo-palatal, as in Dutch.[1]

The corresponding affricate can be written with ⟨t?⟩ or ⟨c⟩ in narrow IPA, though ⟨t?⟩ is normally used in both cases. In the case of English, the sequence can be specified as ⟨t⟩ as /t/ is normally apical (although somewhat palatalized in that sequence), whereas alveolo-palatal consonants are laminal by definition.[2][3]

An increasing number of British speakers merge this sequence with the voiceless palato-alveolar affricate /t?/: ['t?u:zde?] (see yod-coalescence), mirroring Cockney, Australian English and New Zealand English. On the other hand, there is an opposite tendency in Canadian accents that have preserved /tj/, where the sequence tends to merge with the plain /t/ instead: (see yod-dropping), mirroring General American which does not allow /j/ to follow alveolar consonants in stressed syllables.[4][5][6]

Features

alveolo-palatal sibilant fricatives [?, ?]

Features of the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative:

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe ?? 'three'
Assamese ? [b?iti?] 'British'
Catalan Eastern[7] caixa ['kä] 'box' See Catalan phonology
Majorcan[7] ['ka]
Chinese Some Hokkien dialects ? sim [?ím] 'heart' Allophone of /s/ before /i/.
Mandarin / X?'?n 'Xi'an' Contrasts with /?/ and /s/. See Mandarin phonology
Chuvash ç?ç ['?im] 'lightning' Contrasts with /?/ and /s/.
Danish sjæl ['?e:?l] 'soul' See Danish phonology
Dutch Some speakers sjabloon [?ä'blo:n] 'template' May be [?] or [s?] instead. See Dutch phonology
English Cardiff English[8] human ['?um:?n] 'human' Phonetic realization of /hj/. More front and more strongly fricated than RP . Broad varieties drop the /h/: ['jum:?n].[8] See English phonology
Conservative Received Pronunciation[1] tuesday ['tu:zde?] 'tuesday' Allophone of /j/ after syllable-initial /t/ (which is alveolar in this sequence), may be only partially devoiced. /tj/ is often realized as an affricate in British English. Mute in General American: .[4][5][6] Typically transcribed with ⟨j⟩ in broad IPA. See English phonology, yod-coalescence and yod-dropping
Some Canadian English[1][6]
Ghanaian[9] ship [?ip] 'ship' Educated speakers may use , to which this phone corresponds in other dialects.[9]
Guarani Paraguayan che [] 'I'
Japanese[10] ? / shio [?i.o] 'salt' See Japanese phonology
Kabardian ?? 'hundred'
Korean ? / si [?i] 'poem' See Korean phonology
Lower Sorbian[11] p?ija?el ['p?ijäl] 'friend'
Luxembourgish[12] liicht [li:?t] 'light' Allophone of /?/ after phonologically front vowels; some speakers merge it with .[12] See Luxembourgish phonology
Norwegian Urban East[13] kjekk [?e?k:] 'handsome' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ç⟩; less often realized as palatal . Younger speakers in Bergen, Stavanger and Oslo merge it with .[13] See Norwegian phonology
Pashto Wazirwola dialect ? ['lki] 'little, slight'
Polish[14] ?ruba 'screw' Contrasts with /?/ and /s/. See Polish phonology
Portuguese[15][16][17] mexendo [me'd?u] 'moving' Also described as palato-alveolar .[18][19] See Portuguese phonology
Romanian Transylvanian dialects[20] ce [] 'what' Realized as in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian 'happiness' Also represented by ⟨?⟩. Contrasts with /?/, /s/, and /s?/. See Russian phonology
Sema[21] ashi [àì] 'meat' Possible allophone of /?/ before /i, e/.[21]
Serbo-Croatian Croatian[22] mi? ?e [mî? te?] 'the mouse will' Allophone of /?/ before /t, d/.[22] See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Some speakers of Montenegrin ? / ?utra [?ût?ra?] 'tomorrow' Phonemically /sj/ or, in some cases, /s/.
Swedish Finland sjok [?u:k] 'chunk' Allophone of .
Sweden kjol 'skirt' See Swedish phonology
Tibetan Lhasa dialect ? [?i] 'four' Contrasts with /?/.
Tatar ??? [?ø?po?'m?q] 'triangle'
Uzbek[23] [example needed]
Xumi Lower[24] [RPdi ][clarification needed] 'one hundred'
Upper[25] [RPdi ][clarification needed]
Yámana ?ú?a [?ú?a] 'penguin'
Yi ?/xi [?i?] 'thread'
Zhuang cib [p] 'ten'

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Collins & Mees (2003:172-173), Gimson (2014:229-231). The first source specifies the place of articulation of /j/ after /t/ as more front than the main allophone of /j/.
  2. ^ Gimson (2014), p. 177.
  3. ^ Esling (2010), p. 693.
  4. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), pp. 173, 306.
  5. ^ a b Gimson (2014), pp. 230-231.
  6. ^ a b c Changes in Progress in Canadian English: Yod-dropping, Excerpts from J.K. Chambers, "Social embedding of changes in progress." Journal of English Linguistics 26 (1998), accessed May 11, 2020.
  7. ^ a b Recasens & Espinosa (2007:145, 167)
  8. ^ a b Collins & Mees (1990), p. 90.
  9. ^ a b Huber (2004:859)
  10. ^ Okada (1999:117)
  11. ^ Zygis (2003), pp. 180-181.
  12. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), pp. 67-68.
  13. ^ a b Kristoffersen (2000), p. 23.
  14. ^ Jassem (2003:103)
  15. ^ Mateus & d'Andrade (2000)
  16. ^ Silva (2003:32)
  17. ^ Guimarães (2004)
  18. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)
  19. ^ Medina (2010)
  20. ^ Pop (1938), p. 29.
  21. ^ a b Teo (2012:368)
  22. ^ a b Landau et al. (1999:68)
  23. ^ Sjoberg (1963:11)
  24. ^ Chirkova & Chen (2013), p. 365.
  25. ^ Chirkova, Chen & Kocjan?i? Antolík (2013), p. 382.

References

  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya (2013), "Xumi, Part 1: Lower Xumi, the Variety of the Lower and Middle Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 363-379, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000157[permanent dead link]
  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya; Kocjan?i? Antolík, Tanja (2013), "Xumi, Part 2: Upper Xumi, the Variety of the Upper Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 381-396, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000169[permanent dead link]
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (1990), "The Phonetics of Cardiff English", in Coupland, Nikolas; Thomas, Alan Richard (eds.), English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change, Multilingual Matters Ltd., pp. 87-103, ISBN 1-85359-032-0
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003) [First published 1981], The Phonetics of English and Dutch (5th ed.), Leiden: Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004103406
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 90-94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223
  • Esling, John (2010), "Phonetic Notation", in Hardcastle, William J.; Laver, John; Gibbon, Fiona E. (eds.), The Handbook of Phonetic Sciences (2nd ed.), ISBN 9781405145909
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67-74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278
  • Gimson, Alfred Charles (2014), Cruttenden, Alan (ed.), Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge, ISBN 9781444183092
  • Guimarães, Daniela (2004), Seqüências de (Sibilante + Africada Alveopalatal) no Português Falado em Belo Horizonte (PDF), Belo Horizonte: Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-04-07, retrieved
  • Huber, Magnus (2004), "Ghanaian English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 842-865, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103-107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
  • Kristoffersen, Gjert (2000), The Phonology of Norwegian, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-823765-5
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lon?ari?, Mijo; Horga, Damir; ?kari?, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66-69, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
  • Mateus, Maria Helena; d'Andrade, Ernesto (2000), The Phonology of Portuguese, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-823581-X
  • Medina, Flávio (2010), Análise Acústica de Sequências de Fricativas Seguidas de [i] Produzidas por Japoneses Aprendizes de Português Brasileiro (PDF), Anais do IX Encontro do CELSUL Palhoça, SC, Palhoça: Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina, archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-23, retrieved
  • Okada, Hideo (1999), "Japanese", in International Phonetic Association (ed.), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, pp. 117-119, ISBN 978-0-52163751-0
  • Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj
  • Recasens, Daniel; Espinosa, Aina (2007), "An electropalatographic and acoustic study of affricates and fricatives in two Catalan dialects" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (2): 143-172, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002829
  • Silva, Thaïs Cristófaro (2003), Fonética e Fonologia do Português: Roteiro de Estudos e Guia de Exercícios (7th ed.), São Paulo: Contexto, ISBN 85-7244-102-6
  • Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963), Uzbek Structural Grammar, Uralic and Altaic Series, 18, Bloomington: Indiana University
  • Teo, Amos B. (2012), "Sumi (Sema)", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 42 (03): 365-373, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000254
  • Zygis, Marzena (2003), "Phonetic and Phonological Aspects of Slavic Sibilant Fricatives" (PDF), ZAS Papers in Linguistics, 3: 175-213

External links


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