|Voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative|
The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some oral languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨?⟩ ("c", plus the curl also found in its voiced counterpart ⟨?⟩). It is the sibilant equivalent of the voiceless palatal fricative, and as such it can be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ç?⟩.
In British Received Pronunciation, /j/ after syllable-initial /p, t, k/ (as in Tuesday) is realized as a devoiced palatal fricative. The amount of devoicing is variable, but the fully voiceless variant tends to be alveolo-palatal [?] in the /tj/ sequence: . It is a fricative, rather than a fricative element of an affricate because the preceding plosive remains alveolar, rather than becoming alveolo-palatal, as in Dutch.
The corresponding affricate can be written with ⟨t?⟩ or ⟨c⟩ in narrow IPA, though ⟨t?⟩ is normally used in both cases. In the case of English, the sequence can be specified as ⟨t⟩ as /t/ is normally apical (although somewhat palatalized in that sequence), whereas alveolo-palatal consonants are laminal by definition.
An increasing number of British speakers merge this sequence with the voiceless palato-alveolar affricate /t?/: ['t?u:zde?] (see yod-coalescence), mirroring Cockney, Australian English and New Zealand English. On the other hand, there is an opposite tendency in Canadian accents that have preserved /tj/, where the sequence tends to merge with the plain /t/ instead: (see yod-dropping), mirroring General American which does not allow /j/ to follow alveolar consonants in stressed syllables.
Features of the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative:
|Catalan||Eastern||caixa||['kä]||'box'||See Catalan phonology|
|Chinese||Some Hokkien dialects||? sim||[?ím]||'heart'||Allophone of /s/ before /i/.|
|Mandarin||/ X?'?n||'Xi'an'||Contrasts with /?/ and /s/. See Mandarin phonology|
|Chuvash||ç?ç||['?im]||'lightning'||Contrasts with /?/ and /s/.|
|Danish||sjæl||['?e:?l]||'soul'||See Danish phonology|
|Dutch||Some speakers||sjabloon||[?ä'blo:n]||'template'||May be [?] or [s?] instead. See Dutch phonology|
|English||Cardiff English||human||['?um:?n]||'human'||Phonetic realization of /hj/. More front and more strongly fricated than RP . Broad varieties drop the /h/: ['jum:?n]. See English phonology|
|Conservative Received Pronunciation||tuesday||['tu:zde?]||'tuesday'||Allophone of /j/ after syllable-initial /t/ (which is alveolar in this sequence), may be only partially devoiced. /tj/ is often realized as an affricate in British English. Mute in General American: . Typically transcribed with ⟨j⟩ in broad IPA. See English phonology, yod-coalescence and yod-dropping|
|Some Canadian English|
|Ghanaian||ship||[?ip]||'ship'||Educated speakers may use , to which this phone corresponds in other dialects.|
|Japanese||? / shio||[?i.o]||'salt'||See Japanese phonology|
|Korean||? / si||[?i]||'poem'||See Korean phonology|
|Luxembourgish||liicht||[li:?t]||'light'||Allophone of /?/ after phonologically front vowels; some speakers merge it with . See Luxembourgish phonology|
|Norwegian||Urban East||kjekk||[?e?k:]||'handsome'||Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ç⟩; less often realized as palatal . Younger speakers in Bergen, Stavanger and Oslo merge it with . See Norwegian phonology|
|Pashto||Wazirwola dialect||?||['lki]||'little, slight'|
|Polish||?ruba||'screw'||Contrasts with /?/ and /s/. See Polish phonology|
|Portuguese||mexendo||[me'd?u]||'moving'||Also described as palato-alveolar . See Portuguese phonology|
|Romanian||Transylvanian dialects||ce||||'what'||Realized as in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology|
|Russian||'happiness'||Also represented by ⟨?⟩. Contrasts with /?/, /s/, and /s?/. See Russian phonology|
|Sema||ashi||[àì]||'meat'||Possible allophone of /?/ before /i, e/.|
|Serbo-Croatian||Croatian||mi? ?e||[mî? te?]||'the mouse will'||Allophone of /?/ before /t, d/. See Serbo-Croatian phonology|
|Some speakers of Montenegrin||? / ?utra||[?ût?ra?]||'tomorrow'||Phonemically /sj/ or, in some cases, /s/.|
|Swedish||Finland||sjok||[?u:k]||'chunk'||Allophone of .|
|Sweden||kjol||'skirt'||See Swedish phonology|
|Tibetan||Lhasa dialect||?||[?i]||'four'||Contrasts with /?/.|
|Xumi||Lower||[RPdi ][clarification needed]||'one hundred'|
|Upper||[RPdi ][clarification needed]|