Voiceless Alveolo-palatal Affricate
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Voiceless Alveolo-palatal Affricate
Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate
t?
c?
IPA Number215
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʨ
Unicode (hex)U+02A8
X-SAMPAt_s\
Audio sample

The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are ⟨t⟩, ⟨t⟩, ⟨c⟩ and ⟨c⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are t_s\ and c_s\, though transcribing the stop component with ⟨c⟩ (c in X-SAMPA) is rare. The tie bar may be omitted, yielding ⟨t?⟩ or ⟨c?⟩ in the IPA and ts\ or cs\ in X-SAMPA.

Neither [t] nor [c] are a completely narrow transcription of the stop component, which can be narrowly transcribed as [t] (retracted and palatalized ) or [c?] (advanced ). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are t_-' or t_-_j and c_+, respectively. There is also a dedicated symbol ⟨?⟩, which is not a part of the IPA. Therefore, narrow transcriptions of the voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate include [t], [c] and [].

This affricate used to have a dedicated symbol ⟨?⟩, which was one of the six dedicated symbols for affricates in the International Phonetic Alphabet. It occurs in languages such as Mandarin Chinese, Polish, Serbo-Croatian, Albanian and Russian, and is the sibilant equivalent of voiceless palatal affricate.

Features

Features of the voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate:

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Catalan[1] All dialects fletxa ['f?et] 'arrow' See Catalan phonology
Valencian xec ['tek] 'cheque'
Chinese Cantonese ? / jy? 'pig' Contrasts with aspirated form. Allophone of /t?s/, usually in front of the front high vowels /i:/, /?/, /y:/. See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin / B?ij?ng 'Beijing' Contrasts with aspirated form. Pronounced by some speakers as a palatalized dental. In complementary distribution with [t?s], [k], and [] series. See Standard Chinese phonology
Danish[2] tjener ['te?:n?] 'servant' Normal realization of the sequence /tj/.[2] See Danish phonology
Irish Some dialects[3][4][5] [example needed] Realization of the palatalized alveolar stop /t?/ in dialects such as Erris, Teelin and Tourmakeady.[3][4][5] See Irish phonology
Japanese / chijin [tid?] 'acquaintance' See Japanese phonology
Korean / jebi [tebi] 'swallow' See Korean phonology
Polish[6] ?ma 'moth' See Polish phonology
Romanian Banat dialect[7] frate ['frate] 'brother' One of the most distinct phonological features of the Banat dialect: allophone of /t/ before front vowels. Corresponds to in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian ? [tt?] 'barely' See Russian phonology
Sema[8] akichi [à?kìtì] 'mouth' Possible allophone of /t/ before /i, e/; can be realized as instead.[8]
Serbo-Croatian[9] ?? / le?a [l?tä] 'lentils' Merges into /t/ in dialects that don't distinguish // from /t/.
Sorbian Lower[10] ??it [?tit?] 'protection'
Swedish Finland kjol [tu:l] 'skirt' See Swedish phonology
Thai[11] ? [ta:n] 'dish' Contrasts with aspirated form.
Uzbek[12] [example needed]
Vietnamese cha [ta] 'father' See Vietnamese phonology
Xumi Lower[13] [Ht][clarification needed] 'star'
Upper[14] [Ht][clarification needed]
Yi ? / ji [ti?] 'sour' Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms

See also

Notes

References

  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya (2013), "Xumi, Part 1: Lower Xumi, the Variety of the Lower and Middle Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 363-379, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000157[permanent dead link]
  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya; Kocjan?i? Antolík, Tanja (2013), "Xumi, Part 2: Upper Xumi, the Variety of the Upper Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 381-396, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000169[permanent dead link]
  • de Búrca, Seán (1958), The Irish of Tourmakeady, Co. Mayo, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, ISBN 0-901282-49-9
  • Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 87-500-3865-6
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103-107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
  • Mhac an Fhailigh, Éamonn (1968), The Irish of Erris, Co. Mayo, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, ISBN 0-901282-02-2
  • Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj
  • Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963), Uzbek Structural Grammar, Uralic and Altaic Series, 18, Bloomington: Indiana University
  • Teo, Amos B. (2014), A phonological and phonetic description of Sumi, a Tibeto-Burman language of Nagaland (PDF), Canberra: Asia-Pacific Linguistics, ISBN 978-1-922185-10-5
  • Tingsabadh, M.R. Kalaya; Abramson, Arthur S. (1993), "Thai", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 23 (1): 24-26, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004746
  • Wagner, Heinrich (1959), Gaeilge Theilinn (in Irish), Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, ISBN 1-85500-055-5
  • Wheeler, Max W. (2005), The Phonology of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-925814-7
  • Zygis, Marzena (2003), "Phonetic and Phonological Aspects of Slavic Sibilant Fricatives" (PDF), ZAS Papers in Linguistics, 3: 175-213
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lon?ari?a, Mijo; Horga, Damir; ?kari?, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66-69, ISBN 978-0-521-65236-0

External links


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