Voiceless Alveolar Trill
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Voiceless Alveolar Trill
Voiceless alveolar trill
r?
IPA Number122 402A
Encoding
X-SAMPAr_0
Audio sample

A voiceless alveolar trill differs from the voiced alveolar trill /r/ only by the vibrations of the vocal cord. It occurs in a few languages, usually alongside the voiced version, as a similar phoneme or an allophone.

Proto-Indo-European *sr developed into a sound spelled ⟨?⟩, with the letter for /r/ and the diacritic for /h/, in Ancient Greek. It was probably a voiceless alveolar trill and became the regular word-initial allophone of /r/ in standard Attic Greek that has disappeared in Modern Greek.

  • PIE *srew- > Ancient Greek "flow", possibly [r?é.?:]

Features

Features of the voiceless alveolar trill:

  • Its manner of articulation is trill, which means it is produced by directing air over an articulator so that it vibrates.
  • Its place of articulation is dental, alveolar or post-alveolar, which means it is articulated behind upper front teeth, at the alveolar ridge or behind the alveolar ridge. It is most often apical, which means that it is pronounced with the tip of the tongue.[1]
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Alveolar
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Dharumbal[2] barhi ['bar?i] 'stone' Contrasts with /r/.
Estonian[3] [example needed] Word-final allophone of /r/ after /t, s, h/.[3] See Estonian phonology
Icelandic hrafn ['r?apn?] 'raven' Contrasts with /r/. For some speakers it may actually be a voiceless flap. Also illustrates [n?]. See Icelandic phonology
Lezgian[4] ??/kr?ar ['k?r?tar] 'horns' Allophone of /r/ between voiceless obstruents
Limburgish Hasselt dialect[5] geer [?e:r?] 'odour' Possible word-final allophone of /r/; may be uvular instead.[6]
Moksha /närhn'e ['nar?n?æ] 'these grasses' Contrasts with /r/? ['narn?æ] "short grass". It has the palatalized counterpart /r/? ['marn?æ] "these apples", but ['mar?n?æ] "little apple"
Nivkh Amur dialect ?/?y [r] 'door' Contrasts with /r/. In the Sakhalin dialect, typically fricated ⟨r⟩.
Northern Qiang [example needed] Contrasts with /r/
Polish krta? ['kr?tä] 'larynx' Allophone of /r/ when surrounded by voiceless consonants, or word finally after voiceless consonants. See Polish phonology
Ukrainian[7] ??/tsentr [tsn?t?r?] 'centre' Word-final allophone of /r/ after .[7] See Ukrainian phonology
Welsh Rhagfyr ['r?a?v?r] 'December' Contrasts with /r/. See Welsh phonology
Zapotec Quiegolani[8] rsil [r?sil] 'early' Allophone of /r/.[8]

Voiceless alveolar fricative trill

Voiceless alveolar fricative trill
r
IPA Number122 402A 429
Encoding
X-SAMPAr_0_r

The voiceless alveolar fricative trill is not known to occur as a phoneme in any language, except possibly the East Sakhalin dialect of Nivkh. It occurs allophonically in Czech.

Features

Features of the voiceless alveolar fricative trill:

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative trill, which means it is a non-sibilant fricative and a trill pronounced simultaneously.
  • Its place of articulation is laminal alveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge,
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Czech[9][10] t?i sta ['t?rs?t?ä] 'three hundred' Allophone of /r?/ after voiceless consonants;[11][10] may be a tapped fricative instead.[10] See Czech phonology
Norwegian Areas around Narvik[12] norsk [n?rk] 'Norwegian' Allophone of the sequence /?s/ before voiceless consonants.[12]
Some subdialects of Trøndersk[12]
Nivkh (East) Sakhalin dialect ? [r] 'door' Contrasts with /r/. In the Amur dialect, typically realized as ⟨r?⟩.
Polish Some dialects przyj ['prj?t] 'to come' Allophone of /r?/ after voiceless consonants for speakers that don't merge it with /?/. Present in areas from Starogard Gda?ski to Malbork and those south, west and northwest of them, area from Lubawa to Olsztyn to Olecko to Dzia?dowo, south and east from Wiele?, around Wo?omin, southeast from Ostrów Mazowiecka and west from Siedlce, from Brzeg to Opole and those north of them, and roughly from Racibórz to Nowy Targ. Most speakers, including speakers of standard Polish, pronounce it the same as /?/, and speakers maintaining the distinction (which is mostly the elderly) sporadically do so too.
Silesian Gmina Istebna [example needed] Allophone of /r?/ after voiceless consonants. It's pronounced the same as /?/ in most Polish dialects
Jablunkov [example needed]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:228)
  2. ^ Terrill (2002), p. 4.
  3. ^ a b Asu & Teras (2009), p. 368.
  4. ^ Haspelmath (1993:35)
  5. ^ Peters (2006)
  6. ^ While Peters (2006) does not state that explicitly, he uses the symbol ⟨r?⟩ for many instances of the word-final /r/.
  7. ^ a b Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995:8)
  8. ^ a b Regnier (1993:11)
  9. ^ Dankovi?ová (1999:70-71)
  10. ^ a b c ?imá?ková, Podlipský & Chládková (2012:226)
  11. ^ Dankovi?ová (1999:70)
  12. ^ a b c Fabiánová (2011:34-35)

References

  • Asu, Eva Liina; Teras, Pire (2009), "Estonian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 39 (3): 367-372, doi:10.1017/s002510030999017x
  • Dankovi?ová, Jana (1999), "Czech", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 70-74, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
  • Danyenko, Andrii; Vakulenko, Serhii (1995), Ukrainian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 9783929075083
  • Fabiánová, Martina (2011), Srovnání ?eské a norské fonetiky (PDF)
  • Haspelmath, Martin (1993), A Grammar of Lezgian, Mouton Grammar Library, 9, Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter, ISBN 3-11-013735-6
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
  • Peters, Jörg (2006), "The dialect of Hasselt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (1): 117-124, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002428
  • Regnier, Sue (1993), "Quiegolani Zapotec Phonology", Work Papers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, University of Dakota, 37: 37-63
  • ?imá?ková, ?árka; Podlipský, Václav Joná?; Chládková, Kate?ina (2012), "Czech spoken in Bohemia and Moravia" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 42 (2): 225-232, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000102
  • Terrill, Angela (2002), Dharumbal: The Language of Rockhampton, Australia, Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, ISBN 0-85883-462-6

External links


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