Voiced Velar Fricative
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Voiced Velar Fricative
Voiced velar fricative
?
IPA Number141
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɣ
Unicode (hex)U+0263
X-SAMPAG
Braille? (braille pattern dots-46)? (braille pattern dots-1245)
Audio sample

The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in various spoken languages. It is not found in Modern English but it existed in Old English.[1] The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨?⟩, a Latinized variant of the Greek letter gamma, ⟨?⟩, which has this sound in Modern Greek. It should not be confused with the graphically similar ⟨?⟩, the IPA symbol for a close-mid back unrounded vowel, which some writings[2] use for the voiced velar fricative.

The symbol ⟨?⟩ is also sometimes used to represent the velar approximant, though that is more accurately written with the lowering diacritic: [] or []. The IPA also provides a dedicated symbol for a velar approximant, [?], though there can be stylistic reasons to not use it in phonetic transcription.

There is also a voiced post-velar fricative (also called pre-uvular) in some languages. For voiced pre-velar fricative (also called post-palatal), see voiced palatal fricative.

Features

Features of the voiced velar fricative:

Occurrence

Some of the consonants listed as post-velar may actually be trill fricatives.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abaza ?? [b] 'leaf'
Adyghe ?? 'tree'
Alekano gamó [m] 'cucumber'
Aleut agiitalix [a?i:talix] 'with'
Angor ranih? [ni] 'brother'
Angas ?ür [?yr] 'to pick up'
Arabic Modern Standard[3] ? [?æ'ri:b] 'stranger' May be velar, post-velar or uvular, depending on dialect.[4] See Arabic phonology
Aromanian ghini ['?i.ni] 'well' Allophone of /g/
Assyrian/Syriac Eastern ?‎ / pa?r? [pr?] 'body' Allophone of /x/ before voiced consonants, otherwise an uncommon pronunciation of /?/.
Western ?‎ / pa?r? [fr?] 'body'
Asturian gadañu [?a'd?ã] 'scythe' Allophone of /?/ in almost all positions
Azerbaijani a?ac [d] 'tree'
Basque[5] hego [he?o] 'wing' Allophone of /?/
Belarusian ? [?alava] 'head'
Catalan[6] figuera [fi'?e] 'fig tree' Allophone of /?/. See Catalan phonology
Chechen / ?ala [?a:la] 'town'
Chinese Xiang [?unia] 'Hunan (province)'
Czech bych byl [b b?l] 'I would be' Allophone of /x/ before voiced consonants. See Czech phonology
Dinka ?o [?o] 'us'
Dutch Standard Belgian[7][8] gaan [?a:n] 'to go' May be post-palatal instead.[8] See Dutch phonology
Southern accents[8]
Georgian[9] ? [ribi] 'poor' May actually be post-velar or uvular
German[10][11][failed verification] damalige ['da:ma:l] 'former' Intervocalic allophone of /g/ in casual Austrian speech.[10][11] See Standard German phonology
Ghari cheghe [t?e?e] 'five'
Greek ?/gála ['l?] 'milk' See Modern Greek phonology
Gujarati ?? [] 'tigress' See Gujarati phonology
Gweno [nde?e] 'bird'
Gwich'in videeghàn [vite:?ân] 'his/her chest'
Haitian Creole diri [di?i] 'rice'
Hän dëgëghor [t?kor] 'I am playing'
Hebrew Yemenite ? [mi?d?l] 'tower'
Hindi[12] [ri:b] 'poor' Post-velar.[12] See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Iranian Turkic [o?ul] 'son'
Icelandic saga ['sa:?a:] 'saga' See Icelandic phonology
Irish a dhorn [? ?o:n] 'his fist' See Irish phonology
Istro-Romanian[13] gur? ['?ur?] 'mouth' Corresponds to [in which environments?] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Iwaidja [mula?a] 'hermit crab'
Japanese[14] /hage [ha?e] 'baldness' Allophone of /?/, especially in fast or casual speech. See Japanese phonology
Kabardian ? 'powder'
Korean /naheul [nal] 'four days'
Lezgian [?el] 'sleigh'
Limburgish[15][16] gaw [] 'quick' The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Lithuanian humoras ['m?r?s?] 'humor' Preferred over [?]. See Lithuanian phonology
Low German[17] gaan [':n] 'to go' Increasingly replaced with High German [g]
Malay Standard Malay ghaib [?ai?b] 'unseen' Mostly in loanwords from Arabic. Indonesians tend to replace the sound with /g/.
Kelantan dialect ramai [?ama:] 'crowded (with people)' in Standard Malay is barely articulated in almost all of the Malay dialects in Malaysia. Usually it is uttered as guttural R at initial and medial position of a word. See Malay phonology
Terengganu dialect
Negeri Sembilan dialect [?amai?]
Pahang dialect [?am:]
Sarawak dialect [?am?:]
Macedonian Berovo accent ? ['du?na] 'it blew' Corresponds to etymological /x/ of other dialects, before sonorants. See Male?evo-Pirin dialect and Macedonian phonology
Bukovo accent ?? ['a(v)a] 'head' Allophone of /l/ instead of usual . See Prilep-Bitola dialect
Mandarin Dongping dialect ? [?än55] 'I'
Navajo 'aghá [?a?a] 'best'
Ngwe Mmockngie dialect [nø] 'sun'
Northern Qiang ? [?n] 'February'
Norwegian Urban East[18] å ha [? ':] 'to have' Possible allophone of /h/ between two back vowels; can be voiceless instead.[18] See Norwegian phonology
Occitan Gascon digoc [di'?uk] 'said' (3rd pers. sg.)
Pashto ? [t?r] 'mule'
Polish niech?e ['] 'let' (imperative particle) Allophone of /x/ before voiced consonants. See Polish phonology
Portuguese European[19][20] agora [?'?] 'now' Allophone of /?/. See Portuguese phonology
Some Brazilian dialects[21] rmore ['ma?mu?i] 'marble', 'sill' Allophone of rhotic consonant (voiced equivalent to [x], itself allophone of /?/) between voiced sounds, most often as coda before voiced consonants.
Punjabi [i:b] 'poor'
Ripuarian Colognian[] noch ein[en] ['n?n] 'another one' Allophone of word-final /x/; occurs only immediately before a word that starts with a vowel.[] See Colognian phonology
Kerkrade dialect[22] vroage ['v?o?] 'to ask' Occurs only after back vowels.[22]
Romani ?oines [?oines] 'good'
Russian Southern ??? [d?'ro] 'road' Corresponds to /?/ in standard
Standard ??? [?'?u] 'uh-huh' Usually nasal, /g/ is used when spoken. See Russian phonology
Sardinian Nuorese dialect ghere ['sur?] 'to suck' Allophone of /?/
Scottish Gaelic laghail [?al] 'lawful' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbo-Croatian[23] ovih bi [i? bi] 'of these would' Allophone of /x/ before voiced consonants.[23] See Serbo-Croatian phonology
S'gaw Karen [?ei] 'good'
Sindhi [m?] 'sadness'
Spanish amigo [a?'mi?o?] 'friend' Ranges from close fricative to approximant.[24] Allophone of /?/, see Spanish phonology
Swahili ghali [?ali] 'expensive'
Swedish Westrobothnian meg [m?:?] 'me' Allophone of /?/. Occurs between vowels and in word-final positions.[25] Here also /?/ in Kalix.
Tadaksahak zog [zo?] 'war'
Tajik ? [?afs] 'thick'
Tamazight a?ilas (aghilas) [a?ilas] 'leopard'
Turkish Non-standard a?a [a?a] 'agha' Deleted in most dialects. See Turkish phonology
Tutchone Northern ihghú [ih] 'tooth'
Southern ghra [?ra] 'baby'
Ukrainian Allophone of /x/. See Ukrainian phonology
Urdu ? [ri:b] 'poor' See Hindustani phonology
Uzbek[26] ? / yomg?ir [m'] 'rain' Post-velar.[26]
Vietnamese[27] gh? [?e] 'chair' See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisian drage ['dra:] 'to carry' Never occurs in word-initial positions.
Yi ?/we [] 'win'
Central Alaskan Yup'ik auga ['au:?a] 'his/her/its blood' Never occurs in word-initial positions.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Baker, Peter Stuar (2012). Introduction to Old English (3rd ed.). p. 15. ISBN 9781444354195. OCLC 778433078 – via Internet Archive. Between voiced sounds dotless g is pronounced [?], a voiced velar spirant. This sound became [w] in Middle English, so English no longer has it.
  2. ^ Such as Booij (1999) and Nowikow (2012).
  3. ^ Watson (2002), pp. 17 and 19-20.
  4. ^ Watson (2002), pp. 17, 19-20, 35-36 and 38.
  5. ^ Hualde (1991), pp. 99-100.
  6. ^ Wheeler (2005), p. 10.
  7. ^ Verhoeven (2005:243)
  8. ^ a b c Collins & Mees (2003:191)
  9. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), p. 255.
  10. ^ a b Krech et al. (2009:108)
  11. ^ a b Sylvia Moosmüller (2007). "Vowels in Standard Austrian German: An Acoustic-Phonetic and Phonological Analysis" (PDF). p. 6. Retrieved 2013.[failed verification]
  12. ^ a b Kachru (2006), p. 20.
  13. ^ Pop (1938), p. 30.
  14. ^ Okada (1999), p. 118.
  15. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:159)
  16. ^ Peters (2006:119)
  17. ^ R.E. Keller, German Dialects. Phonology and Morphology, Manchester 1960
  18. ^ a b Vanvik (1979), p. 40.
  19. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 92.
  20. ^ Mateus & d'Andrade (2000), p. 11.
  21. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004), p. 228.
  22. ^ a b Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (1997:17)
  23. ^ a b Landau et al. (1999:67)
  24. ^ Phonetic studies such as Quilis (1981) have found that Spanish voiced stops may surface as spirants with various degrees of constriction. These allophones are not limited to regular fricative articulations, but range from articulations that involve a near complete oral closure to articulations involving a degree of aperture quite close to vocalization
  25. ^ http://runeberg.org/nfaq/0347.html
  26. ^ a b Sjoberg (1963), p. 13.
  27. ^ Thompson (1959), pp. 458-461.

References

  • Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004), "Brazilian Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (2): 227-232, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001756
  • Booij, Geert (1999), The phonology of Dutch, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-823869-X
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003) [First published 1981], The Phonetics of English and Dutch (PDF) (5th ed.), Leiden: Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004103406
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 90-94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos; Aarts, Flor (1999), "The dialect of Maastricht" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, University of Nijmegen, Centre for Language Studies, 29: 155-166, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006526
  • Hualde, José Ignacio (1991), Basque phonology, New York: Routledge
  • Kachru, Yamuna (2006), Hindi, John Benjamins Publishing, ISBN 90-272-3812-X
  • Krech, Eva Maria; Stock, Eberhard; Hirschfeld, Ursula; Anders, Lutz-Christian (2009), Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch, Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-018202-6
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lon?ari?, Mijo; Horga, Damir; ?kari?, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66-69, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
  • Mateus, Maria Helena; d'Andrade, Ernesto (2000), The Phonology of Portuguese, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-823581-X
  • Nowikow, Wieczys?aw (2012) [First published 1992], Fonetyka hiszpa?ska (3rd ed.), Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, ISBN 978-83-01-16856-8
  • Okada, Hideo (1999), "Japanese", in International Phonetic Association (ed.), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, pp. 117-119, ISBN 978-0-52163751-0
  • Peters, Jörg (2006), "The dialect of Hasselt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (1): 117-124, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002428
  • Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj
  • Quilis, Antonio (1981), Fonética acústica de la lengua española, Gredos
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2): 255-264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659
  • Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963), Uzbek Structural Grammar, Uralic and Altaic Series, 18, Bloomington: Indiana University
  • Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (1997) [1987], Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (2nd ed.), Kerkrade: Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer, ISBN 90-70246-34-1, archived from the original on 2015-09-19, retrieved
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language, 35 (3): 454-476, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2005), "Belgian Standard Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 35 (2): 243-247, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002173
  • Watson, Janet C. E. (2002), The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, New York: Oxford University Press
  • Wheeler, Max W (2005), The Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-925814-7

External links


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