|Voiced uvular fricative|
The voiced uvular fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨?⟩, an inverted small uppercase letter ⟨?⟩, or in broad transcription ⟨r⟩ if rhotic. This consonant is one of several collectively called guttural R when found in European languages.
The voiced uvular approximant is also found interchangeably with the fricative, and may also be transcribed as ⟨?⟩. Because the IPA symbol stands for the uvular fricative, the approximant may be specified by adding the downtack: ⟨⟩, though some writings use a superscript ⟨?⟩, which is not an official IPA practice.
For a voiced pre-uvular fricative (also called post-velar), see voiced velar fricative.
Features of the voiced uvular fricative:
In Western Europe, a uvular trill pronunciation of rhotic consonants spread from northern French to several dialects and registers of Basque,Catalan, Danish, Dutch, German, Judaeo-Spanish, Norwegian, Occitan, Portuguese, Swedish, and Yiddish. However, not all of them remain a uvular trill today.
In Brazilian Portuguese, it is usually a velar fricative (, ), voiceless uvular fricative [?], or glottal transition (, ), except in southern Brazil, where alveolar, velar and uvular trills as well as the voiced uvular fricative predominate. Because such uvular rhotics often do not contrast with alveolar ones, IPA transcriptions may often use ⟨r⟩ to represent them for ease of typesetting. For more information, see guttural R.
|Abkhaz||? cë?||[ts]||'marten'||See Abkhaz phonology|
|Afrikaans||Parts of the former Cape Province||rooi||[?o:i?]||'red'||May be a trill instead. See Afrikaans phonology|
|Aleut||Atkan dialect||cham?ul||[tm?ul]||'to wash'|
|Arabic||Modern Standard||? ?urfa||['rf?]||'room'||Mostly transcribed as /?/, may be velar, post-velar or uvular, depending on dialect. See Arabic phonology|
|Danish||Standard||rød||[oe?ð?]||'red'||Most often an approximant when initial. In other positions, it can be either a fricative (also described as voiceless ) or an approximant. Also described as pharyngeal . It can be a fricative trill in word-initial positions when emphasizing a word. See Danish phonology|
|Dutch||Belgian Limburg||rad||[t]||'wheel'||Either a fricative or an approximant. Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology|
|English||Dyfed||red||[d]||'red'||Not all speakers. Alveolar in other Welsh accents.|
|North-east Leinster||Corresponds to [? ~ ? ~ ?] in other dialects of English in Ireland.|
|Northumbrian||Described both as a fricative and an approximant. More rarely it is a trill . Mostly found in rural areas of Northumberland and northern County Durham, declining. See English phonology and Northumbrian Burr.|
|Sierra Leonean||More rarely a trill .|
|French||rester||[ste]||'to stay'||See French phonology|
|German||Standard||Rost||[st]||'rust'||Either a fricative or, more often, an approximant. In free variation with a uvular trill. See Standard German phonology|
|Swabian||[o?t]||An approximant. It is the realization of /?/ in onsets, otherwise it is an epiglottal approximant.|
|Hebrew||Biblical||?||[?o're?]||'raven'||See Biblical Hebrew phonology.|
|Modern||[o'ev]||See Modern Hebrew phonology.|
|Inuktitut||East Inuktitut dialect||marruuk||[muuk]||'two'|
|Italian||Some speakers||raro||['?ä:?o]||'rare'||Rendition alternative to the standard Italian alveolar trill , due to individual orthoepic defects and/or regional variations that make the alternative sound more prevalent, notably in Alto Adige (bordering with German-speaking Austria), Val d'Aosta (bordering with France) and in parts of the Parma province, more markedly around Fidenza. Other alternative sounds may be a uvular trill or a labiodental approximant . See Italian phonology.|
|Kazakh||?, sa?an||[s?'n]||'you' (dat. sing.)|
|Limburgish||Maastrichtian||drei||[di?]||'three'||Fricative trill; the fricative component varies between uvular and post-velar.|
|Luxembourgish||Some speakers||Rou||[?]||'silence'||Pre-vocalic allophone of /?/; more often realized as a trill . See Luxembourgish phonology|
|Standard||Kugel||['k?u:l]||'ball'||Appears only in a few words. See Luxembourgish phonology|
|Malay||Perak dialect||Perak||[pek?]||'Perak'||See Malay phonology|
|Norwegian||Southern dialects||rar||[:]||'strange'||Either an approximant or a fricative. See Norwegian phonology|
|Portuguese||European||carro||['ka?u]||'car'||Word-initial /?/ is commonly realized as a fricative trill in Lisbon. See Portuguese phonology|
|Setubalense||ruralizar||[?ui'za?]||'to ruralize'||Often trilled. Due to a merger, corresponds to both and /?/ in other dialects.|
|Fluminense||ardência||['d?sj?]||'burning feeling'||Due to 19th century Portuguese influence, Rio de Janeiro's dialect merged coda into /?/. Often trilled. In free variation with , and before voiced sounds, , , and before voiceless consonants|
|Spanish||Puerto Rican Spanish||carro||['ka?o] or ['ka?o]||'car'||Word-initial, and inter-vocallic double r ('rr') /?/ are commonly realized as a fricative trill in rural sectors and generally (but not exclusively) lower socioeconomic strata among Puerto Ricans. .|
|Swedish||Southern dialects||rör||||'pipe(s)'||See Swedish phonology|
|Ubykh||[?a]||'his'||Ubykh has ten different uvular fricatives. See Ubykh phonology|
|West Flemish||Bruges dialect||onder||['u?]||'under'||A fricative trill with little friction. An alveolar is used in the neighbouring rural area.|