Voiced Upper-pharyngeal Plosive
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Voiced Upper-pharyngeal Plosive
Voiced upper-pharyngeal plosive

The voiced upper-pharyngeal plosive or stop is a rare consonant.

Pharyngeal consonants are typically pronounced at two regions of the pharynx, upper and lower. The lower region is epiglottal, so the upper region is often abbreviated as merely 'pharyngeal'. Among widespread speech sounds in the world's languages, the upper pharynx produces a voiceless fricative and a voiced sound that ranges from fricative to (more commonly) approximant, . The epiglottal region produces the plosive as well as sounds that range from fricative to trill, and . Because the latter are most often trilled and rarely simply fricative, these consonants have been classified together as simply pharyngeal, and distinguished as plosive, fricative/approximant and trill.[1]

No language is known to have a phonemic upper pharyngeal plosive. The N?ng language (N?uu) is claimed to have an upper pharyngeal place of articulation among its stops. Click consonants in N?ng have a rear closure that is said to vary between uvular or upper pharyngeal, depending on the click type.[2] However, if the place were truly pharyngeal, they could not occur as nasal clicks, which they do.

Otherwise upper pharyngeal plosives are only known from disordered speech. The extIPA provides the letter ⟨...[scheduled for Unicode in 2021] (a turned small-capital ?) to transcribe such a voiced upper pharyngeal plosive.[3]


Features of the voiced upper-pharyngeal stop:


  1. ^ John Esling (2010) 'Phonetic Notation', in Hardcastle, Laver & Gibbon (eds) The Handbook of Phonetic Sciences, 2nd ed., p. 695.
  2. ^ Miller, Amanda L., Johanna Brugman, Bonny Sands, Levi Namaseb, Mats Exter, and Chris Collins. 2009a. 'Differences in airstream and posterior place of articulation among N?uu clicks.' Journal of the International Phonetic Association 39(2): 132.
  3. ^ Ball, Martin J.; Howard, Sara J.; Miller, Kirk (2018). "Revisions to the extIPA chart". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 48 (2): 155-164. doi:10.1017/S0025100317000147.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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