Voiced Retroflex Stop
Get Voiced Retroflex Stop essential facts below. View Videos or join the Voiced Retroflex Stop discussion. Add Voiced Retroflex Stop to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Voiced Retroflex Stop
Voiced retroflex stop
?
IPA Number106
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɖ
Unicode (hex)U+0256
X-SAMPAd`
Braille? (braille pattern dots-256)? (braille pattern dots-145)
Audio sample

The voiced retroflex stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨?⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is d`. Like all the retroflex consonants, the IPA symbol is formed by adding a rightward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of a d, the letter that is used for the corresponding alveolar consonant. Many South Asian languages, such as Hindi and Urdu, have a two-way contrast between plain and murmured (breathy voice) [?].

Features

Features of the voiced retroflex stop:

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Asturian Astierna dialect ingua [?iwä] 'tongue' Corresponds to /?/ in other dialects. See Che Vaqueira
Bengali[1] [?äkät?] 'robber' Apical postalveolar.[1] See Bengali phonology
English Indian dialects dine [?a?n] 'to eat' Corresponds to /d/ in other dialects. See English phonology
Gujarati[2] ? [] (name of a letter) Subapical.[2] See Gujarati phonology
Hindustani[3][4] / [?ä:lnä:] 'to put' Apical postalveolar.[4] See Hindustani phonology
Javanese /dhahar [?aha?] 'to eat'
Kannada ?? [su] 'to join'
Malayalam ? ['pä:är] 'Pandavas'
Marathi[2] ? [hä:?] 'bone' Subapical.[2] See Marathi phonology
Nihali [bi?um] 'one'
Norwegian varde [':?] 'beacon' See Norwegian phonology
Pashto [?ak] 'full'
Punjabi [:u] 'frog'
Sardinian cherveddu 'brain'
Sicilian cou [k:u] 'neck'
Somali dhul [?ul] 'earth, land, ground' See Somali phonology
Swedish nord [nu:?] 'north' See Swedish phonology
Tamil[2][5] ?? [?i] 'cart' Subapical;[2] allophone of /?/.[5] See Tamil phonology
Telugu ?? [ru] 'to arise'
Torwali[6] ? [?i?u] 'late afternoon' Realised as [?] between vowels.

See also

Notes

References

  • Keane, Elinor (2004), "Tamil", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 111-116, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001549
  • Khatiwada, Rajesh (2009), "Nepali", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 39 (3): 337-380, doi:10.1017/s0025100309990181
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996), The Sounds of the World's Languages, Oxford: Blackwell, ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4
  • Lunsford, Wayne A. (2001), "An overview of linguistic structures in Torwali, a language of Northern Pakistan" (PDF), M.A. thesis, University of Texas at Arlington
  • Masica, Colin P. (1991), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-29944-6
  • Mazumdar, Bijaychandra (2000) [First published 1920], The history of the Bengali language, New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, ISBN 8120614526
  • Tiwari, Bholanath (2004) [First published 1966], Hind? Bh?sh?, Kit?b Mahal: Kit?b Mahal, ISBN 81-225-0017-X

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Voiced_retroflex_stop
 



 



 
Music Scenes