|Voiced pharyngeal fricative|
|Voiced pharyngeal approximant|
The voiced pharyngeal approximant or fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is [?], and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is
?\. Epiglottals and epiglotto-pharyngeals are often mistakenly taken to be pharyngeal.
Although traditionally placed in the fricative row of the IPA chart, [?] is usually an approximant. The IPA symbol itself is ambiguous, but no language is known to make a phonemic distinction between fricatives and approximants at this place of articulation. The approximant is sometimes specified as  or as , because it is the semivocalic equivalent of [?].
Features of the voiced pharyngeal approximant fricative:
Pharyngeal consonants are not widespread. Sometimes, a pharyngeal approximant develops from a uvular approximant. Many languages that have been described as having pharyngeal fricatives or approximants turn out on closer inspection to have epiglottal consonants instead. For example, the candidate /?/ sound in Arabic and standard Hebrew (not modern Hebrew - Israelis generally pronounce this as a glottal stop) has been variously described as a voiced epiglottal fricative, an epiglottal approximant, or a pharyngealized glottal stop.
|Arabic||||[?u?ba:n]||'snake'||See Arabic phonology|
|Assyrian/Syriac||Eastern|| / tarè?||[tar:]||'door'||The majority of the speakers will pronounce the word as [t?r?:].|
|Western|| / arè?||[ar?o]||'Earth'|
|Azerbaijani||?el?||[?e?l?æ]||'do'||In the northern and southern dialects.|
|Chechen||? / jan||'winter'|
|Coptic||? / ai||['?ai]||'to multiply'|
|Danish||Standard||ravn||[?w?n]||'raven'||An approximant; also described as uvular . See Danish phonology|
|Dutch||Limburg||rad||[t]||'wheel'||An approximant; a possible realization of /r/. Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology|
|German||Some speakers||Mutter||['mut]||'mother'||An approximant; occurs in East Central Germany, Southwestern Germany, parts of Switzerland and in Tyrol. See Standard German phonology|
|Swabian dialect||ändard||['end?ad?]||'changes'||An approximant. It's an allophone of /?/ in nucleus and coda positions; pronounced as a uvular approximant in onsets.|
|Hebrew||Iraqi||??||[?ib'ri:?]||'Hebrew language'||See Modern Hebrew phonology|
|Kabyle||?emmi||[m:i]||'my (paternal) uncle'|
|Marshallese||enana||[nænæ]||'it is bad'|
|Occitan||Southern Auvergnat||pala||['pa?a]||'shovel'||See Occitan phonology|
|Somali||cunto||[?unt?]||'food'||See Somali phonology|