Voiced Labiodental Fricative
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Voiced Labiodental Fricative
Voiced labiodental fricative
v
IPA Number129
Encoding
Entity (decimal)v
Unicode (hex)U+0076
X-SAMPAv
Braille? (braille pattern dots-1236)
Audio sample

The voiced labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨v⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is v.

The sound is similar to voiced alveolar fricative /z/ in that it is familiar to most European speakers, but cross-linguistically it is a fairly uncommon sound, being only a quarter as frequent as [w]. Moreover, Most languages that have /z/ also have /v/ and similarly to /z/, the overwhelming majority of languages with [v] are languages of Europe, Africa, or Western Asia, although the similar labiodental approximant /?/ is also common in India. The presence of [v] and absence of [w], is a very distinctive areal feature of European languages and those of adjacent areas of Siberia and Central Asia.[] Speakers of East Asian languages that lack this sound may pronounce it as [b] (Korean and Japanese), or [f]/[w] (Cantonese and Mandarin), and thus be unable to distinguish between a number of English minimal pairs.[]

In certain languages, such as Danish,[1]Faroese,[2]Icelandic or Norwegian[3] the voiced labiodental fricative is in a free variation with the labiodental approximant.

Features

Features of the voiced labiodental fricative:

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz ??? [ev'rop'a] 'Europe' See Abkhaz phonology
Afrikaans wees [vs] 'to be' See Afrikaans phonology
Albanian valixhe [va'lid] 'case'
Arabic Siirt[4] [va'hab] 'gold' See Arabic phonology
Algerian Arabic[4] ? [kavi] 'ataxy' See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[5] ? 'six'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic ktava [kta:va] 'book' Only in the Urmia dialects. is also predominantly used. Corresponds to in the other varieties.
Bai Dali ? [?v] 'fish'
Bulgarian ? [v?da] 'water' See Bulgarian phonology
Catalan Balearic[6] viu ['viw] 'live' See Catalan phonology
Southern Catalonia[7]
Valencian[7]
Chechen ?a / va?a [va?a] 'brother'
Chinese Wu ? [v?] 'cooked rice'
Sichuanese ? [v] 'five'
Czech voda ['vodä] 'water' See Czech phonology
Danish Standard[8] véd [ve?:?ð] 'know(s)' Most often an approximant .[1] See Danish phonology
Dutch All dialects wraak [vra:k] 'revenge' Allophone of /?/ before /r/. See Dutch phonology
Most dialects vreemd [vre:mt] 'strange' Often devoiced to by speakers from the Netherlands. See Dutch phonology
Standard[9]
English All dialects valve 'valve' See English phonology
African American[10] breathe [b?i:v] 'breathe' Does not occur word-initially. See th-fronting
Cockney[11] [bi?v]
Esperanto vundo ['vundo] 'wound' See Esperanto phonology
Ewe[12] evlo [évló] 'he is evil'
Faroese[2] veður ['ve:?u?] 'speech' Word-initial allophone of /v/, in free variation with an approximant .[2] See Faroese phonology
French[13] valve [valv] 'valve' See French phonology
Georgian[14] ?? ['vits'?o] 'narrow'
German Wächter ['v?çt?] 'guard' See Standard German phonology
Greek ? verníki [ve?r'nici] 'varnish' See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew ?? [?av] 'back' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindi[15] ? [vr?t?] 'fast' See Hindustani phonology
Hungarian veszély [v?se:j] 'danger' See Hungarian phonology
Irish bhaile [va:l?] 'home' See Irish phonology
Italian[16] avare [a'vare] 'miserly' (f. pl.) See Italian phonology
Judaeo-Spanish mueve ['mw?v?] 'nine'
Kabardian ? 'star' Corresponds to [] in Adyghe
Macedonian ? [v?da] 'water' See Macedonian phonology
Maltese iva [iva] 'yes'
Norwegian Urban East[3] venn [ve?n:] 'friend' Allophone of /?/ before a pause and in emphatic speech.[3] See Norwegian phonology
Occitan Auvergnat vol [v?l] 'flight' See Occitan phonology
Limousin
Provençal
Persian Western ? [varze?] 'sport' See Persian phonology
Polish[17] wór 'bag' See Polish phonology
Portuguese[18] vila ['vil?] 'town' See Portuguese phonology
Romanian val [väl] 'wave' See Romanian phonology
Russian[19][20] ? ['v?o?s] 'hair' Contrasts with palatalized form; may be an approximant instead.[20] See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian voda [v?'da] 'water' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak[21] vzrast [vzräst] 'height' Appears only in syllable onset before voiced obstruents; the usual realization of /v/ is an approximant .[21] See Slovak phonology
Slovene[22] [example needed] Allophone of /f/ before voiced consonants.[22] See Slovene phonology
Spanish[23] afgano [äv'äno?] 'Afghan' Allophone of /f/ before voiced consonants. See Spanish phonology
Swedish vägg ['v:] 'wall' See Swedish phonology
Turkish[24] vade [vä:'d] 'due date' The main allophone of /v/; realized as bilabial [? ~ ] in certain contexts.[24] See Turkish phonology
Vietnamese[25] và [va:] 'and' In southern dialects, is in free variation with [j]. See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisian weevje ['?evj?] 'to weave' Never occurs in word-initial positions. See West Frisian phonology
Welsh fi [vi] 'I' See Welsh phonology
Yi ?/vu [vu?] 'intestines'

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Basbøll (2005:66)
  2. ^ a b c Árnason (2011:115)
  3. ^ a b c Kristoffersen (2000:74)
  4. ^ a b Watson (2002:15)
  5. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:18)
  6. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992:53)
  7. ^ a b Wheeler (2002:13)
  8. ^ Basbøll (2005:62)
  9. ^ Gussenhoven (1992:45)
  10. ^ McWhorter (2001), pp. 148.
  11. ^ Wells (1982), p. 328.
  12. ^ Ladefoged (2005:156)
  13. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993:73)
  14. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:255)
  15. ^ Janet Pierrehumbert, Rami Nair, Volume Editor: Bernard Laks (1996), Implications of Hindi Prosodic Structure (Current Trends in Phonology: Models and Methods) (PDF), European Studies Research Institute, University of Salford Press, 1996, ISBN 978-1-901471-02-1CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  16. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:117)
  17. ^ Jassem (2003:103)
  18. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)
  19. ^ Padgett (2003:42)
  20. ^ a b Yanushevskaya & Bun?i? (2015:223)
  21. ^ a b Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)
  22. ^ a b Herrity (2000:16)
  23. ^ http://www.uclm.es/profesorado/nmoreno/compren/material/2006apuntes_fonetica.pdf; http://plaza.ufl.edu/lmassery/Consonantes%20oclusivasreviewlaurie.doc
  24. ^ a b Göksel & Kerslake (2005:6))
  25. ^ Thompson (1959:458-461)

References

  • Árnason, Kristján (2011). The Phonology of Icelandic and Faroese. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199229317.
  • Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5
  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (1-2): 53-56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 90-94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L. (1993), "French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 23 (2): 73-76, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874
  • Göksel, Asli; Kerslake, Celia (2005), Turkish: a comprehensive grammar, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415114943
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (2): 45-47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X
  • Hanulíková, Adriana; Hamann, Silke (2010), "Slovak" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (3): 373-378, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000162
  • Herrity, Peter (2000), Slovene: A Comprehensive Grammar, London: Routledge, ISBN 0415231485
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103-107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
  • Kristoffersen, Gjert (2000), The Phonology of Norwegian, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-823765-5
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lon?ari?, Mijo; Horga, Damir; ?kari?, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66-69, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
  • Padgett, Jaye (2003), "Contrast and Post-Velar Fronting in Russian", Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 21 (1): 39-87, doi:10.1023/A:1021879906505
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 117-121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2): 255-264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language, 35 (3): 454-476, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232
  • Watson, Janet (2002), The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, New York: Oxford University Press
  • Wheeler, Max W. (2005), The Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-925814-7
  • Yanushevskaya, Irena; Bun?i?, Daniel (2015), "Russian" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 45 (2): 221-228, doi:10.1017/S0025100314000395

External links


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