|Voiced pharyngeal trill|
(voiced epiglottal fricative)
The voiced epiglottal or pharyngeal trill, or voiced epiglottal fricative, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨?⟩.
Few languages distinguish between pharyngeal and epiglottal fricatives/trills, and in fact the fricatives in Arabic are routinely described as "pharyngeal". However, according to Peter Ladefoged, the Aghul spoken in the village of Burkikhan, Dagestan has both (as well as an epiglottal stop), as presented in these audio files.
Features of the voiced epiglottal trill/fricative:
|Arabic||Iraqi||?||[?a:m]||'year'||Corresponds to /?/ (?) in Standard Arabic and other varieties. See Arabic phonology|