Voiced Dental Affricate
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Voiced Dental Affricate

A voiced alveolar affricate is a type of affricate consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth. This refers to a class of sounds, not a single sound. There are several types with significant perceptual differences:

This article discusses the first two.

Voiced alveolar sibilant affricate

Voiced alveolar sibilant affricate
dz
IPA Number104 133
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʣ
Unicode (hex)U+02A3
X-SAMPAdz
Audio sample

The voiced alveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with ⟨d?z⟩ or ⟨d?z⟩ (formerly ⟨?⟩).

Features

Features of the voiced alveolar sibilant affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is sibilant affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the air flow entirely, then directing it with the tongue to the sharp edge of the teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
  • The stop component of this affricate is laminal alveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge. For simplicity, this affricate is usually called after the sibilant fricative component.
  • There are at least three specific variants of the fricative component:
    • Dentalized laminal alveolar (commonly called "dental"), which means it is articulated with the tongue blade very close to the upper front teeth, with the tongue tip resting behind lower front teeth. The hissing effect in this variety of [z] is very strong.[1]
    • Non-retracted alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
    • Retracted alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue slightly behind the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal. Acoustically, it is close to or laminal .
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

The following sections are named after the fricative component.

Dentalized laminal alveolar

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Eastern[2] ? 'fish'
Belarusian[3] /dzekannje ['dz?ekäne] 'dzekanye' Contrasts with palatalized form. See Belarusian phonology
Czech[4] Afgánec byl ['äv?ä:n?dz? b] 'an Afghan was' Allophone of /t?s/ before voiced consonants. See Czech phonology
Hungarian[5] bodza ['bodz?:?] 'elderberry' See Hungarian phonology
Kashubian[6] [example needed]
Latvian[7] drudzis ['d?rudz?is?] 'fever' See Latvian phonology
Macedonian[8] ?/dzvezda ['dz?ve?z?d?ä] 'star' See Macedonian phonology
Pashto ? [d?zw?n] 'youth' 'young' See Pashto phonology
Polish[9] dzwon 'bell' See Polish phonology
Russian[10] ??/platsdarm [pdz?'d?är?m] 'bridgehead' Allophone of /t?s/ before voiced consonants. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[11] otac bi [t?ädz? bi] 'father would' Allophone of /t?s/ before voiced consonants.[11] See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovene[12] brivec brije ['brí:dz? bríj?] 'barber shaves' Allophone of /t?s/ before voiced consonants.
Ukrainian[13] /dzvin [dzin?] 'bell' See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[14] [example needed] Allophone of /t?s/ before voiced consonants.[14] See Upper Sorbian phonology

Non-retracted alveolar

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic Najdi[15] [d?zlib] 'well' Corresponds to /q/, /?/, or /d?/ in other dialects.
Catalan[16] dotze ['d?oddz] 'twelve' The fricative component is apical. See Catalan phonology
Dutch Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect[17] zèèg [d?z?:x] 'saw' Occasional allophone of /z/; distribution unclear.[17]
English Broad Cockney[18] day ['d?zæ] 'day' Possible word-initial, intervocalic and word-final allophone of /d/.[19][20] See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[20] ['d?ze]
New York[21] Possible syllable-initial and sometimes also utterance-final allophone of /d/.[21] See English phonology
Scouse[22] Possible syllable-initial and word-final allophone of /d/.[22] See English phonology
Georgian[23] ?? [d?zv?li] 'bone'
Hebrew [d?zuna] 'nutrition'
Luxembourgish[24] spadséieren [?p?'d?z?n] 'to go for a walk' Marginal phoneme that occurs only in a few words.[24] See Luxembourgish phonology
Marathi [d?zor?] 'force' Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated versions. The unaspirated is represented by ?, which also represents [d]. The aspirated sound is represented by ?, which also represents [d]. There is no marked difference for either one.
Portuguese European[25] desafio [d?z?'fi.u] 'challenge' Allophone of before /i, ?/, or assimilation due to the deletion of /i ~ ? ~ e/. Increasingly used in Brazil.[26]
Brazilian[25][26] aprendizado [ap'd?zadu] 'learning'
Many speakers mezzosoprano [me?d?zo?so?'pnu] 'mezzo-soprano' Marginal sound. Some might instead use spelling pronunciations.[27] See Portuguese phonology
Romanian Moldavian dialects[28] zic [d?z?k] 'say' Corresponds to in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Spanish Some Rioplatense dialects día ['d?zia?] 'day' Corresponds to either or in standard Spanish. See Spanish phonology.
Chinese Swatow [d?zit.p?n] 'Japan'

Variable

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Italian[29] zero ['d?z?:?o] 'zero' The fricative component varies between dentalized laminal and non-retracted apical. In the latter case, the stop component is laminal denti-alveolar.[29] See Italian phonology

Voiced alveolar non-sibilant affricate

Voiced alveolar non-sibilant affricate
d
dð?
dð?

Features

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English General American[30] dream [di?m] 'dream' Phonetic realization of the stressed, syllable-initial sequence /dr/; more commonly postalveolar .[30] See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[30]
Italian Sicily[31] Adriatico [ädi'ä:t?iko] 'the Adriatic Sea' Apical. It is a regional realization of the sequence /dr/, and can be realized as the sequence [d] instead.[32] See Italian phonology

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Puppel, Nawrocka-Fisiak & Krassowska (1977:149), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:154)
  2. ^ Kozintseva (1995:6)
  3. ^ Padluzhny (1989:48-49)
  4. ^ Palková (1994:234-235)
  5. ^ Szende (1999:104)
  6. ^ Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved .
  7. ^ Nau (1998:6)
  8. ^ Lunt (1952:1)
  9. ^ Roc?awski (1976:162)
  10. ^ Chew (2003:67 and 103)
  11. ^ a b Landau et al. (1999:67)
  12. ^ Pretnar & Tokarz (1980:21)
  13. ^ S. Buk; J. Ma?utek; A. Rovenchak (2008). "Some properties of the Ukrainian writing system". Glottometrics. 16: 63-79. arXiv:0802.4198.
  14. ^ a b ?ewc-Schuster (1984:22, 38))
  15. ^ Lewis jr. (2013), p. 5.
  16. ^ Hualde (1992:370)
  17. ^ a b Peters (2010), p. 240.
  18. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 322-323.
  19. ^ Wells (1982), p. 323.
  20. ^ a b Gimson (2014), p. 172.
  21. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 515.
  22. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 372.
  23. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:255)
  24. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), p. 72.
  25. ^ a b (in Portuguese) Palatalization of dental occlusives /t/ and /d/ in the bilingual communities of Taquara and Panambi, RS - Alice Telles de Paula Page 14
  26. ^ a b Seqüências de (oclusiva alveolar + sibilante alveolar) como um padrão inovador no português de Belo Horizonte - Camila Tavares Leite
  27. ^ Adaptações fonológicas na pronúncia de estrangeirismos do Inglês por falantes de Português Brasileiro - Ana Beatriz Gonçalves de Assis
  28. ^ Pop (1938), p. 29.
  29. ^ a b Canepari (1992), pp. 75-76.
  30. ^ a b c Gimson (2014), pp. 177, 186-188, 192.
  31. ^ Canepari (1992), p. 64.
  32. ^ Canepari (1992), pp. 64-65.

References

  • Canepari, Luciano (1992), Il MªPi - Manuale di pronuncia italiana [Handbook of Italian Pronunciation] (in Italian), Bologna: Zanichelli, ISBN 88-08-24624-8
  • Chew, Peter A. (2003), A computational phonology of Russian, Universal Publishers
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67-74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278
  • Gimson, Alfred Charles (2014), Cruttenden, Alan (ed.), Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge, ISBN 9781444183092
  • Hualde, José (1992), Catalan, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-05498-2
  • Kozintseva, Natalia (1995), Modern Eastern Armenian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 3895860352
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lon?ari?, Mijo; Horga, Damir; ?kari?, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66-69, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
  • Lewis jr., Robert Eugene (2013), Complementizer Agreement in Najdi Arabic (PDF)
  • Lunt, Horace G. (1952), Grammar of the Macedonian Literary Language, Skopje
  • Nau, Nicole (1998), Latvian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 3-89586-228-2
  • Padluzhny, Ped (1989), Fanetyka belaruskai litaraturnai movy, ISBN 5-343-00292-7
  • Palková, Zdena (1994), Fonetika a fonologie ?e?tiny, ISBN 978-8070668436
  • Peters, Jörg (2010), "The Flemish-Brabant dialect of Orsmaal-Gussenhoven", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 239-246, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000083
  • Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj
  • Pretnar, Tone; Tokarz, Emil (1980), Slovenina za Poljake: Kurs podstawowy j?zyka s?owe?skiego, Katowice: Uniwersytet ?l?ski
  • Puppel, Stanis?aw; Nawrocka-Fisiak, Jadwiga; Krassowska, Halina (1977), A handbook of Polish pronunciation for English learners, Warszawa: Pa?stwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe
  • Roc?awski, Bronis?aw (1976), Zarys fonologii, fonetyki, fonotaktyki i fonostatystyki wspó?czesnego j?zyka polskiego, Gda?sk: Wydawnictwo Uczelniane Uniwersytetu Gda?skiego
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2): 255-264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659
  • ?ewc-Schuster, Hinc (1984), Gramatika hornjo-serbskeje re, Budy?in: Ludowe nak?adnistwo Domowina
  • Szende, Tamás (1999), "Hungarian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 104-107, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
  • Wells, John C. (1982). Accents of English. Volume 2: The British Isles (pp. i-xx, 279-466), Volume 3: Beyond the British Isles (pp. i-xx, 467-674). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-52128540-2 , 0-52128541-0 .

External links


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