Vishnu Sahasranama
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Vishnu Sahasranama

Vishnu Sahasran?ma
Vishnu sahasranama manuscript, c1690.jpg
Vishnusahasranama manuscript, c. 1690
Information
ReligionHinduism
AuthorVyasa
Verses107

Vishnu Sahasran?ma[1](Sanskrit?, IAST: Viusahasran?ma),[a] is a Sanskrit hymn which contains a list of 1,000 names of Vishnu, one of the main deities in Hinduism and the supreme God in Vaishnavism. It is one of the most sacred and popular stotras in Hinduism. The Vishnu Sahasran?ma as found in the Anushasana Parva[2] of the epic Mahabharata. It is the most popular version of the 1,000 names of Vishnu. Other versions exist in the Padma Purana, Skanda Purana and Garuda Purana. There is also a Sikh version, found in the text Sundar Gutka.[3] Each name eulogizes one of His countless great attributes.

Background

In the 135th[4] chapter of Anush?sanaparva (verses 14 to 120) in Mahabharata, the stotra was given to Yudhishthira by the grandsire of Kuru dynasty and warrior Bhishma who was on his death bed (of arrows) in the battlefield of Kurukshetra. Yudhishthira asks Bhishma the following questions:[5][6]

kimekam daivatam loke kim v?pyekam par?ya?am
stuvanta? kam kamarcanta? pr?pnuyurm?nav ?ubham
ko dharma? sarva dharmm bhavata? paramo mata?
kim japan mucyate jantu? janmasams?rabandhan?t

In this universe Who is the one refuge for all? Who is the greatest Deity in the world ? By eulogising whom can a person reach auspiciousness (peace and prosperity)? By worshipping whom can a person reach auspiciousness (peace and prosperity)? What is, in your opinion, the Greatest Dharma among all the Dharmas? By chanting whose name, can a "creature" proceed beyond the bonds of sams?ra?[7]

Bhishma answers by stating that mankind will be free from all sorrows by chanting the "Vishnusahasran?ma", which are the thousand names of the all-pervading Supreme Being Vishnu, who is the master of all the worlds, the supreme light, the essence of the universe and who is Brahman. All matter animate and inanimate reside in him, and he in turn resides within all matter.

Etymology

In Sanskrit, sahasra means "a thousand" and n?ma (nominative, the stem is n?man-) means "name". The compound is of the Bahuvrihi type and may be translated as "having a thousand names". In modern Hindi pronunciation, n?ma is pronounced [na:m]. It is also pronounced sahasran?mam in South India.

It is said that the one who reads this Vishnu Sahasranamam every day with full devotion achieves name, fame, wealth and knowledge in his life.[]

Interpretations

There are Sahasran?mas for many gods such as Shiva, Ganesha, Shakti, and others. But the Vishnu Sahasran?ma is popular among common Hindus, and a major part of prayer for devout Vaishnavas, or followers of Vishnu. While Vaishanvas venerate other deities, they believe that the universe, including the other divinities such as Shiva and Devi, is ultimately a manifestation of the Supreme Lord Vishnu. Despite the existence of other sahasranamas of other demi gods, referring a sahasranama as "The Sahasranama," generally refers to the Vishnu Sahasranama alone, thereby indicating its wide popularity and use.[8]

Two of the names in Vishnusahasranama that refer to Shiva are "Shiva" (names # 27 and # 600 in Advaitin Adi Shankara's commentary) itself, "Shambhu" (name # 38), "Ishanah" (name #6 4), and "Rudra" (name # 114). Adi Sankara of Advaita Vedanta asserts that the deity Vishnu is Brahman itself (not just an aspect of Brahmam).[9] Again, he notes that "only Hari (Vishnu) is eulogized by names such as Shiva",[10] a position consistent with interpretations of the Srivaishnavite commentator Parasara Bhattar. Parasara Bhattar had interpreted Shiva to mean a quality of Vishnu, such as "One who bestows auspiciousness.".[11]

However, this interpretation of the name Shiva has been challenged by Swami Tapasyananda's translation of Shankara's commentary on the Vishnusahasranama.[12] He translates the 27th name, Shiva to mean:"One who is not affected by the three Gunas of Prakrti, Sattva, Rajas,and Tamas; The Kaivalaya Upanishad says, "He is both Brahma and Shiva." In the light of this statement of non-difference between Shiva and Vishnu, it is Vishnu Himself Who Is exalted by the praise and worship of Shiva." [12] Based on this commonly held Advaitan point of view which has been adopted by Smartas, Vishnu and Shiva are viewed as one and the same God, being different aspects of preservation and destruction respectively. As many Sanskrit words have multiple meanings, it is possible that both Vishnu and Shiva share names in this instance, e.g., the name Shiva itself means "auspicious"[13] which could also apply to Vishnu. The Deities Ananthapadmanabha and Shankaranarayana are worshipped by Hindus, as is Lord Panduranga Vitthala, a form of Lord Krishna with a Shiva Linga on his crown, signifying the oneness of both deities.

However, the Vaishnava commentator, Parasara Bhattar, a follower of Ramanujacharya has interpreted the names "Shiva" and "Rudra" in Vishnu sahasranama to mean qualities or attributes of Vishnu, and not to indicate that Vishnu and Shiva are one and the same God. Vaishnavas worship Vishnu in his four-armed form, carrying conch, disc, flower and mace in his hands, believing that to be the Supreme form. However, Smarthas do not subscribe to this aspect or personification of God, as Smarthas say that God is Nirguna and thus devoid of form. Additionally, they believe that God is not limited by time nor limited by shape and color. Vaishnava traditions are of the opinion that Vishnu is both unlimited and yet still capable of having specific forms, as to give arguments to the contrary (to say that God is incapable of having a form) is to limit the unlimitable and all-powerful Supreme.

In the Sri Vaishnava and Sadh Vaishnava tradition, the Bhagavad-gita and the Vishnu Sahasranama are considered the two eyes of spiritual revelation.

In other Vaishnava traditions too, the Vishnu Sahasranama is considered an important text. Within Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Vallabha sampradaya, Nimbarka sampradaya and among Ramanandis, the chanting of the names of Krishna and Rama are considered to be superior to that of Vishnu. Based on another verse in the Padma Purana which says that the benefit of chanting the one thousand names of Vishnu can be derived from chanting one name of Rama, and a verse in the Brahma Vaivarta Purana equating the benefit of chanting three names of Rama with one name of Krishna. However, it is important to realize that those verses in those puranas are not to be interpreted literally, as many believe that there is no difference between Vishnu and Krishna. This theological difference can be expressed as follows: Many Vaishnava groups recognize Krishna as an Avatar of Vishnu, while others, instead, consider Him to be svayam bhagavan, or the original form of the Lord. Yet these verses can be interpreted as it is more important to have pure bhakti or devotion than merely repeating the many names of God without emotion. Indeed, Shri Krishna Himself said, "Arjuna, One may be desirous of praising by reciting the thousand names. But, on my part, I feel praised by one shloka. There is no doubt about it." [14]

Within Vaisnavism some groups, such as Sri sampradaya, adhere to and follow the Rig Veda: 1.156.3, which states "O ye who wish to gain realization of the supreme truth, utter the name of Vishnu at least once in the steadfast faith that it will lead you to such realization." [15]

Interpretations alluding to the power of God in controlling karma

Many names in the Vishnusahasranama, the thousand names of Vishnu allude to the power of God in controlling karma. For example, the 135th name of Vishnu, Dharmadhyaksha, in Sankara's interpretation means, "One who directly sees the merits (Dharma) and demerits (Adharma), of beings by bestowing their due rewards on them." [16]

Other names of Vishnu alluding to this nature of God are Bhavanah, the 32nd name, Vidhata, the 44th name, Apramattah, the 325th name, Sthanadah, the 387th name and Srivibhavanah, the 609th name.[17] Bhavanah, according to Sankara's interpretation, means "One who generates the fruits of Karmas of all Jivas for them to enjoy." [18] The Brahma Sutra (3.2.28) "Phalmatah upapatteh" speaks of the Lord's function as the bestower of the fruits of all actions of the jivas.[18]

General thoughts

Sections from Swami Tapasyananda's translation of the concluding verses of Vishnu sahasranama, state the following: "Nothing evil or inauspicious will befall a man here or hereafter who daily hears or repeats these names." That comment is noteworthy. King Nahusha, a once righteous king, ancestor of Yudhishthira, according to excerpt from C. Rajagopalachari's translation of the Mahabharata, after performing countless sacrifices, became an Indra, king of devas, but was later expelled from Swarga or heaven due to a curse by the great sage Agastya for his eventual gain in pride and arrogance and became a python for thousands of years.[19] In the commentary to this sloka Sankara states that a fall akin to that of king Nahusha will not happen to that devotee who recites Vishnu Sahasranama daily.

Pronunciation

In the linked preface prayer (but not in the succeeding Sahasranama) non-formal pronunciation is used, since correct representation of pronunciation requires extensive use of diacritic marks. An example: Sanskrit/Hindi has three letters representing S, which are represented here as 's', '?', and '?', as used in the Sanskrit word ?atkona (= "hexagon"), Vi?nu, Ka and others is actually a retroflex phoneme and has no equivalent in English. Retroflex phonemes are those where the tongue is slightly coiled back in the palate and released along with the phoneme's sound. Also, the '?' in Viu and Ka is retroflex. In formal transliteration of Sanskrit alphabet to English, this set-up is denoted by placing dots below the letter '?'. More details can be found at Sanskrit language#Consonants, and at IAST

Although devotion is considered the most important thing while reciting any prayer or mantra (Unless used for tantric purposes, where the sound's vibration plays the major role), use of the correct pronunciation is believed by devotees to enhance the satisfaction derived from the recital, in the case of both vocal and mental chants.

Merits of recitation

Believers in the recitation of the Sahasran?ma claim that it brings unwavering calm of mind, complete freedom from stress and brings eternal knowledge. A translation of the concluding verses (Phalasruti) of Vishnu Sahasran?ma, state the following: "Nothing evil or inauspicious will befall a man here or hereafter who daily hears or repeats these names... Whichever devoted man, getting up early in the morning and purifying himself, repeats this hymn devoted to Vasudeva, with a mind that is concentrated on Him, that man attains to great fame, leadership among his peers, wealth that is secure and the supreme good unsurpassed by anything. He will be free from all fears and be endowed with great courage and energy and he will be free from diseases. Beauty of form, strength of body and mind, and virtuous character will be natural to him.... One who reads this hymn every day with devotion and attention attains to peace of mind, patience, prosperity, mental stability, memory and reputation.... Whoever desires advancement and happiness should repeat this devotional hymn on Vishnu composed by Vyasa.... Never will defeat attend on a man who adores the Lotus-Eyed One [Kamala Nayana], who is the Master of all the worlds, who is birthless, and out of whom the worlds have originated and into whom they dissolve."

In orthodox Hindu tradition, a devotee should daily chant the Upanishads, Gita, Rudram, Purusha Sukta and Vishnu sahasranama. If one cannot do all this on any day, it is believed that chanting Vishnu Sahasran?ma alone is sufficient. Vishnu Sahasran?ma can be chanted at any time, irrespective of gender.

Varahi Tantra says that in the age of Kali yuga, most stotras are cursed by Parashurama and hence are ineffective. While listing the ones which are free from this curse and hence suitable during Kali Yuga, it is said, "Gita of the Bhishma Parva, Vishnu Sahasranama of Mahabharata and Chandika Saptashati' (Devi Mahatmyam) are free from all doshas and grant fruits immediately in Kali Yuga." [20]

In a classic astrological text, the B?hat Parara Horstra, sage Parashara frequently recommends the recitation of the Vishnu Sahasran?ma as the best remedial measure for planetary afflictions.[21] For example, see the following verse: "The most effective and beneficial remedial measure for the prolongation of longevity and to obtain relief from other evil effects is recitation of Vishnu Sahasranam." Ch. 56, verse 30 [21]

Sage Parashara mentions this practice more than ten times in his text as in this further verse:

"The remedial measure to obtain relief from the above evil effects, is recitation of Vishnu Sahasranama." Ch. 59, verse 77 [21]

In his celebrated Ayurvedic text Charaka Samhita, Acharya Charaka refers to the power of Vishnu Sahasranama in curing all kinds of fever.

viu? sahasram?rdh?na? car?carapati? vibhum|| 311 stuvann?masahasra jvar?n sarv?nap?hati| Recitation of the sahasra n?ma (one thousand names) of Lord Vi?n?, who has one thousand heads, who is the chief of the car?cara (moving and non-moving things of the universe) and who is omnipresent cures all type of jwaras. [22]

Shlokas

Recitation and aggregation

An alternative approach is to say the starting prayer, and then say the names collected in stanzas (As they were originally said by Bhishma.) Such stanzas are called Slokas in Sanskrit. The Sahasranama (apart from the initial and concluding prayers) has a total of 108 shlokas.

For example, the first sloka is:

om visvam vishnur-vashatkaro bhutbhavyabhavatprabhuh
bhutkrd bhutbhrd-bhaavo bhutatma bhutabhavanah

Notice the aggregation of several words and the omission of their intervening spaces. For example, the last word of the first line of this Sloka:

bhutabhavya-bhavatprabhuh

corresponds to:

om bhutabhavya bhavat prabhave namah

of the expanded version.

This joining-together of words is a common feature of Sanskrit and is called Samasa- a compound. It makes the slokas compact, and easier to remember.

The Thousand Names of Lord Vishnu

This is the complete list of names, in loose anglicized spelling and with idiosyncratic translations.[23][24]

# Name Transliteration Translation
1 ? vishwam Who is the universe himself
2 ? vishnuh He who pervades everywhere
3 vashatkaarah He who is invoked for oblations
4 bhoota-bhavya-bhavat-prabhuh The Lord of past, present and future
5 ? bhoota-krit The creator of all creatures
6 ? bhoota-bhrit He who nourishes all creatures
7 ? bhaavah He who becomes all moving and nonmoving things
8 bhootaatmaa The aatman of all beings
9 bhoota-bhaavanah The cause of the growth and birth of all creatures
10 pootaatmaa He with an extremely pure essence
11 paramaatmaa The Supersoul
12 ? ? muktaanaam paramaa gatih The final goal, reached by liberated souls
13 avyayah Without destruction
14 purushah He who is manifestation of A soul with strong masculinity
15 saakshee The witness
16 kshetrajnah The knower of the field
17 aksharah Indestructible
18 ? yogah He who is realized through yoga
19 ? yoga-vidaam netaa The guide of those who know yoga
20 pradhaana-purusheshvarah Lord of pradhaana and purusha
21 naarasimha-vapuh He whose form is man-lion
22 shreemaan He who is always with shree
23 keshavah keshavah: He who has beautiful locks of hair, slayer of Keshi and one who is himself the three
24 purushottamah The Supreme Controller, best among the purushas
25 sarvah He who is everything
26 sharvas The auspicious
27 ? shivah He who is eternally pure
28 ? sthaanuh The pillar, the immovable truth
29 ? bhootaadih The cause of the five great elements
30 ? nidhir-avyayah The imperishable treasure
31 sambhavah He who descends of His own free will
32 bhaavanah He who gives everything to his devotees
33 bhartaa He who governs the entire living world
34 prabhavah The womb of the five great elements
35 prabhuh The Almighty Lord
36 eeshvarah He who can do anything without any help
37 svayambhooh He who manifests from Himself
38 shambhuh He who brings auspiciousness
39 ? aadityah The son of Aditi (Vaamana)
40 pushkaraakshah He who has eyes like the lotus
41 mahaasvanah He who has a thundering voice
42 - anaadi-nidhanah He without origin or end
43 ? dhaataa He who supports all fields of experience
44 vidhaataa The dispenser of fruits of action
45 dhaaturuttamah The subtlest atom
46 aprameyah He who cannot be perceived
47 hrisheekeshah The Lord of the senses
48 padmanaabhah He from whose navel comes the lotus
49 amaraprabhuh The Lord of the devas
50 ? vishvakarmaa The creator of the universe
51 ? manuh He who has manifested as the Vedic mantras
52 ? tvashtaa He who makes huge things small
53 sthavishtah The supremely gross
54 ? sthaviro dhruvah The ancient, motionless one
55 agraahyah He who is not perceived sensually
56 ? shaashvatah He who always remains the same
57 krishnah He whose complexion is dark
58 ? lohitaakshah Red-eyed
59 pratardanah The Supreme destruction
60 prabhootas Ever-full
61 ? trikakub-dhaama The support of the three quarters
62 pavitram He who gives purity to the heart
63 -? mangalam param The Supreme auspiciousness
64 eeshanah The controller of the five great elements
65 ? praanadah He who gives life
66 praanah He who ever lives
67 jyeshthah Older than all
68 shreshthah The most glorious
69 prajaapatih The Lord of all creatures
70 hiranyagarbhah He who dwells in the womb of the world
71 ? bhoogarbhah He who is the womb of the world
72 maadhavah Husband of Lakshmi
73 madhusoodanah Destroyer of the Madhu demon
74 eeshvarah The controller
75 ? vikramee He who is full of prowess
76 dhanvee He who always has a divine bow
77 medhaavee Supremely intelligent
78 ? vikramah Valorous
79 kramah All-pervading
80 anuttamah Incomparably great
81 duraadharshah He who cannot be attacked successfully
82 ? kritajnah He who knows all that is
83 kritih He who rewards all our actions
84 aatmavaan The self in all beings
85 sureshah The Lord of the demigods
86 sharanam The refuge
87 ? sharma He who is Himself infinite bliss
88 ? visva-retaah The seed of the universe
89 prajaa-bhavah He from whom all praja comes
90 ahah He who is the nature of time
91 samvatsarah He from whom the concept of time comes
92 vyaalah The serpent (vyaalah) to atheists
93 pratyayah He whose nature is knowledge
94 ? sarvadarshanah All-seeing
95 ajah Unborn
96 ? sarveshvarah Controller of all
97 siddhah The most famous
98 ? siddhih He who gives moksha
99 sarvaadih The beginning of all
100 ? achyutah Infallible
101 vrishaakapih He who lifts the world to dharma
102 ameyaatmaa He who manifests in infinite varieties
103 sarva-yoga-vinissritah He who is free from all attachments
104 ? vasuh The support of all elements
105 ? vasumanaah He whose mind is supremely pure
106 satyah The truth
107 ? samaatmaa He who is the same in all
108 ? sammitah He who has been accepted by authorities
109 samah Equal
110 amoghah Ever useful
111 ? pundareekaakshah He who dwells in the heart
112 vrishakarmaa He whose every act is righteous
113 vrishaakritih The form of dharma
114 rudrah He who is mightiest of the mighty or He who is "fierce"
115 ? bahu-shiraah He who has many heads
116 babhrur He who rules over all the worlds
117 ? vishvayonih The womb of the universe
118 ? shuchi-shravaah He who listens only the good and pure
119 amritah Immortal
120 ?-? shaashvatah-sthaanur Permanent and immovable
121 ? varaaroho The most glorious destination
122 mahaatapaah He of great tapas
123 sarvagah All-pervading
124 ? sarvavid-bhaanuh All-knowing and effulgent
125 vishvaksenah He against whom no army can stand
126 janaardanah He who gives joy to good people
127 ? vedah He who is the Vedas
128 ? vedavid The knower of the Vedas
129 ? avyangah Without imperfections
130 ? vedaangah He whose limbs are the Vedas
131 ? vedavit He who contemplates upon the Vedas
132 ? kavih The seer
133 lokaadhyakshah He who presides over all lokas
134 suraadhyaksho He who presides over all devas
135 dharmaadhyakshah He who presides over dharma
136 krita-akritah All that is created and not created
137 chaturaatmaa The four-fold self
138 chaturvyoohah Vasudeva, Sankarshan etc.
139 ? chaturdamstrah He who has four canines (Nrsimha)
140 chaturbhujah Four-handed
141 bhraajishnur Self-effulgent consciousness
142 bhojanam He who is the sense-objects
143 bhoktaa The enjoyer
144 sahishnuh He who can suffer patiently
145 jagadaadijah Born at the beginning of the world
146 ? anaghah Sinless
147 vijayah Victorious
148 ? jetaa Ever-successful
149 ? vishvayonih He who incarnates because of the world
150 punarvasuh He who lives repeatedly in different bodies
151 upendra The younger brother of Indra (Vamana)
152 vaamanah He with a dwarf body
153 praamshuh He with a huge body
154 amoghah He whose acts are for a great purpose
155 shuchih He who is spotlessly clean
156 ? oorjitah He who has infinite vitality
157 ateendrah He who surpasses Indra
158 ? samgrahah He who holds everything together
159 sargah He who creates the world from Himself
160 dhritaatmaa Established in Himself
161 niyamah The appointing authority
162 yamah The administrator
163 vedyah That which is to be known
164 vaidyah The Supreme doctor
165 ? sadaa-yogee Always in yoga
166 veerahaa He who destroys the mighty heroes
167 maadhavah The Lord of all knowledge
168 ? madhuh Sweet
169 ateendriyo Beyond the sense organs
170 ? mahaamayah The Supreme Master of all Maya
171 mahotsaahah The great enthusiast
172 mahaabalah He who has supreme strength
173 ? mahaabuddhir He who has supreme intelligence
174 mahaa-veeryah The supreme essence
175 mahaa-shaktih All-powerful
176 ? mahaa-dyutih Greatly luminous
177 anirdeshya-vapuh He whose form is indescribable
178 shreemaan He who is always courted by glories
179 ameyaatmaa He whose essence is immeasurable
180 mahaadri-dhrik He who supports the great mountain
181 maheshvaasah He who wields shaarnga
182 maheebhartaa The husband of mother earth
183 ? shreenivaasah The permanent abode of Shree
184 ? ? sataam gatih The goal for all virtuous people
185 aniruddhah He who cannot be obstructed
186 suraanandah He who gives out happiness
187 govindah The protector of the Cows.
188 ?-? govidaam-patih The Lord of all men of wisdom
189 mareechih Effulgence
190 ? damanah He who controls rakshasas
191 ? hamsah The swan
192 ? suparnah Beautiful-winged (Two birds analogy)
193 ? bhujagottamah The serpent Ananta
194 ? hiranyanaabhah He who has a golden navel
195 sutapaah He who has glorious tapas
196 padmanaabhah He whose navel is like a lotus
197 prajaapatih He from whom all creatures emerge
198 amrityuh He who knows no death
199 sarva-drik The seer of everything
200 simhah He who destroys
201 ? sandhaataa The regulator
202 sandhimaan He who seems to be conditioned
203 sthirah Steady
204 ajah He who takes the form of Aja, Brahma
205 durmarshanah He who cannot be vanquished
206 shaastaa He who rules over the universe
207 vishrutaatmaa He who is celebrated, most famous and heard about by one and all.
208 suraarihaa Destroyer of the enemies of the devas
209 guruh The teacher
210 ? gurutamah The greatest teacher
211 dhaama The goal
212 satyah He who is Himself the truth
213 satya-paraakramah Dynamic Truth
214 nimishah He who has closed eyes in contemplation
215 ? animishah He who remains unwinking; ever knowing
216 ? sragvee He who always wears a garland of undecaying flowers
217 -? vaachaspatir-udaara-dheeh He who is eloquent in championing the Supreme law of life; He with a large-hearted intelligence
218 ? agraneeh He who guides us to the peak
219 graamaneeh He who leads the flock
220 shreemaan The possessor of light, effulgence, glory
221 nyaayah Justice
222 ? netaa The leader
223 sameeranah He who sufficiently administers all movements of all living creatures
224 sahasra-moordhaa He who has endless heads
225 ? vishvaatmaa The soul of the universe
226 ? sahasraakshah Thousands of eyes
227 sahasrapaat Thousand-footed
228 ? aavartanah The unseen dynamism
229 nivritaatmaa The soul retreated from matter
230 samvritah He who is veiled from the jiva
231 sam-pramardanah He who persecutes evil men
232 ahassamvartakah He who thrills the day and makes it function vigorously
233 vahnih Fire
234 anilah Air
235 ? dharaneedharah He who supports the earth
236 suprasaadah Fully satisfied
237 prasanaatmaa Ever pure and all-blissful self
238 vishva-dhrik Supporter of the world
239 vishvabhuk He who enjoys all experiences
240 vibhuh He who manifests in endless forms
241 satkartaa He who adores good and wise people
242 ? satkritah He who is adored by all good people
243 saadhur He who lives by the righteous codes
244 jahnuh Leader of men
245 ? naaraayanah He who resides on the waters
246 narah The guide
247 asankhyeyah He who has numberless names and forms
248 aprameyaatmaa A soul not known through the pramanas
249 vishishtah He who transcends all in His glory
250 shishta-krit The lawmaker
251 shuchih He who is pure
252 ? siddhaarthah He who has all arthas
253 siddhasankalpah He who gets all He wishes for
254 siddhidah The giver of benedictions
255 siddhisaadhanah The power behind our sadhana
256 vrishaahee Controller of all actions
257 vrishabhah He who showers all dharmas
258 ? vishnuh Long-striding
259 vrishaparvaa The ladder leading to dharma (As well as dharma itself)
260 ? vrishodarah He from whose belly life showers forth
261 vardhanah The nurturer and nourisher
262 vardhamaanah He who can grow into any dimension
263 viviktah Separate
264 shruti-saagarah The ocean for all scripture
265 subhujah He who has graceful arms
266 ? durdharah He who cannot be known by great yogis
267 vaagmee He who is eloquent in speech
268 mahendrah The lord of Indra
269 vasudah He who gives all wealth
270 ? vasuh He who is Wealth
271 ? naika-roopo He who has unlimited forms
272 brihad-roopah Vast, of infinite dimensions
273 ? shipivishtah The presiding deity of the sun
274 prakaashanah He who illuminates
275 ojas-tejo-dyutidharah The possessor of vitality, effulgence and beauty
276 prakaashaatmaa The effulgent self
277 prataapanah Thermal energy; one who heats
278 riddhah Full of prosperity
279 spashtaaksharah One who is indicated by OM
280 ? mantrah The nature of the Vedic mantras
281 chandraamshuh The rays of the moon
282 ? bhaaskara-dyutih The effulgence of the sun
283 ? amritaamshoodbhavah The Paramatman from whom Amrutamshu or the Moon originated at the time of the churning of the Milk-ocean.[25]
284 bhaanuh Self-effulgent
285 shashabindhuh The moon who has a rabbit-like spot
286 sureshvarah A person of extreme charity
287 aushadham Medicine
288 ? jagatas-setuh A bridge across the material energy
289 ? satya-dharma-paraakramah One who champions heroically for truth and righteousness
290 bhoota-bhavya-bhavan-naathah The Lord of past, present and future
291 ? pavanah The air that fills the universe
292 paavanah He who gives life-sustaining power to air
293 ? analah Fire
294 kaamahaa He who destroys all desires
295 ? kaamakrit He who fulfills all desires
296 kaantah He who is of enchanting form
297 ? kaamah The beloved
298 kaamapradah He who supplies desired objects
299 prabhuh The Lord
300 ? yugaadi-krit The creator of the yugas
301 yugaavartah The law behind time
302 ? naikamaayah He whose forms are endless and varied
303 mahaashanah He who eats up everything
304 ? adrishyah Imperceptible
305 ? vyaktaroopah He who is perceptible to the yogi
306 sahasrajit He who vanquishes thousands
307 anantajit Ever-victorious
308 ishtah He who is invoked through Vedic rituals
309 visishtah The noblest and most sacred
310 ? sishteshtah The greatest beloved
311 Sidddhaaartha one who attains perfection, birth name of Buddha avatar in the last epoch of Kali Yuga
312 nahushah He who binds all with maya
313 ? vrishah He who is dharma
314 ? krodhahaa He who destroys anger
315 krodhakrit-kartaa He who generates anger against the lower tendency
316 ? visvabaahuh He whose hand is in everything
317 maheedharah The support of the earth
318 ? achyutah He who undergoes no changes
319 ? prathitah He who exists pervading all
320 praanah The prana in all living creatures
321 ? praanadah He who gives prana
322 vaasavaanujah The brother of Indra
323 ?- apaam-nidhih Treasure of waters (the ocean)
324 ? adhishthaanam The substratum of the entire universe
325 apramattah He who never makes a wrong judgement
326 pratishthitah He who has no cause
327 ? skandah He whose glory is expressed through Subrahmanya
328 skanda-dharah Upholder of withering righteousness
329 dhuryah Who carries out creation etc. without hitch
330 ? varadah He who fulfills boons
331 vaayuvaahanah Controller of winds
332 vaasudevah Dwelling in all creatures although not affected by that condition
333 ? brihat-bhaanuh He who illumines the world with the rays of the sun and moon
334 ? aadidevah The primary source of everything
335 purandarah Destroyer of cities
336 ashokah He who has no sorrow
337 taaranah He who enables others to cross
338 ? taarah He who saves
339 ? shoorah The valiant
340 shaurih He who incarnated in the dynasty of Shoora
341 janeshvarah The Lord of the people
342 ? anukoolah Well-wisher of everyone
343 shataavarttah He who takes infinite forms
344 padmee He who holds a lotus
345 ? padmanibhekshanah Lotus-eyed
346 padmanaabhah He who has a lotus-navel
347 aravindaakshah He who has eyes as beautiful as the lotus
348 padmagarbhah He who is being meditated upon in the lotus of the heart
349 shareerabhrit He who sustains all bodies
350 maharddhi One who has great prosperity
351 riddhah He who has expanded Himself as the universe
352 ? Vriddhaatmaa The ancient self
353 ? mahaakshah The great-eyed
354 garudadhvajah One who has Garuda on His flag
355 atulah Incomparable
356 ? sharabhah One who dwells and shines forth through the bodies
357 ? bheemah The terrible
358 ? samayajnah One whose worship is nothing more than keeping an equal vision of the mind by the devotee
359 havirharih The receiver of all oblation
360 sarva-lakshana-lakshanyah Known through all proofs
361 lakshmeevaan The consort of Laksmi
362 ? samitinjayah Ever-victorious
363 ? viksharah Imperishable
364 rohitah The fish incarnation
365 maargah The path
366 hetuh The cause
367 ? daamodarah Who has a rope around his stomach
368 sahah All-enduring
369 maheedharah The bearer of the earth
370 ? mahaabhaagah He who gets the greatest share in every Yajna
371 ? vegavaan He who is swift
372 amitaashanah Of endless appetite
373 udbhavah The originator
374 ? kshobhanah The agitator
375 ? devah He who revels
376 shreegarbhah He in whom are all glories
377 parameshvarah Parama + Ishvara = Supreme Lord, Parama (MahaLakshmi i.e. above all the shaktis) + Ishvara (Lord) = Lord of MahaLakshmi
378 karanam The instrument
379 kaaranam The cause
380 kartaa The doer
381 ? vikartaa Creator of the endless varieties that make up the universe
382 ? gahanah The unknowable
383 ? guhah He who dwells in the cave of the heart
384 vyavasaayah Resolute
385 ? vyavasthaanah The substratum
386 samsthaanah The ultimate authority
387 ? sthaanadah He who confers the right abode
388 dhruvah The changeless in the midst of changes
389 ? pararddhih He who has supreme manifestations
390 ? paramaspashtah The extremely vivid
391 tushtah One who is contented with a very simple offering
392 pushtah One who is ever-full
393 shubhekshanah All-auspicious gaze
394 ? raamah One who is most handsome
395 viraamah The abode of perfect-rest
396 virajo Passionless
397 maargah The path
398 ? neyah The guide
399 nayah One who leads
400 ? anayah One who has no leader
401 ? veerah The valiant
402 shaktimataam-shresthah The best among the powerful
403 dharmah The law of being
404 ? dharmaviduttamah The highest among men of realisation
405 vaikunthah Lord of supreme abode, Vaikuntha
406 purushah One who dwells in all bodies
407 praanah Life
408 ? praanadah Giver of life
409 pranavah He who is praised by the gods
410 prituh The expanded
411 hiranyagarbhah The creator
412 shatrughnah The destroyer of enemies
413 vyaaptah The pervader
414 vaayuh The air
415 adhokshajah One whose vitality never flows downwards
416 ? rituh The seasons
417 sudarshanah He whose meeting is auspicious
418 ? kaalah He who judges and punishes beings
419 parameshthee One who is readily available for experience within the heart
420 parigrahah The receiver
421 ugrah The terrible
422 samvatsarah The year
423 dakshah The smart
424 vishraamah The resting place
425 vishva-dakshinah The most skilful and efficient
426 vistaarah The extension
427 sthaavarah-sthaanuh The firm and motionless
428 pramaanam The proof
429 ? beejamavyayam The Immutable Seed
430 arthah He who is worshiped by all
431 anarthah One to whom there is nothing yet to be fulfilled
432 ? mahaakoshah He who has got around him great sheaths
433 ? mahaabhogah He who is of the nature of enjoyment
434 mahaadhanah He who is supremely rich
435 anirvinnah He who has no discontent
436 sthavishthah One who is supremely huge
437 ? a-bhooh One who has no birth
438 dharma-yoopah The post to which all dharma is tied
439 mahaa-makhah The great sacrificer
440 nakshatranemir The nave of the stars
441 nakshatree The Lord of the stars (the moon)
442 kshamah He who is supremely efficient in all undertakings
443 kshaamah He who ever remains without any scarcity
444 sameehanah One whose desires are auspicious
445 yajnah One who is of the nature of yajna
446 ijyah He who is fit to be invoked through yajna
447 ? mahejyah One who is to be most worshiped
448 kratuh The animal-sacrifice
449 satram Protector of the good
450 ?-? sataam-gatih Refuge of the good
451 sarvadarshee All-knower
452 vimuktaatmaa The ever-liberated self
453 sarvajno Omniscient
454 ? jnaanamuttamam The Supreme Knowledge
455 ? suvratah He who ever-performing the pure vow
456 sumukhah One who has a charming face
457 sookshmah The subtlest
458 sughoshah Of auspicious sound
459 sukhadah Giver of happiness
460 suhrit Friend of all creatures
461 manoharah The stealer of the mind
462 jita-krodhah One who has conquered anger
463 veerabaahur Having mighty arms
464 ? vidaaranah One who splits asunder
465 ? svaapanah One who puts people to sleep
466 svavashah He who has everything under His control
467 vyaapee All-pervading
468 naikaatmaa Many souled
469 naikakarmakrit One who does many actions
470 vatsarah The abode
471 vatsalah The supremely affectionate
472 vatsee The father
473 ratnagarbhah The jewel-wombed
474 dhaneshvarah The Lord of wealth
475 dharmagub One who protects dharma
476 dharmakrit One who acts according to dharma
477 dharmee The supporter of dharma
478 sat existence
479 ? asat illusion
480 ksharam He who appears to perish
481 ? aksharam Imperishable
482 avijnaataa The non-knower (The knower being the conditioned soul within the body)
483 ? sahasraamshur The thousand-rayed
484 vidhaataa All supporter
485 kritalakshanah One who is famous for His qualities
486 gabhastinemih The hub of the universal wheel
487 ? sattvasthah Situated in sattva
488 simhah The lion
489 bhoota-maheshvarah The great lord of beings
490 ? aadidevah The first deity
491 ? mahaadevah The great deity
492 deveshah The Lord of all devas
493 devabhrit-guruh Advisor of Indra
494 uttarah He who lifts us from the ocean of samsara
495 gopatih The shepherd
496 goptaa The protector
497 ? jnaanagamyah One who is experienced through pure knowledge
498 ? puraatanah He who was even before time
499 shareera-bhootabhrit One who nourishes the nature from which the bodies came
500 bhoktaa The enjoyer
501 kapeendrah Lord of the monkeys (Rama)
502 bhooridakshinah He who gives away large gifts
503 somapah One who takes Soma in the yajnas
504 amritapah One who drinks the nectar
505 ? somah One who as the moon nourishes plants
506 purujit One who has conquered numerous enemies
507 ? purusattamah The greatest of the great
508 vinayah He who humiliates those who are unrighteous
509 jayah The victorious
510 satyasandhah Of truthful resolution
511 daashaarhah One who was born in the Dasarha race
512 ? ? saatvataam-patih The Lord of the Satvatas
513 ? jeevah One who functions as the ksetrajna
514 ? vinayitaa-saakshee The witness of modesty
515 mukundah The giver of liberation
516 amitavikramah Of immeasurable prowess
517 ? ambho-nidhir The substratum of the four types of beings
518 ? anantaatmaa The infinite self
519 mahodadhishayah One who rests on the great ocean
520 antakah The death
521 ajah Unborn
522 ? mahaarhah One who deserves the highest worship
523 ? svaabhaavyah Ever rooted in the nature of His own self
524 ? jitaamitrah One who has conquered all enemies
525 pramodanah Ever-blissful
526 aanandah A mass of pure bliss
527 nandanah One who makes others blissful
528 nandah Free from all worldly pleasures
529 satyadharmaa One who has in Himself all true dharmas
530 trivikramah One who took three steps
531 ? maharshih kapilaachaaryah He who incarnated as Kapila, the great sage
532 ? kritajnah The knower of the creation
533 ? medineepatih The Lord of the earth
534 ? tripadah One who has taken three steps
535 tridashaadhyaksho The Lord of the three states of consciousness
536 mahaashringah Great-horned (Matsya)
537 kritaantakrit Destroyer of the creation
538 mahaavaraaho The great boar
539 govindah One who is known through Vedanta
540 sushenah He who has a charming army
541 kanakaangadee Wearer of bright-as-gold armlets
542 guhyo The mysterious
543 gabheerah The unfathomable
544 ? gahano Impenetrable
545 guptah The well-concealed
546 ? chakra-gadaadharah Bearer of the disc and mace
547 vedhaah Creator of the universe
548 ? svaangah One with well-proportioned limbs
549 ajitah Vanquished by none
550 krishnah Dark-complexioned
551 ? dridhah The firm
552 sankarshanochyutah He who absorbs the whole creation into His nature and never falls away from that nature
553 varunah One who sets on the horizon (Sun)
554 vaarunah The son of Varuna (Vasistha or Agastya)
555 vrikshah The tree
556 pushkaraakshah Lotus eyed
557 mahaamanaah Great-minded
558 bhagavaan One who possesses six opulences
559 ? bhagahaa One who destroys the six opulences during pralaya
560 aanandee One who gives delight
561 vanamaalee One who wears a garland of forest flowers
562 ? halaayudhah One who has a plough as His weapon
563 ? aadityah Son of Aditi
564 jyotiraadityah The resplendence of the sun
565 sahishnuh One who calmly endures duality
566 gatisattamah The ultimate refuge for all devotees
567 ? sudhanvaa One who has Shaarnga
568 : khanda-parashur One who holds an axe
569 daarunah Merciless towards the unrighteous
570 dravinapradah One who lavishly gives wealth
571 ? divah-sprik Sky-reaching
572 sarvadrik-vyaaso One who creates many men of wisdom
573 vaachaspatir-ayonijah One who is the master of all vidyas and who is unborn through a womb
574 trisaamaa One who is glorified by Devas, Vratas and Saamans
575 saamagah The singer of the sama songs
576 saama The Sama Veda
577 nirvaanam All-bliss
578 bheshajam Medicine
579 bhishak Physician
580 samnyaasa-krit Institutor of sannyasa
581 samah Calm
582 shaantah Peaceful within
583 nishthaa Abode of all beings
584 ? shaantih One whose very nature is peace
585 ? paraayanam The way to liberation
586 ? shubhaangah One who has the most beautiful form
587 shaantidah Giver of peace
588 ? srashtaa Creator of all beings
589 kumudah He who delights in the earth
590 kuvaleshayah He who reclines in the waters
591 gohitah One who does welfare for cows
592 gopatih Husband of the earth
593 goptaa Protector of the universe
594 vrishabhaaksho One whose eyes rain fulfilment of desires
595 vrishapriyah One who delights in dharma
596 anivartee One who never retreats
597 ? nivrittaatmaa One who is fully restrained from all sense indulgences
598 ? samksheptaa The involver
599 kshemakrit Doer of good
600 ? shivah Auspiciousness
601 shreevatsa-vakshaah One who has sreevatsa on His chest
602 shrevaasah Abode of Sree
603 shreepatih Lord of Laksmi
604 shreemataam varah The best among glorious
605 shreedah Giver of opulence
606 shreeshah The Lord of Sree
607 ? shreenivaasah One who dwells in the good people
608 shreenidhih The treasure of Sree
609 shreevibhaavanah Distributor of Sree
610 ? shreedharah Holder of Sree
611 ? shreekarah One who gives Sree
612 shreyah Liberation
613 shreemaan Possessor of Sree
614 ? loka-trayaashrayah Shelter of the three worlds
615 ? svakshah Beautiful-eyed
616 ? svangah Beautiful-limbed
617 shataanandah Of infinite varieties and joys
618 nandih Infinite bliss
619 ? jyotir-ganeshvarah Lord of the luminaries in the cosmos
620 ? vijitaatmaa One who has conquered the sense organs
621 ? vidheyaatmaa One who is ever available for the devotees to command in love
622 ? sat-keertih One of pure fame
623 ? chinnasamshayah One whose doubts are ever at rest
624 ? udeernah The great transcendent
625 ? sarvatah-chakshuh One who has eyes everywhere
626 aneeshah One who has none to Lord over Him
627 ?- shaashvata-sthirah One who is eternal and stable
628 bhooshayah One who rested on the ocean shore (Rama)
629 bhooshanah One who adorns the world
630 bhootih One who is pure existence
631 vishokah Sorrowless
632 shoka-naashanah Destroyer of sorrows
633 archishmaan The effulgent
634 ? architah One who is constantly worshipped by His devotees
635 kumbhah The pot within whom everything is contained
636 vishuddhaatmaa One who has the purest soul
637 ? vishodhanah The great purifier
638 aniruddhah He who is invincible by any enemy
639 apratirathah One who has no enemies to threaten Him
640 pradyumnah Very rich
641 amitavikramah Of immeasurable prowess
642 kaalanemi-nihaa Slayer of Kalanemi
643 ? veerah The heroic victor
644 ? shauri One who always has invincible prowess
645 shoora-janeshvarah Lord of the valiant
646 trilokaatmaa The self of the three worlds
647 ? trilokeshah The Lord of the three worlds
648 keshavah One whose rays illumine the cosmos
649 keshihaa Killer of Kesi
650 ? hari The creator
651 ? kaamadevah The beloved Lord
652 ? kaamapaalah The fulfiller of desires
653 ? kaamee One who has fulfilled all His desires
654 kaantah Of enchanting form
655 ? kritaagamah The author of the agama scriptures
656 anirdeshya-vapuh Of Indescribable form
657 ? vishnuh All-pervading
658 ? veerah The courageous
659 anantah Endless
660 ? dhananjayah One who gained wealth through conquest
661 ? brahmanyah Protector of Brahman (anything related to Narayana)
662 ? brahmakrit One who acts in Brahman
663 ? brahmaa Creator
664 brahma Biggest
665 brahma-vivardhanah One who increases the Brahman
666 ? brahmavid One who knows Brahman
667 braahmanah One who has realised Brahman
668 ? brahmee One who is with Brahma
669 ? brahmajno One who knows the nature of Brahman
670 braahmana-priyah Dear to the brahmanas
671 mahaakramo Of great step
672 mahaakarmaa One who performs great deeds
673 ? mahaatejaah One of great resplendence
674 mahoragah The great serpent
675 mahaakratuh The great sacrifice
676 mahaayajvaa One who performed great yajnas
677 mahaayajnah The great yajna
678 ? mahaahavih The great offering
679 ? stavyah One who is the object of all praise
680 ? stavapriyah One who is invoked through prayer
681 stotram The hymn
682 ? stutih The act of praise
683 stotaa One who adores or praises
684 ranapriyah Lover of battles
685 poornah The complete
686 ? poorayitaa The fulfiller
687 punyah The truly holy
688 punya-keertir Of Holy fame
689 anaamayah One who has no diseases
690 manojavah Swift as the mind
691 teerthakaro The teacher of the tirthas
692 vasuretaah He whose essence is golden
693 vasupradah The free-giver of wealth
694 vasupradah The giver of salvation, the greatest wealth
695 vaasudevo The son of Vasudeva
696 ? vasuh The refuge for all
697 vasumanaa One who is attentive to everything
698 ? havih The oblation
699 ? sadgatih The goal of good people
700 satkritih One who is full of Good actions
701 satta One without a second
702 sadbhootih One who has rich glories
703 satparaayanah The Supreme goal for the good
704 ? shoorasenah One who has heroic and valiant armies
705 yadu-shresthah The best among the Yadava clan
706 sannivaasah The abode of the good
707 suyaamunah One who attended by the people dwelling on the banks of Yamuna
708 bhootaavaaso The dwelling place of the elements
709 vaasudevah One who envelops the world with Maya
710 sarvaasunilayah The abode of all life energies
711 ? analah One of unlimited wealth, power and glory
712 darpahaa The destroyer of pride in evil-minded people
713 darpadah One who creates pride, or an urge to be the best, among the righteous
714 driptah One who is drunk with Infinite bliss
715 ? durdharah The object of contemplation
716 ? athaaparaajitah The unvanquished
717 vishvamoortih Of the form of the entire Universe
718 ? mahaamortir The great form
719 deeptamoortir Of resplendent form
720 a-moortirmaan Having no form
721 anekamoortih Multi-formed
722 avyaktah Unmanifeset
723 shatamoortih Of many forms
724 shataananah Many-faced
725 ekah The one
726 ? naikah The many
727 savah The nature of the sacrifice
728 kah One who is of the nature of bliss
729 ? kim What (the one to be inquired into)
730 yat Which
731 tat That
732 padam-anuttamam The unequalled state of perfection
733 lokabandhur Friend of the world
734 ? lokanaathah Lord of the world
735 maadhavah Born in the family of Madhu
736 ? bhaktavatsalah One who loves His devotees
737 suvarna-varnah Golden-coloured
738 ? hemaangah One who has limbs of gold
739 varaangah With beautiful limbs
740 ? chandanaangadee One who has attractive armlets
741 veerahaa Destroyer of valiant heroes
742 vishama Unequalled
743 shoonyah The void
744 ghritaaseeh One who has no need for good wishes
745 ? acalah Non-moving
746 chalah Moving
747 amaanee Without false vanity
748 maanadah One who causes, by His maya, false identification with the body
749 maanyah One who is to be honoured
750 lokasvaamee Lord of the universe
751 trilokadhrik One who is the support of all the three worlds
752 sumedhaa One who has pure intelligence
753 medhajah Born out of sacrifices
754 dhanyah Fortunate
755 satyamedhah One whose intelligence never fails
756 dharaadharah The sole support of the earth
757 tejovrisho One who showers radiance
758 dyutidharah One who bears an effulgent form
759 sarva-shastra-bhritaam-varah The best among those who wield weapons
760 pragrahah Receiver of worship
761 ? nigrahah The killer
762 ? vyagrah One who is ever engaged in fulfilling the devotee's desires
763 naikashringah One who has many horns
764 gadaagrajah One who is invoked through mantra
765 chaturmoortih Four-formed
766 ? chaturbaahuh Four-handed
767 chaturvyoohah One who expresses Himself as the dynamic centre in the four vyoohas
768 chaturgatih The ultimate goal of all four varnas and asramas
769 chaturaatmaa Clear-minded
770 chaturbhaavas The source of the four
771 chatur-vedavid Knower of all four vedas
772 ekapaat One-footed (BG 10.42)
773 samaavartah The efficient turner
774 nivrittaatmaa One whose mind is turned away from sense indulgence
775 ? durjayah The invincible
776 ? duratikramah One who is difficult to be disobeyed
777 ? durlabhah One who can be obtained with great efforts
778 ? durgamah One who is realised with great effort
779 durgah Not easy to storm into
780 duraavaasah Not easy to lodge
781 duraarihaa Slayer of the asuras
782 ? shubhaangah One with enchanting limbs
783 lokasaarangah One who understands the universe
784 sutantuh Beautifully expanded
785 tantu-vardhanah One who sustains the continuity of the drive for the family
786 indrakarmaa One who always performs gloriously auspicious actions
787 mahaakarmaa One who accomplishes great acts
788 kritakarmaa One who has fulfilled his acts
789 ? kritaagamah Author of the Vedas
790 udbhavah The ultimate source
791 ? sundarah Of unrivalled beauty
792 sundah Of great mercy
793 ratna-naabhah Of beautiful navel
794 ? sulochanah One who has the most enchanting eyes
795 arkah One who is in the form of the sun
796 vaajasanah The giver of food
797 shringee The horned one
798 jayantah The conqueror of all enemies
799 sarvavij-jayee One who is at once omniscient and victorious
800 ? suvarna-binduh With limbs radiant like gold
801 akshobhyah One who is ever unruffled
802 sarva-vaageeshvareshvarah Lord of the Lord of speech
803 ? mahaahradah One who is like a great refreshing swimming pool
804 mahaagartah The great chasm
805 ? mahaabhootah The great being
806 mahaanidhih The great abode
807 kumudah One who gladdens the earth
808 ? kundarah The one who lifted the earth
809 kundah One who is as attractive as Kunda flowers
810 parjanyah He who is similar to rain-bearing clouds
811 paavanah One who ever purifies
812 anilah One who never slips
813 amritaashah One whose desires are never fruitless
814 amritavapuh He whose form is immortal
815 sarvajna Omniscient
816 ? sarvato-mukhah One who has His face turned everywhere
817 sulabhah One who is readily available
818 ? suvratah One who has taken the most auspicious forms
819 siddhah One who is perfection
820 shatrujit One who is ever victorious over His hosts of enemies
821 ? shatrutaapanah The scorcher of enemies
822 nyagrodhah The one who veils Himself with Maya
823 udumbarah Nourishment of all living creatures
824 ashvattas Tree of life
825 chaanooraandhra-nishoodanah The slayer of Canura
826 sahasraarchih He who has thousands of rays
827 ? saptajihvah He who expresses himself as the seven tongues of fire (Types of agni)
828 saptaidhaah The seven effulgences in the flames
829 saptavaahanah One who has a vehicle of seven horses (sun)
830 amoortih Formless
831 ? anaghah Sinless
832 achintya Inconceivable
833 bhayakrit Giver of fear
834 ? bhayanaashanah Destroyer of fear
835 ? anuh The subtlest
836 brihat The greatest
837 ? krishah Delicate, lean
838 sthoolah One who is the fattest
839 ? gunabhrit One who supports
840 nirgunah Without any properties
841 mahaan The mighty
842 adhritah Without support
843 ? svadhritah Self-supported
844 svaasyah One who has an effulgent face
845 ? praagvamshah One who has the most ancient ancestry
846 vamshavardhanah He who multiplies His family of descendants
847 ? bhaarabhrit One who carries the load of the universe
848 kathitah One who is glorified in all scriptures
849 ? yogee One who can be realised through yoga
850 yogeeshah The king of yogis
851 sarvakaamadah One who fulfils all desires of true devotees
852 aashramah Haven
853 shramanah One who persecutes the worldly people
854 kshaamah One who destroys everything
855 ? suparnah The golden leaf (Vedas) BG 15.1
856 vaayuvaahanah The mover of the winds
857 dhanurdharah The wielder of the bow
858 dhanurvedah One who declared the science of archery
859 dandah One who punishes the wicked
860 damayitaa The controller
861 damah Beautitude in the self
862 aparaajitah One who cannot be defeated
863 ? sarvasahah One who carries the entire Universe
864 aniyantaa One who has no controller
865 niyamah One who is not under anyone's laws
866 ? ayamah One who knows no death
867 ? sattvavaan One who is full of exploits and courage
868 ? saattvikah One who is full of sattvic qualities
869 satyah Truth
870 ? satya-dharma-paraayanah One who is the very abode of truth and dharma
871 abhipraayah One who is faced by all seekers marching to the infinite
872 ? priyaarhah One who deserves all our love
873 arhah One who deserves to be worshiped
874 priyakrit One who is ever-obliging in fulfilling our wishes
875 preetivardhanah One who increases joy in the devotee's heart
876 ? vihaayasa-gatih One who travels in space
877 ? jyotih Self-effulgent
878 ? suruchih Whose desire manifests as the universe
879 ? hutabhuk One who enjoys all that is offered in yajna
880 vibhuh All-pervading
881 ? ravi One who dries up everything
882 ? virochanah One who shines in different forms
883 sooryah The one source from where everything is born
884 savitaa The one who brings forth the Universe from Himself
885 ravilochanah One whose eye is the sun
886 anantah Endless
887 ? hutabhuk One who accepts oblations
888 bhoktaaA One who enjoys
889 sukhadah Giver of bliss to those who are liberated
890 naikajah One who is born many times
891 agrajah The first amongst eternal [ Pradhana Purusha ]. Agra means first and ajah means never born. Both individual souls and Vishnu are eternal but Ishvara is Pradhana Taatva. Hence the word agra.
892 anirvinnah One who feels no disappointment
893 sadaamarshee One who forgives the trespasses of His devotees
894 ? lokaadhishthaanam The substratum of the universe
895 ? adbhutah Wonderful
896 sanaat The beginningless and endless factor
897 sanaatanatamah The most ancient
898 kapilah The great sage Kapila
899 ? kapih One who drinks water
900 avyayah The one in whom the universe merges
901 svastidah Giver of Svasti
902 svastikrit One who robs all auspiciousness
903 ? svasti One who is the source of all auspiciouness
904 svastibhuk One who constantly enjoys auspiciousness
905 svastidakshinah Distributor of auspiciousness
906 ? araudrah One who has no negative emotions or urges
907 ? kundalee One who wears shark earrings
908 chakree Holder of the chakra
909 ? vikramee The most daring
910 oorjita-shaasanah One who commands with His hand
911 shabdaatigah One who transcends all words
912 ? shabdasahah One who allows Himself to be invoked by Vedic declarations
913 shishirah The cold season, winter
914 sharvaree-karah Creator of darkness
915 ? akroorah Never cruel
916 peshalah One who is supremely soft
917 dakshah Prompt
918 ? dakshinah The most liberal
919 kshaminaam-varah One who has the greatest amount of patience with sinners
920 ? vidvattamah One who has the greatest wisdom
921 veetabhayah One with no fear
922 punya-shravana-keertanah The hearing of whose glory causes holiness to grow
923 uttaaranah One who lifts us out of the ocean of change
924 ? dushkritihaa Destroyer of bad actions
925 punyah Supremely pure
926 duh-svapna-naashanah One who destroys all bad dreams
927 veerahaa One who ends the passage from womb to womb
928 rakshanah Protector of the universe
929 santah One who is expressed through saintly men
930 jeevanah The life spark in all creatures
931 paryavasthitah One who dwells everywhere
932 anantaroopah One of infinite forms
933 ? anantashreeh Full of infinite glories
934 jitamanyuh One who has no anger
935 bhayapahah One who destroys all fears
936 chaturashrah One who deals squarely
937 gabheeraatmaa Too deep to be fathomed
938 vidishah One who is unique in His giving
939 vyaadishah One who is unique in His commanding power
940 ? dishah One who advises and gives knowledge
941 anaadih One who is the first cause
942 bhoor-bhuvo The substratum of the earth
943 lakshmeeh The glory of the universe
944 suveerah One who moves through various ways
945 ? ruchiraangadah One who wears resplendent shoulder caps
946 ? jananah He who delivers all living creatures
947 ? jana-janmaadir The cause of the birth of all creatures
948 ? bheemah Terrible form
949 bheema-paraakramah One whose prowess is fearful to His enemies
950 aadhaaranilayah The fundamental sustainer
951 adhaataa Above whom there is no other to command
952 pushpahaasah He who shines like an opening flower
953 prajaagarah Ever-awakened
954 oordhvagah One who is on top of everything
955 ? satpathaachaarah One who walks the path of truth
956 ? praanadah Giver of life
957 pranavah Omkara
958 panah The supreme universal manager
959 pramaanam He whose form is the Vedas
960 ? praananilayah He in whom all prana is established
961 praanibhrit He who rules over all pranas
962 ? praanajeevanah He who maintains the life-breath in all living creatures
963 tattvam The reality
964 ? tattvavit One who has realised the reality
965 ? ekaatmaa The one self
966 janma-mrityu-jaraatigah One who knows no birth, death or old age in Himself
967 bhoor-bhuvah svas-taruh The tree of the three worlds (bhoo=terrestrial, svah=celestial and bhuvah=the world in between)
968 ? taarah One who helps all to cross over
969 savitaa The father of all
970 ? prapitaamahah The father of the father of beings (Brahma)
971 yajnah One whose very nature is yajna
972 yajnapatih The Lord of all yajnas
973 yajvaa The one who performs yajna
974 yajnaangah One whose limbs are the things employed in yajna
975 yajnavaahanah One who fulfils yajnas in complete
976 yajnabhrid The ruler of the yajanas
977 yajnakrit One who performs yajna
978 yajnee Enjoyer of yajnas
979 yajnabhuk Receiver of all that is offered
980 yajnasaadhanah One who fulfils all yajnas
981 yajnaantakrit One who performs the concluding act of the yajna
982 yajnaguhyam The person to be realised by yajna
983 annam One who is food
984 ? annaadah One who eats the food
985 aatmayonih The uncaused cause
986 svayamjaatah Self-born
987 vaikhaanah The one who cut through the earth
988 saamagaayanah One who sings the sama songs; one who loves hearing saama chants;
989 devakee-nandanah Son of Devaki
990 ? srashtaa Creator
991 kshiteeshah The Lord of the earth
992 paapa-naashanah Destroyer of sin
993 ? sankha-bhrit One who has the divine Pancajanya
994 nandakee One who holds the Nandaka sword
995 chakree Carrier of Sudarsana
996 shaarnga-dhanvaa One who aims His shaarnga bow
997 gadaadharah Carrier of Kaumodaki club
998 ? rathaanga-paanih One who has the wheel of a chariot as His weapon; One with the strings of the chariot in his hands;
999 akshobhyah One who cannot be annoyed by anyone
1000 sarva-praharanaayudhah He who has all implements for all kinds of assault and fight

Mentions, Quotes and Commentaries

Mentions

  • Adi Shankara of Advaita Vedanta in Verse 27 of Bhaja Govindam,[26] said that the Gita and Vishnusahasranama should be chanted and the form of the Lord of Lakshmi, Vishnu should always be meditated on. He also said that the Sahasranama bestowed all noble virtues on those who chanted it.[27]
  • Parasara Bhattar, a follower of Ramanujacharya had said that Vishnusahasranama absolves people of all sins and has no equal[27]
  • Madhvacharya, propounder of Dvaita philosophy, said that the Sahasranama was the essence of the Mahabharata, which in turn was the essence of the Sastras and that each word of the Sahasranama had 100 meanings.[27]
  • Swaminarayan, founder of the Hindu Swaminarayan faith, said in verse 118 of the scripture, Shikshapatri, that one should "either recite or have the 10th canto,(of Bhagavata Purana ) and also other holy scriptures like the "Vishnusahasranama" recited at a holy place according to one's capacity. "The recital is such that it gives fruits according to whatever is desired." [28]
  • Swaminarayan also said in verses 93-96, "I have the highest esteem for these eight holy scriptures: 1-4)the four Vedas, 5) the Vyas-Sutra,(i.e., Brahma Sutras, 6) the Shrimad Bhagavatam, 7) Shri Vishnusahasranama in the Mahabharata, and 8) the Yajnavalkya Smrti which is at the center of the Dharma Scriptures; and all My disciples who wish to prosper should listen to these eight holy scriptures, and the brahmanas under my shelter should learn and teach these holy scriptures, and read them to others."
  • Swami Sivananda, in his twenty important spiritual instructions, stated that the Vishnusahasranama, along with other religious texts, should be studied systematically.[29]

Quotes

  • Sri N. Krishnamachari, a Vaishnavite scholar, at Stephen Knapp's website, quoting Vaishnavite scholars, states that there are six reasons for the greatness of Vishnusahasranama:
  • 1) "Vishnusahasranama is the essence of the Mahabharata;
  • 2) Great sages such as Narada, the Alvars, and composers including Saint Tyagaraja have made repeated references to the "Thousand Names of Vishnu" in their devotional works;
  • 3) The person who strung together the thousand names as part of the Mahabharata and preserved it for the world was none other than Sage Veda Vyasa, the compiler of the Vedas;
  • 4) Bhishma considered chanting of the Vishnusahasranama the best and easiest of all dharmas, or the means to attain relief from all bondage;
  • 5) It is widely accepted that the chanting this Stotram gives relief from all sorrows, and leads to happiness and peace of mind;
  • 6) Vishnusahasranama is in conformity with the teachings of the Gita." [30]

In this way we find all the scriptures aiming at the Supreme Person. In the Rig Veda (1.22.20) the mantra is om tad vishnoh paramam padam sada pashyanti surayah ("The demigods are always looking to that supreme abode of Vishnu"). The whole Vedic process, therefore, is to understand Lord Vishnu, and any scripture is directly or indirectly chanting the glories of the Supreme Lord, Vishnu."[31]

sri rama rama rameti rame rame manorame
  sahasranama tat tulyam rama nama varanane

This translates to:

O Varanana (lovely-faced lady), I chant the holy name of Rama, Rama, Rama and thus constantly enjoy this beautiful sound. This holy name of Sri Rama is equal to one thousand holy names of Lord Vishnu." (Brhad Visnusahasranamastotra, Uttara-khanda, Padma Purana 72.335)

sahasra-namnam punyanam, trir-avrttya tu yat phalam
 ekavrttya tu krsnasya, namaikam tat prayacchati

This translates to:

"The pious results (punya) achieved by chanting the thousand holy names of Vishnu (Vishnusahasranama-Stotram) three times can be attained by only one utterance of the holy name of Krishna."

yo mam nama sahasrena stotum icchati pandava
sohamekena slokena stuta eva na samsaya

This translates to:

"Arjuna, One may be desirous of praising by reciting the thousand names. But, on my part, I feel praised by one sloka. There is no doubt about it."[14]

  • From the oldest scriptural text in Hinduism, the Rig Veda; V.I.15b.3, it states:

"O ye who wish to gain realization of the Supreme Truth, utter the name of "Vishnu" at least once in the steadfast faith that it will lead you to such realization."

Commentaries

The Vishnu Sahasranama has been the subject of numerous commentaries:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ A tatpurusha compound

Bibliography

  • Sharma, B. N. Krishnamurti (2000). A History of the Dvaita School of Ved?nta and Its Literature, Vol 1. 3rd Edition. Motilal Banarsidass (2008 Reprint). ISBN 978-8120815759.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)

Footnotes

  1. ^ http://www.hinduassociationhk.com/Mantras_Vishnu_Sahasranama.pdf
  2. ^ D. Kinsley (1974), Through the Looking Glass, History of Religions, 13(4), pp. 270-305
  3. ^ http://www.astrojyoti.com/sikhsahasranama.htm
  4. ^ "The Mahabharata in Sanskrit: Book 13: Chapter 135". www.sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 2016.
  5. ^ For IAST version of Sanskrit for these verses, see: Sankaranarayan 1996, pp. 2-5.
  6. ^ For Sanskrit text and translation, see: Tapasyananda, pp. 3-4.
  7. ^ Sankara Bhashya on Vishnusahasranaama
  8. ^ Tapasyananda, pg. iv.
  9. ^ Commentary to sloka 13, "yatra puMliGgashabdaprayOgaH, tatra viSNurvishESyaH; yatra strIliMga shabdaH, tatra dEvatA prayOgaH; yatra napuMsaliGga prayOgaH, tatra brahmEti vishEshyatE (where a word of masculine gender is used, the noun is Vishnu, in feminine gender the noun is Devata, and in neuter gender the noun is Brahma)", Transcription of Sankara's commentary to Vishnusahasranamastotra
  10. ^ Commentary to sloka 17 in Transcription of Sankara's commentary to Vishnusahasranamastotra, "sivAdi nAmabhiH hariH eva stUyate"
  11. ^ http://www.ahobilavalli.org/vishnu_sahasra_namam_vol1.pdf
  12. ^ a b Tapasyananda, pg. 47.
  13. ^ Bhag-P 4.4.14 "Siva means mangala, or auspicious"
  14. ^ a b "Srivaishnavism". Archived from the original on 20 February 2008. Retrieved 2008.
  15. ^ Foreword of P. Sankaranarayan's translation of Vishnu sahasranama, Bhavan's Book University
  16. ^ Tapasyananda, Swami. Sri Vishnu Sahasranama, pg. 62.
  17. ^ Tapasyananda, Swami. Sri Vishnu Sahasranama, pgs. 48, 49, 87, 96 and 123.
  18. ^ a b Tapasyananda, Swami. Sri Vishnu Sahasranama, pg. 48.
  19. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 December 2004. Retrieved 2004.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link), story #53
  20. ^ http://www.kamakotimandali.com/srividya/saptashati.html
  21. ^ a b c Brihat Parashara Hora Shastra, Vol. 2, p. 740, by Maharshi Parashara, with translation, commentary and editing by R. Santhana, Ranjan Publications, New Delhi, India
  22. ^ http://www.carakasamhitaonline.com/mediawiki-1.32.1/index.php?s=Jwara_Chikitsa
  23. ^ Vijaya Kumar, The Thousand Names of Vishnu
  24. ^ B.K. Chaturvedi, Vishnu Puran, page 126[clarification needed]
  25. ^ Swami-Krishnananda.org English translation, IAST Sanskrit
  26. ^ Bhaja Govindam: kamakoti.org
  27. ^ a b c "On the Buddha in verse". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 16 December 2005.
  28. ^ Shree Swaminarayan Temple Cardiff - Scriptures - Shikshapatri
  29. ^ 20 Important Spiritual Instructions
  30. ^ http://www.stephen-knapp.com/thousand_names_of_the_supreme.htm
  31. ^ The Krishna Consciousness Movement is the Genuine Vedic Way
  32. ^ https://franklin.library.upenn.edu/catalog/FRANKLIN_99878993503681
  33. ^ http://antaryami.net/darpanam/sri-vishnu-sahasranamam-bhagavad-guna-darpanam/
  34. ^ Sharma 2000, p. 452.
  35. ^ Sharma 2000, p. 496.
  36. ^ Sharma, p. 508.

References

Further reading

  • Sanskrit & Hindi: Sri Vishnu Sahasranama, Gita Press, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh 273005, India
  • Sanskrit & English: The Thousand Names of Vishnu and the Satyanarayana Vrat, translated by Swami Satyananda Saraswati, Devi Mandir, Napa.

Other translations:

  • Sanskrit & Gujarati: Sri Vishnu Sahasranama Stotram; translated by Shri Yogeshwarji, India @ www.swargarohan.org
  • Sanskrit & English: Sri Vishnu Sahasranama Stotram; translated by Swami Vimalananda, Sri Ramakrishna Tapovanam, Tiruchirapalli, India, 1985

External links


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