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A velopharyngeal fricative, more commonly known as a velopharyngeal snort, is a sound produced by some people with a cleft palate, whereby turbulent air is forced through a restricted velopharyngeal port into the nasal cavity. Its symbol in the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for disordered speech is ⟨?⟩.
A posterior nasal fricative is a type of velopharyngeal fricative in which the soft palate approaches the pharyngeal wall without closing off the velopharyngeal port, allowing frication through the nasal passages. The articulation may be aided by a posterior positioning of the tongue and may involve velar flutter (a snorting sound). The sound is used as a substitute for sibilants (/s, z, ?, ?/), which cannot be produced with a cleft palate.
Secondary velopharyngeal frication during a consonant is indicated with a double tilde, as in [s?].