Vector of Ones
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Vector of Ones

In mathematics, a matrix of ones or all-ones matrix is a matrix where every element is equal to one.[1] Examples of standard notation are given below:

${\displaystyle J_{2}={\begin{pmatrix}1&1\\1&1\end{pmatrix}};\quad J_{3}={\begin{pmatrix}1&1&1\\1&1&1\\1&1&1\end{pmatrix}};\quad J_{2,5}={\begin{pmatrix}1&1&1&1&1\\1&1&1&1&1\end{pmatrix}};\quad J_{1,2}={\begin{pmatrix}1&1\end{pmatrix}}.\quad }$

Some sources call the all-ones matrix the unit matrix,[2] but that term may also refer to the identity matrix, a different matrix.

A vector of ones or all-ones vector is matrix of ones having row or column form.

## Properties

For an n × n matrix of ones J, the following properties hold:

• The trace of J is n,[3] and the determinant is 1 if n is 1, or 0 otherwise.
• The characteristic polynomial of J is ${\displaystyle (x-n)x^{n-1}}$.
• The rank of J is 1 and the eigenvalues are n with multiplicity 1 and 0 with multiplicity n - 1.[4]
• ${\displaystyle J^{k}=n^{k-1}J}$ for ${\displaystyle k=1,2,\ldots .}$[5]
• J is the neutral element of the Hadamard product.[6]

When J is considered as a matrix over the real numbers, the following additional properties hold:

## Applications

The all-ones matrix arises in the mathematical field of combinatorics, particularly involving the application of algebraic methods to graph theory. For example, if A is the adjacency matrix of a n-vertex undirected graph G, and J is the all-ones matrix of the same dimension, then G is a regular graph if and only if AJ = JA.[7] As a second example, the matrix appears in some linear-algebraic proofs of Cayley's formula, which gives the number of spanning trees of a complete graph, using the matrix tree theorem.

## References

1. ^ Horn, Roger A.; Johnson, Charles R. (2012), "0.2.8 The all-ones matrix and vector", Matrix Analysis, Cambridge University Press, p. 8, ISBN 9780521839402.
2. ^
3. ^ Stanley, Richard P. (2013), Algebraic Combinatorics: Walks, Trees, Tableaux, and More, Springer, Lemma 1.4, p. 4, ISBN 9781461469988.
4. ^
5. ^ a b Timm, Neil H. (2002), Applied Multivariate Analysis, Springer texts in statistics, Springer, p. 30, ISBN 9780387227719.
6. ^ Smith, Jonathan D. H. (2011), Introduction to Abstract Algebra, CRC Press, p. 77, ISBN 9781420063721.
7. ^ Godsil, Chris (1993), Algebraic Combinatorics, CRC Press, Lemma 4.1, p. 25, ISBN 9780412041310.