Upper West Side
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Upper West Side

Upper West Side
The Upper West Side on the left, and Central Park on the right, as seen from the Top of the Rock observatory at Rockefeller Center. In the distance is the Hudson River on the far left, and the George Washington Bridge in the background.
The Upper West Side and Central Park as seen from Top of the Rock observatory at Rockefeller Center. In the distance is the Hudson River and George Washington Bridge.
Location in New York City
Coordinates: 40°47?13?N 73°58?30?W / 40.787°N 73.975°W / 40.787; -73.975Coordinates: 40°47?13?N 73°58?30?W / 40.787°N 73.975°W / 40.787; -73.975
CountryUnited States
StateNew York
CityNew York City
 o Total1,222.7 acres (494.8 ha)
 o Land1,222.7 acres (494.8 ha)
 o Water0 acres (0 ha)  0%
 o Total209,084
 o Density110,000/sq mi (42,000/km2)
 2010 figures for Manhattan CB 7
 o White67.4%
 o Hispanic15.0%
 o Black7.6%
 o Asian7.6%
 o Other2.4%
ZIP Code
10023, 10024, 10025, 10069
Area code(s)212, 646, 332, 917

The Upper West Side, sometimes abbreviated UWS,[2] is a neighborhood in the borough of Manhattan, New York City, that lies between Central Park and the Hudson River and between West 59th Street and West 110th Street.[3]

Like the Upper East Side, the Upper West Side is an affluent, primarily residential area with many of its residents working in commercial areas of Midtown and Lower Manhattan. It has the reputation of being New York City's cultural and intellectual hub, with Columbia University and Barnard College located just past the north end of the neighborhood, and the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts located at the south end. The Upper West Side is considered to be among New York City's wealthiest neighborhoods.[4]


Verdi Square at the intersection of Broadway and Amsterdam Avenue. The 72nd Street subway station is in the center of the square.

Upper West Side is bounded on the south by 59th Street, Central Park to the east, the Hudson River to the west, and 110th Street to the north.[5] The area north of West 96th Street and east of Broadway is also identified as Manhattan Valley. The overlapping area west of Amsterdam Avenue to Riverside Park was once known as the Bloomingdale District.

From west to east, the avenues of the Upper West Side are Riverside Drive, West End Avenue (11th Avenue), Broadway, Amsterdam Avenue (10th Avenue), Columbus Avenue (9th Avenue), and Central Park West (8th Avenue). The 66-block stretch of Broadway forms the spine of the neighborhood and runs diagonally north/south across the other avenues at the south end of the neighborhood; above 78th Street Broadway runs north parallel to the other avenues. Broadway enters the neighborhood at its juncture with Central Park West at Columbus Circle (59th Street), crosses Columbus Avenue at Lincoln Square (65th Street), Amsterdam Avenue at Verdi Square (71st Street), and then merges with West End Avenue at Straus Park (aka Bloomingdale Square, at 107th Street).

Traditionally the neighborhood ranged from the former village of Harsenville, centered on the old Bloomingdale Road (now Broadway) and 65th Street, west to the railroad yards along the Hudson, then north to 110th Street, where the ground rises to Morningside Heights. With the construction of Lincoln Center, its name, though perhaps not the reality, was stretched south to 58th Street. With the arrival of the corporate headquarters and expensive condos of the Time Warner Center at Columbus Circle, and the Riverside South apartment complex built by Donald Trump, the area from 58th Street to 65th Street is increasingly referred to as Lincoln Square by realtors who acknowledge a different tone and ambiance than that typically associated with the Upper West Side. This is a reversion to the neighborhood's historical name.


Native American and colonial use

A typical midblock view on the Upper West Side consisting of 4- and 5-story brownstones

The long high bluff above useful sandy coves along the North River was little used or traversed by the Lenape people.[6] A combination of the stream valleys, such as that in which 96th Street runs, and wetlands to the northeast and east, may have protected a portion of the Upper West Side from the Lenape's controlled burns;[7] lack of periodic ground fires results in a denser understory and more fire-intolerant trees, such as American Beech.

In the eighteenth and early nineteenth century, the Upper West Side-to-be contained some of colonial New York's most ambitious houses, spaced along Bloomingdale Road.[8] It became increasingly infilled with smaller, more suburban villas in the first half of the nineteenth century, and in the middle of the century, parts had become decidedly lower class.

Bloomingdale District

The name "Bloomingdale District" was used to refer to a part of the Upper West Side - the present-day Manhattan Valley neighborhood - located between 96th and 110th Streets and bounded on the east by Amsterdam Avenue and on the west by Riverside Drive, Riverside Park, and the Hudson River.

Its name was a derivation of the description given to the area by Dutch settlers to New Netherland, likely from Bloemendaal, a town in the tulip region.[9] The Dutch Anglicized the name to "Bloomingdale" or "the Bloomingdale District", to the west side of Manhattan from about 23rd Street up to the Hollow Way (modern 125th Street). It consisted of farms and villages along a road (regularized in 1703) known as the Bloomingdale Road. Bloomingdale Road was renamed The Boulevard in 1868, as the farms and villages were divided into building lots and absorbed into the city.[10] By the 18th century it contained numerous farms and country residences of many of the city's well-off, a major parcel of which was the Apthorp Farm. The main artery of this area was the Bloomingdale Road, which began north of where Broadway and the Bowery Lane (now Fourth Avenue) join (at modern Union Square) and wended its way northward up to about modern 116th Street in Morningside Heights, where the road further north was known as the Kingsbridge Road. Within the confines of the modern-day Upper West Side, the road passed through areas known as Harsenville,[11] Strycker's Bay, and Bloomingdale Village.

With the building of the Croton Aqueduct passing down the area between present day Amsterdam Avenue and Columbus Avenue in 1838-42, the northern reaches of the district became divided into Manhattan Valley to the east of the aqueduct and Bloomingdale to the west. Bloomingdale, in the latter half of the 19th century, was the name of a village that occupied the area just south of 110th street.[12]

Late 19th century development

Bloomingdale Playground, which retains the old name of Bloomingdale Road

Much of the riverfront of the Upper West Side was a shipping, transportation, and manufacturing corridor. The Hudson River Railroad line right-of-way was granted in the late 1830s to connect New York City to Albany, and soon ran along the riverbank. One major non-industrial development, the creation of Central Park in the 1850s and '60s, caused many squatters to move their shacks into the Upper West Side. Parts of the neighborhood became a ragtag collection of squatters' housing, boarding houses, and rowdy taverns.

As this development occurred, the old name of Bloomingdale Road was being chopped away and the name Broadway was progressively applied further northward to include what had been lower Bloomingdale Road. In 1868, the city began straightening and grading the section of the Bloomingdale Road from Harsenville north, and it became known as "Western Boulevard" or "The Boulevard". It retained that name until the end of the century, when the name Broadway finally supplanted it.

Development of the neighborhood lagged even while Central Park was being laid out in the 1860s and '70s, then was stymied by the Panic of 1873. Things turned around with the introduction of the Ninth Avenue elevated in the 1870s along Ninth Avenue (renamed Columbus Avenue in 1890), and with Columbia University's relocation to Morningside Heights in the 1890s, using lands once held by the Bloomingdale Insane Asylum.[13]

Riverside Park was conceived in 1866 and formally approved by the state legislature through the efforts of city parks commissioner Andrew Haswell Green. The first segment of park was acquired through condemnation in 1872, and construction soon began following a design created by the firm of Frederick Law Olmsted, who also designed the adjacent, gracefully curving Riverside Drive. In 1937, under the administration of commissioner Robert Moses, 132 acres (0.53 km2) of land were added to the park, primarily by creating a promenade that covered the tracks of the Hudson River Railroad. Moses, working with landscape architect Gilmore D. Clarke also added playgrounds, and distinctive stonework and the 79th Street Boat Basin, but also cut pedestrians off from direct access to most of the riverfront by building the Henry Hudson Parkway by the river's edge. According to Robert Caro's book on Moses, The Power Broker, Riverside Park was designed with most of the amenities located in predominantly white neighborhoods, with the neighborhoods closer to Harlem getting shorter shrift. Riverside Park, like Central Park, has undergone a revival late in the 20th century, largely through the efforts of the Riverside Park Fund, a citizen's group. Largely through their efforts and the support of the city, much of the park has been improved. The Hudson River Greenway along the river-edge of the park is a popular route for pedestrians and bicycle commuters, and offers spectacular vistas. A dramatic improvement is the $15.7 million "Riverwalk" extension to the park's greenway constructed between 83rd and 91st Streets on a promenade in the river itself, completed in May 2010.[14]

Early 20th century

Subway expansion

The Upper West Side experienced a building boom from 1885 to 1910, thanks in large part to the 1904 opening of the city's first subway line, which comprised, in part, what is now a portion of the IRT Broadway - Seventh Avenue Line, with subway stations at 59th, 66th, 72nd, 79th, 86th, 91st, 96th, 103rd, 110th, 116th, and 125th Streets. This followed upon the opening of the now demolished IRT Ninth Avenue Line - the city's first elevated railway - which opened in the decade following the American Civil War.

This further stimulated residential development of the area. The stately tall apartment blocks on West End Avenue and the townhouses on the streets between Amsterdam Avenue and Riverside Drive, which contribute to the character of the area, were all constructed during the pre-depression years of the twentieth century. A revolution in building techniques, the low cost of land relative to lower Manhattan, the arrival of the subway, and the democratization of the formerly expensive elevator made it possible to construct large apartment buildings for the middle classes. The large scale and style of these buildings is one reason why the neighborhood has remained largely unchanged into the twenty-first century.[12]

The neighborhood changed from the 1930s to the 1950s. In 1932, the IND Eighth Avenue Line opened under Central Park West.[15] In 1940, the elevated IRT Ninth Avenue Line over Columbus Avenue closed.[16] Immigrants from Eastern Europe and the Caribbean moved in during the '50s and the '60s.[17] The Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts opened in the 1960s.[18]


The Apthorp on West End Avenue

In the 1900s, the area south of 67th Street was heavily populated by African-Americans and supposedly gained its nickname of "San Juan Hill" in commemoration of African-American soldiers who were a major part of the assault on Cuba's San Juan Hill in the Spanish-American War. By 1960, it was a rough neighborhood of tenement housing, the demolition of which was delayed to allow for exterior shots in the film musical West Side Story. Thereafter, urban renewal brought the construction of the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts and Lincoln Towers apartments during 1962-1968.

The Upper West Side is a significant Jewish neighborhood, populated with both German Jews who moved in at the turn of last century, and Jewish refugees escaping Hitler's Europe in the 1930s. Today the area between 85th Street and 100th Street is home to the largest community of young Modern Orthodox singles outside of Israel.[19] However, the Upper West Side also features a substantial number of non-Orthodox Jews. A number of major synagogues are located in the neighborhood, including the oldest Jewish congregation in the United States, Shearith Israel; New York's second-oldest and the third-oldest Ashkenazi synagogue, B'nai Jeshurun; Rodeph Sholom; the Stephen Wise Free Synagogue; and numerous others.

Late 20th century urban renewal

From the post-WWII years until the AIDS epidemic, the neighborhood, especially below 86th Street, had a substantial gay population. As the neighborhood had deteriorated, it was affordable to working class gay men, and those just arriving in the city and looking for their first white collar jobs. Its ethnically mixed gay population, mostly Hispanic and white, with a mixture of income levels and occupations patronized the same gay bars in the neighborhood, making it markedly different from most gay enclaves elsewhere in the city. The influx of white gay men in the Fifties and Sixties is often credited with accelerating the gentrification of the Upper West Side.[20]

In a subsequent phase of urban renewal, the rail yards which had formed the Upper West Side's southwest corner were replaced by the Riverside South residential project, which included a southward extension of Riverside Park. The evolution of Riverside South had a 40-year history, often extremely bitter, beginning in 1962 when the New York Central Railroad, in partnership with the Amalgamated Lithographers Union, proposed a mixed-use development with 12,000 apartments, Litho City, to be built on platforms over the tracks. The subsequent bankruptcy of the enlarged, but short-lived Penn Central Railroad brought other proposals and prospective developers. The one generating the most opposition was Donald Trump's "Television City" concept of 1985, which would have included a 152-story office tower and six 75-story residential buildings. In 1991, a coalition of prominent civic organizations proposed a purely residential development of about half that size, and then reached a deal with Trump.[]

The community's links to the events of September 11, 2001 were evinced in Upper West Side resident and Pulitzer Prize winner David Halberstam's paean to the men of Ladder Co 40/Engine Co 35, just a few blocks from his home, in his book Firehouse.[21]

Today, this area is the site for several long-established charitable institutions; their unbroken parcels of land have provided suitably scaled sites for Columbia University and the Cathedral of Saint John the Divine, as well as for some vanished landmarks, such as the Schwab Mansion on Riverside Drive.

The name Bloomingdale is still used in reference to a part of the Upper West Side, essentially the location of old Bloomingdale Village, the area from about 96th Street up to 110th Street and from Riverside Park east to Amsterdam Avenue. The triangular block bound by Broadway, West End Avenue, 106th Street and 107th Street, although generally known as Straus Park (named for Isidor Straus and his wife Ida), was officially designated Bloomingdale Square in 1907. The neighborhood also includes the Bloomingdale School of Music and Bloomingdale neighborhood branch of the New York Public Library. Adjacent to the Bloomingdale neighborhood is a more diverse and less affluent subsection of the Upper West Side called Manhattan Valley, focused on the downslope of Columbus Avenue and Manhattan Avenue from about 96th Street up to 110th Street.


As of 2010, Manhattan Community Board 7 has a population of 209,084, which is down from 210,993 in 1990. Of the population, 140,850 (67.4%) are White non Hispanic, 31,347 (15%) of Hispanic origin, 15,834 (7.6%) are African American, 15,988 (7.6%) Asian or Pacific Islander, 221 (0.1%) American Indian or Native Alaskan, 671 (0.3%) of some other race, 4,173 (2%) of two or more race.[1]

Approximately 12.2% of the population benefits from public assistance as of 2012.[22]

The land area is 1.9 square miles (4.9 km2).[22]


Two subway lines serve the Upper West Side. The IRT Broadway - Seventh Avenue Line (, ​, and ​ trains) runs along Broadway. The IND Eighth Avenue Line (, ​, ​, and ​ trains) runs along Central Park West.[23]

There are five different bus routes - M5, M7, M10, M11, M104 buses - that go up and down the Upper West Side, and the M57 goes up West End Avenue for 15 blocks in the neighborhood. Additionally, crosstown routes include the M66, M72, M79 SBS, M86 SBS, M96, M106. The M20 terminates at Lincoln Center.[24]


Community Board 7

Community Board 7 (CB7) deals with land use and zoning matters, the City budget, municipal service delivery, and multiple community concerns of the Upper West Side.[25] CB7 covers the Upper West Side from 59th/60th Streets to 110th Street. NYPD Precincts 20 and 24 are in CB7's area.

New York City's Community Boards review data collected by the 311 Customer Service Center. 3-1-1 (3-1-1) is a non-emergency telephone number, and New York City releases monthly reports on the number of requests for services to 311.[26]

In CB7, 80% of the calls to 311 are either building complaints, noise complaints, city property damage/complaints, and lost and found property. The composition of the calls to 311 vary on a monthly basis due to weather. For instance, there were 79 total calls to 311 in October 2012 regarding damaged or dead trees in the wake of Hurricane Sandy, which reached New York City at the end of that month. In the next month, daily calls regarding trees dropped 25%, while daily calls regarding heating increased 58%. The largest number of calls to 311 in the most recent reporting month of November 2012 were referenced to the Department of Housing Preservation and Development regarding heating. The next highest was for residential noise complaints.[26][27]

Category[26] Nov. '11 Oct. '12 Nov. '12 Sequential % chg. Year-over-Year % chg.
Building complaints 1,003 1,081 1,148 6% 14%
Heating (w/in building complaints) 381 438 669 53% 76%
Noise complaints 578 552 480 -13% -17%
City property damage/complaints 454 416 262 -37% -42%
Damaged/dead tree (w/in city complaints) 29 76 57 -28% 97%
Lost property 327 221 216 -2% -34%
All other calls 779 632 527 -17% -32%
Total calls 3,141 2,902 2,633 -9% -16%
Per day 105 97 88 -9% -16%


The 20th Precinct[28] covers the Upper West Side from 59th Street to 86th Street. This precinct area also includes Neighborhood Tabulation Areas (NTAs) for the Upper West Side (mn12) and Lincoln Square (mn14).[29]

Recent data indicates that crime, after declining steadily for many years, bottomed in 2011. Information from the NYPD indicates total crime complaints have increased approximately 15% in the last year.[30] Citywide crime complaints have increased 4%. This tabulation includes all types of crime complaints, from murders to petit larceny. Crime complaints increased this year in Precinct 20 for almost all of the CompStat categories, except for misdemeanor assaults. There were 2,058 crime complaints year-to-date as of November 25, 2012, up from 1,789 crime complaints in the same time period a year ago.

From 2000 to 2010 the population in precinct 20 increased by 1,674 people, up 1% annually.[29] In comparison, but not in exactly the same time period, crime complaints decreased by 2% annually from 2001 to 2011.

The 24th Precinct[28] covers the west side from 86th Street to 110th Street.

Buildings and structures

Westside YMCA
Jewish Guild for the Blind
American Museum of Natural History


Organization headquarters



Preschool to 12th grade

All public non-charter schools are operated by the New York City Department of Education.

PS 163
Higher education


Fourth Universalist Society in the City of New York
Blessed Sacrament Roman Catholic Church
The landmark building of West-Park Presbyterian Church
The Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue, Congregation Shearith Israel, is the oldest Jewish congregation in the U.S. (est. 1654)

Other historical sites

To the Heroes of the Fire Department


View from 79th Street and West End Avenue

The apartment buildings along Central Park West, facing the park, are some of the most desirable apartments in New York. The Dakota at 72nd St. has been home to numerous celebrities including John Lennon, Leonard Bernstein and Lauren Bacall. Other famous buildings on CPW include the Art Deco Century Apartments (Irwin Chanin, 1931), and The Majestic, also by Chanin. The San Remo, The Eldorado and The Beresford were all designed by Emery Roth, as was 41 West 96th Street (completed in 1926). His first commission, the Belle Époque Belleclaire, is on Broadway, while the moderne Normandie holds forth on Riverside at 86th Street. Along Broadway are several Beaux-Arts apartment houses: The Belnord (1908) - the fronting block of which was co-named in honor of longtime resident I.B. Singer, plus The Apthorp (1908), The Ansonia (1902), The Dorilton and the Manhasset.[47] All are individually designated New York City landmarks. Curvilinear Riverside Drive also has many beautiful pre-war houses and larger buildings, including the graceful curving apartment buildings - The Paterno and The Colosseum by Schwartz & Gross - at 116th St and Riverside Drive. West End Avenue, a grand residential boulevard lined with pre-war Beaux-Arts apartment buildings and townhouses dating from the late-19th and early 20th centuries, is closed to commercial traffic. Columbus Avenue north of 87th Street was the spine for major post-World War II urban renewal. Broadway is lined with such architecturally notable apartment buildings as The Ansonia, The Apthorp, The Belnord, the Astor Court Building, and The Cornwall, which features an Art Nouveau cornice.[48][49] Newly constructed 15 Central Park West and 535 West End Avenue are known to be some of the prestigious residential addresses in Manhattan.

Restaurants and gourmet groceries

Sidewalk cafe on Broadway and 112th Street
Two popular groceries on Broadway: Fairway left, Citarella right

Both Broadway and Amsterdam Avenue from 67th Street up to 110th Street are lined with restaurants and bars, as is Columbus Avenue to a slightly lesser extent. The following lists a few prominent ones:

  • Barney Greengrass, specializing in fish at Amsterdam Avenue and 86th Street; featured in the 2011 film Extremely Loud & Incredibly Close. It marked its centenary in June 2008.[50]
  • The Howard Chandler Christie murals of Café des Artistes, a now-closed French restaurant on West 67th Street off Central Park West, are being incorporated into a new restaurant on the site.
  • Cafe Lalo, dessert and coffee venue at 83rd Street and Amsterdam Avenue, opened in 1988 and featured in the 1998 movie You've Got Mail.[51]
  • Community Food and Juice, an eco-conscious restaurant at 2893 Broadway between 112th and 113th Streets.[52]
  • Two gourmet grocery stores, Fairway and Citarella (originally a small fish market), are located on Broadway between West 74th Street and West 75th Street.
  • A branch of Gray's Papaya, which specializes in hot dogs, is located at Broadway and 72nd Street.
  • The original Zabar's is a specialty food and housewares store at Broadway and 80th Street.
  • A branch of Trader Joe's, the specialty grocer, opened at Broadway and 72nd Street in 2010.[53] Another Trader Joe's opened in 2018 on Columbus between 92nd and 93rd Street.[54]
  • Two branches of Whole Foods Market, one at Columbus Circle and another at Columbus Avenue and 97 Street.


American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is headquartered on West 66th Street in the Upper West Side.[55]

In popular culture

The Upper West Side has been a setting for many films and television shows because of its pre-War architecture, colorful community and rich cultural life. Ever since Edward R. Murrow went "Person-to-Person" live, the length of Central Park West in the 1950s, West Siders scarcely pause to gape at on-site trailers, and jump their skateboards over coaxial cables. At one time it seemed that one or another of the various Law & Order shows took up all the available parking spaces in the neighborhood. Woody Allen's film Hannah and Her Sisters captures that quintessential Upper West Side flavor of rambling high-ceilinged apartments, bursting at the seams with books and other cultural artifacts.


In alphabetical order:


In alphabetical order:

  • 30 Rock - Tina Fey's character Liz Lemon lives at 160 Riverside Drive.
  • Foley Square - Margaret Colin's character Alex Harrigan and Michael Lembeck's character Peter Newman live in an apartment building on the Upper West Side.
  • Gossip Girl - The Empire Hotel is Chuck Bass's hotel and is located at 64th Street and Broadway, just north of Columbus Circle.
  • How I Met Your Mother - Ted Mosby's apartment is located in Upper West Side, at 150 W. 85th Street, according to the episode Subway Wars.
  • Jessie - It is mentioned in Evil Times Two that the main characters' apartment is located on the Upper West Side at 320 Central Park West.
  • Mad Men - It is mentioned in season 6, episode 2, that Peggy and Abe live in an apartment on the Upper West Side.
  • The Marvelous Mrs. Maisel - It is mentioned in season 1, episode 1 (and other episodes), that Mrs. Maisel lives in Upper West Side.
  • The Night Of - It is mentioned in season 1, episode 1, that the murder which is the primary focus of the storyline occurred at a residence on the Upper West Side.
  • The Odd Couple - In one episode (season 4, episode 6), Oscar and Felix give the address of their apartment as West 74th Street and Central Park West (series star Tony Randall actually did live at The San Remo on CPW between West 74th and 75th Streets), although in another episode, the guys' address is given as 1095 Park Avenue, all the way across Manhattan on the Upper East Side. The original Neil Simon stage play from which the subsequent film and various TV adaptions were derived was set on Riverside Drive in the West 80s.
  • Ryan's Hope - The series' principal family, the Ryans, lived and owned a bar on the Upper West Side.
  • Seinfeld - Jerry Seinfeld as the character in the series lived at 129 West 81st Street, though the establishing exterior shots were of a building in Los Angeles; the series used authentic exteriors from locations such as Tom's Restaurant and H&H Bagels. (Jerry Seinfeld himself is an owner of an apartment in The Beresford at 81st Street and Central Park West.)
  • Sex and the City - The series used many locations, including Gray's Papaya, Zabar's, and Charlotte's (275 CPW) and Miranda's (250 W. 85th) apartments.
  • Will & Grace - Will lives in 155 Riverside Drive, Apartment 9C. Jack lives in 155 Riverside Drive, Apartment 9A.
  • Broad City - Ilana and Abbi go to the UWS.


In alphabetical order:



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  7. ^ Sanderson 2009, map "Native American Fires" p. 127.
  8. ^ A colonial brick house with a hipped roof, above a lawn neatly enclosed by a white picket fence sloping down to the Bloomingdale Road appears in a daguerreotype of c. 1848 that was sold at Sotheby's New York, 30 March 2009.
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  13. ^ "Bloomingdale Insane Asylum - WikiCU, the Columbia University wiki encyclopedia". Wikicu.com. Retrieved 2014.
  14. ^ "NYC Parks Press Release". Nycgovparks.org. November 13, 2004. Retrieved 2014.
  15. ^ "Gay Midnight Crowd Rides First Trains in New Subway". The New York Times. September 10, 1932. p. 1.
  16. ^ "www.nycsubway.org: The 9th Avenue Elevated-Polo Grounds Shuttle". Retrieved 2016.
  17. ^ Waxman, Sarah. "The History of the Upper West Side", NY.com. Accessed July 7, 2007. "Home to such venerable New York landmarks as Lincoln Center, Columbia University, the Cathedral of St. John the Divine, the Dakota Apartments, and Zabar's food emporium, the Upper West Side stretches from 59th Street to 125th Street, including Morningside Heights. It is bounded by Central Park on the east and the Hudson River on the west."
  18. ^ "About Lincoln Center", City Realty.
  19. ^ Bleyer, Jennifer (August 9, 2008). "Marriage on Their Minds". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012.
  20. ^ "Travel > Walking Tour of the Upper West Side". The New York Times. October 29, 2002. Retrieved 2014.
  21. ^ "Halberstam's Heroes", Firehouse review by John Homans, New York, (undated)
  22. ^ a b "Manhattan Community Board 7 Profile" (PDF). The City of New York. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 14, 2014.
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  24. ^ "Manhattan Bus Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. December 2017. Retrieved 2018.
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  30. ^ "NYPD - Office of the Chief of Department". Nyc.gov. February 16, 2011. Retrieved 2014.
  31. ^ "Contact Us." College Board. Retrieved on May 29, 2009.
  32. ^ http://www.lincolncenter.org/load_screen.asp?screen=visitorinfo_hallinfo_dp Archived November 20, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ "The Church of St Paul the Apostle". www.stpaultheapostle.org. Retrieved 2016.
  34. ^ "The Church of St Paul the Apostle". www.stpaultheapostle.org. Retrieved 2016.
  35. ^ "Redeemer". Archived from the original on May 11, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
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  37. ^ Toibin, Colm (April 13, 2001). "MY MANHATTAN; Mais Non! Forte, Please! Ay-Yi-Yi!". The New York Times.
  38. ^ Richard D. Lyons (March 27, 1988). "West Side Landmark to Become a Hostel". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014.
  39. ^ "Potomac Horse Center - Claremont Riding Academy". Potomachorse.com. Retrieved 2014.
  40. ^ Fernandez, Manny (May 26, 2007). "The Last of the Last: 3 Horses in a Stable of Empty Stalls". The New York Times.
  41. ^ East River Savings Bank, neighborhoodpreservationcenter.org.
  42. ^ "Riverside Park Monuments - Firemen's Memorial : NYC Parks". Nycgovparks.org. Retrieved 2014.
  43. ^ http://www.riversideparkfund.org/visit/joan-of-arc-monument Archived January 25, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  44. ^ Username or bar code:. "St. Agnes Library | The New York Public Library". Nypl.org. Retrieved 2014.
  45. ^ a b "New York Division of Military and Naval Affairs". dmna.ny.gov. Retrieved 2014.
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Further reading

External links

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