Upper Sorbian Language
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Upper Sorbian Language
Upper Sorbian
hornjoserbina, hornjoserbsce
Pronunciation['hnjsp?tina]
Native toGermany
RegionSaxony, Brandenburg
EthnicitySorbs
Native speakers
13,000 (2007)[1]
Latin (Sorbian alphabet)
Official status
Official language in
Regional language in Brandenburg and Saxony.
Language codes
hsb
hsb
Glottologuppe1395[2]
Linguasphere53-AAA-bb < 53-AAA-b < 53-AAA-b...-d (varieties: 53-AAA-bba to 53-AAA-bbf)
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Upper Sorbian (hornjoserbina) is a minority language spoken by Sorbs in Germany in the historical province of Upper Lusatia, which is today part of Saxony. It is grouped in the West Slavic language branch, together with Lower Sorbian, Czech, Polish, Slovak and Kashubian.

History

The history of the Upper Sorbian language in Germany began with the Slavic migrations during the 6th century AD. Beginning in the 12th century, there was a massive influx of rural Germanic settlers from Flanders, Saxony, Thuringia and Franconia. This so-called "Ostsiedlung" (eastern settlement or expansion) led to a slow but steady decline in use of the Sorbian language. In addition, in the Saxony region, the Sorbian language was legally subordinated to the German language. Language prohibitions were later added: In 1293, the Sorbian language was forbidden in Berne castle before the courts; in 1327 it was forbidden in Zwickau and Leipzig, and from 1424 on it was forbidden in Meissen. Further, there was the condition in many guilds of the cities of the area to accept only members of German-language origin.

However, the central areas of the Milzener and Lusitzer, in the area of today's Lusatia, were relatively unaffected by the new German language settlements and legal restrictions. The language therefore flourished there. By the 17th century, the number of Sorbian speakers in that area grew to over 300,000. The oldest evidence of written Upper Sorbian is the Burger Eydt Wendisch monument, which was discovered in the city of Bautzen and dates to the year 1532.

Upper Sorbian in Germany

A bilingual sign in Germany; German in first place and Upper Sorbian in second

There are an estimated 20,000 to 25,000 speakers of Upper Sorbian. Almost all of these live in the state of Saxony, chiefly in the district of Bautzen (Budy?in). The stronghold of the language is the village of Crostwitz (Chrós?icy) and the surrounding municipalities, especially to the west of it. In this core area, Upper Sorbian remains the predominant vernacular.

Phonology

Vowels

The vowel inventory of Upper Sorbian is exactly the same as that of Lower Sorbian.[3] It is also very similar to the vowel inventory of Slovene.

  • /i/ is mid-centralized to after hard consonants.[5]
  • /e, o/ are diphthongized to [i, u] in slow speech.[3][6]
  • The /e-?/ and /o-?/ distinctions are weakened or lost in unstressed syllables.[7]

Consonants

Consonant phonemes[3][8]
Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Palatal Velar/
Uvular
Glottal
hard soft hard soft soft hard soft hard
Nasal m m? n ?
Plosive voiceless p p? t k
voiced b b? d ?
Affricate voiceless t?s (t?s?) t
voiced (d?z) d
Fricative voiceless f s ? x
voiced (v) z (z?) ? ?
Trill ?
Approximant ? ? l j
  • /v, d?z, t?s?, z?/ are very rare.[9][10][11]
  • /?/ is a somewhat velarized bilabial approximant , whereas /?/ (the soft counterpart of /?/) is a strongly palatalized bilabial approximant .[12]
  • /?, / are uvular [?, ]. The alveolar realization [r, r?] is archaic.[13]
  • In most dialects, /t, d, ?, ?/ are palato-alveolar. This is unlike Lower Sorbian, where these consonants are laminal retroflex (flat postalveolar) [t, ?, ?] (Lower Sorbian /t/ does not have a voiced counterpart).[14][15] Laminal retroflex realizations of /?, ?/[what about the affricates /t, d/?] also occur in Upper Sorbian dialects spoken in some villages north of Hoyerswerda.[16][17]
  • An aspirated [k?] is a morpheme-initial allophone of /x/ in some cases, as well as a possible word-initial allophone of /k/.[18]

Samples

The Lord's Prayer in Upper Sorbian:

Wót?e na?, ki? sy w njebjesach. Swje? so Twoje mjeno. P?i?d? Twoje kralestwo. Sta? so Twoja wola, ka? na njebju, tak na zemi. Wdny chl?b na? daj nam d?ens. Wodaj nam na?e winy, jako my te? wodawamy swojim winikam. A njewjed? nas do spytowanja, ale wumó? nas wot z?eho. Amen.

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Upper Sorbian:

W?itcy owjekojo su wot naroda swobodni a su jenacy po dostojnos?i a prawach. Woni su z rozumom a sw?domjom wobdarjeni a maja mjezsobu w duchu bratrowstwa wobchad?e?.

(All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.)[19]

See also

References

  1. ^ Upper Sorbian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Upper Sorbian". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ a b c d Stone (2002), p. 600.
  4. ^ ?ewc-Schuster (1984), p. 20.
  5. ^ ?ewc-Schuster (1984:34). The author states that [?] is less front and somewhat lower than [i], but unlike Russian [?], it is front, not central.
  6. ^ ?ewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 32-33.
  7. ^ Stone (2002), pp. 601, 606-607.
  8. ^ ?ewc-Schuster (1984), p. 46.
  9. ^ ?ewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 36, 38.
  10. ^ Stone (2002), pp. 603-604.
  11. ^ Zygis (2003), p. 191.
  12. ^ ?ewc-Schuster (1984:36-37, 41, 46). On page 36, the author states that Upper Sorbian /?/ is less velar than Polish /w/. The weakness of the velarization is confirmed by the corresponding image on page 37.
  13. ^ Stone (2002), p. 602.
  14. ^ ?ewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 40-41.
  15. ^ Zygis (2003), pp. 180-181, 190-191.
  16. ^ ?ewc-Schuster (1984), p. 41.
  17. ^ Zygis (2003), p. 180.
  18. ^ ?ewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 26-27, 42-43.
  19. ^ Sorbian at Omniglot.com

Bibliography

  • ?ewc-Schuster, Hinc (1984), Gramatika hornjo-serbskeje re, Budy?in: Ludowe nak?adnistwo Domowina
  • Stone, Gerald (2002), "Sorbian (Upper and Lower)", in Comrie, Bernard; Corbett, Greville G. (eds.), The Slavonic Languages, London and New York: Routledge, pp. 593-685, ISBN 9780415280785
  • Zygis, Marzena (2003), "Phonetic and Phonological Aspects of Slavic Sibilant Fricatives" (PDF), ZAS Papers in Linguistics, 3: 175-213

External links

Dictionaries

Czech-Sorbian and Sorbian-Czech

German-Sorbian

Sorbian-German


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