Up Where We Belong
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Up Where We Belong
"Up Where We Belong"
Upwherewebelongcover.jpg
Single by Joe Cocker and Jennifer Warnes
from the album An Officer and a Gentleman
"Sweet Lil' Woman" (Cocker only)
Released July 1982 (1982-07)
Format
Recorded Los Angeles, 1982
Length
  • 4:00 (single)
  • 3:55 (album)
Label Island
Will Jennings
Stewart Levine
Joe Cocker singles chronology
"Talking Back to the Night"
(1982)
"Up Where We Belong"
(1982)
"Threw It Away"
(1983)
Jennifer Warnes singles chronology
"Come to Me"
(1982)
"Up Where We Belong"
(1982)
"Nights Are Forever"
(1983)

"Up Where We Belong" is a song written by Jack Nitzsche, Buffy Sainte-Marie and Will Jennings that was recorded by Joe Cocker and Jennifer Warnes for the 1982 film An Officer and a Gentleman. It reached record stores in July of that year to coincide with the release of the film. The song is about the belief that love can withstand the struggles of a relationship and make it stronger.

There were many temporary setbacks in making the record. The budget for the film did not allow for a new song to be written and produced. The film's director didn't think Warnes had the kind of voice he wanted until she recommended that she sing a duet with Cocker, and the song's producer had to practically drag Cocker into the studio to get him to record it. When the studio executives heard the finished product, they hated it and tried getting another song made in time to promote the film.

"Up Where We Belong" reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100 in the U.S. and topped the charts in several other countries. It also sold one million copies in the U.S. and was recognized by the Recording Industry Association of America as one of the Songs of the Century. Cocker and Warnes were awarded the Grammy for Best Pop Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocals, and Nitzsche, Sainte-Marie, and Jennings won both the Academy Award and Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song.

Background

On February 24, 1982, English rock and soul singer Joe Cocker performed "I'm So Glad I'm Standing Here Today" with the jazz group the Crusaders at the Grammy Awards.[1] Their collaboration on the song for a Crusaders album had earned a nomination that year in the category of Best Inspirational Performance.[2] Singer-songwriter Jennifer Warnes saw the show from home.[3] She had been a fan of Cocker's since her teens and at one time had a poster of him on her wall showing him performing at Woodstock,[4] so this was a special moment. "I was so moved, I was hollering out loud with joy, jumping up and down ... After a difficult battle with drugs and alcohol, Joe was in total command once again. I knew at that moment that I would sing with Joe."[5]

Taylor Hackford at a ceremony for wife Helen Mirren to receive a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
Director Taylor Hackford was not budgeted for a new song to be produced for An Officer and a Gentleman.

Meanwhile, plans were being made for An Officer and a Gentleman to be distributed by Paramount Pictures, and studio executive Frank Mancuso was "very adamant about designing some kind of music element that would help pre-sell the movie."[6] The film's director, Taylor Hackford, was also interested in producing an original title song to help market it, but there was no money in the film's budget for such a recording.[7] He forged ahead on the idea, anyway, working with Joel Sill, who was head of music at Paramount at the time, without anyone else at the studio knowing that they were doing so.[7] The director contacted his friend Gary George to consult with regarding the selection of a recording artist for the song.[7] George, the former head of publicity at Warner Bros. Records, had recently become a manager and suggested Warnes, who was a client of his.[7]

The original idea to sing with Joe was mine. - Jennifer Warnes[8]

Among the half dozen songs that Warnes had placed in the top half of the Billboard Hot 100 at that point was the number six hit "Right Time of the Night" from 1977.[9] Her soundtrack credits included the Oscar-nominated "One More Hour" from Ragtime and the Oscar-winning "It Goes Like It Goes" from Norma Rae,[8] which, like the Hackford film, also had a lead female character who worked in a factory. Hackford initially rejected the idea of Warnes singing a song for An Officer and a Gentleman "because he felt she had too sweet a sound,"[10] but Warnes met with Sill and discussed the possibility of doing so: "I suggested to Joel that I sing on that film in a duet with Joe Cocker."[8] Sill thought this was an interesting idea[8] but needed to convince Hackford of that. He said, "I discussed with Taylor, since the film centered really around Richard [Gere] and Debra [Winger] primarily, that maybe we should have a duet"[6] and that with Cocker and Warnes they would be "matching the characters to some degree. The dynamic between the two was the soft and the rough, that, to some degree, Debra Winger's character was very, very soft in the picture, even though she was in a rough environment. And Richard Gere's character, to some degree, was really a rough character until he was softened up by her."[6] Hackford "thought the duet could be very exciting"[10] and now had another friend in the music industry to ask for a favor: "I'd started in music, in public television, and I had done a show with Traffic years before. Chris Blackwell managed Traffic and had owned Island Records, and Joe Cocker was now recording for Island. I called Chris and said I want to do this, and he just, on the phone, said, 'OK, I'll make this happen.'"[11] What would initially convince Cocker to work on the project, however, was a small portion of the lyrics. He described it as "the 'Up' part, which is what made me realize it had hit potential. It was so unusual - that 'Love, lift us up ...'"[12]

Composition and lyrics

The last scene of the movie brought the story to a happy ending, and Hackford said, "I wanted to have a song at the end of this film that would cap that romantic spirit. Jack Nitzsche and Buffy Saint-Marie, his then-wife, had written the theme for this, and I wanted a song based on that theme."[11] Nitzsche wanted to have Sainte-Marie write the lyrics, but Sill explained why they rejected that idea. "She, kind of, was not in the genre that we were interested in, and I talked to Taylor about the lyricist I thought who would be great, who I'd worked with before."[6] That person, Will Jennings, was invited to the studio to view a rough cut of the film, which gave him inspiration for the structure and lyrics of what became "Up Where We Belong". "And all through the film I was hearing these bits and pieces of music, and at the end of it I had it in my head, you know, how there was a song. I heard a chorus here and a verse here and a bridge there, and so when I finished, Joel was there, and I said, 'Joel, just give me all the music from it,' all of Nitzsche's music, ' 'cause I got an idea.'"[13] When Jennings presented Hackford with his demo, the director said it was "a terrific song and really reflected--I mean, after all, it was based on the score of the film. The words fit the movie."[11]

According to Musicnotes.com by Alfred Music Publishing, "Up Where We Belong" is written in common time.[14] It is in the key of D major and sung in a vocal range from A3 to G5.[14] The lyrics "tell of the struggles of life and love and the obstacles in the way that we attempt to dodge."[8]

Recording and aftermath

I almost didn't want to record ["Up Where We Belong"]--the demo was dreadful! - Joe Cocker[12]

Sill described Stewart Levine as the "record producer who we felt would give us the right interpretation of the song, add some soulfulness to it and also make it a hit record at the same time,"[6] but Levine had reservations of his own: "I was living in a very rural part of upstate New York outside of Woodstock--kind of dropped out for a bit--and wasn't too keen on coming to California to make a record. But Will's involvement made me feel it was gonna be a good piece of work."[15] When Jennings played the demo over the phone for him, Levine responded that it was "great",[13] and Warnes was certain "Up Where We Belong" would be a hit.[8] Cocker, on the other hand, was a much tougher sell and, despite appreciating some of the lyrics, described the demo as "dreadful",[12] even though Jennings was the lyricist on "I'm So Glad I'm Standing Here Today" and his more recent single, "Talking Back to the Night".

Cocker wanted to make the recording by himself,[8] so Levine had Warnes record her vocals separately.[11] Cocker had taken a break from touring to fly to Los Angeles for the session, but when it came time to record he, as Hackford described it, "was terrified. He didn't even want to go into the studio. Stewart Levine had to go and talk him out of the hotel to get him there."[11] Cocker admitted, "I'd sat with the words in the afternoon but still hadn't remembered them, so we had to draw 'em up on big blocks of wood and stuff."[12] A recording was made where the two voices were spliced together,[11] but Warnes explained how persuasive their producer was in getting Cocker to agree to record the song alongside her: "Stewart Levine was gently insistent on the duet. Stewart understood that the contrast in our voices, the aural chemistry, would work. So Joe and I sang the song together. One or two takes, that was all."[8] Cocker came around to seeing a hit song once it was complete, saying, "I knew it was a number one. Other people were saying, 'Well ... perhaps', but I could just feel it."[16]

Hackford said that "the final version was absolute magic--or at least Joel and I thought so."[7] They now had to present this song that they weren't budgeted to make to the executives at Paramount. "When we played it for Michael Eisner and Don Simpson, they hated the record and said it would never be a hit."[7] Simpson even "bet Joel Sill a hundred bucks that it wouldn't be."[11] Hackford and Sill "called another prominent record executive, who said, 'Forget it. Jennifer Warnes has never had a hit song and Joe Cocker's a has-been.'"[17] Eisner and Simpson made Hackford "meet with various recording artist friends of theirs who tried to write songs, but their title songs didn't fit the movie."[7] Hackford said, "Finally, one of the famous artists who was involved looked at the movie and said, to his credit, 'Hey, I can write something, but it's not going to work as well as the song you've got.'"[17] Because they were running out of time before the film's release, Eisner and Simpson finally gave in, and "Up Where We Belong" made the final cut of the film[17] and was released as a single in July 1982.[18]

Reception

Some radio stations refused to play "Up Where We Belong", even going so far as to send their copies back to Island Records. Cocker said, "I remember going into their offices in New York. I walked in and I said, 'How's the single doing?' And this guy Mike Abrahams, who worked there, he said, 'This is how well it's doing'--and the office was piled with returns."[16] The single may have been recorded to promote the film, but, as Warnes pointed out, the success of the film, in a sense, was what sold the record: "The film was great, and one should never underestimate having a major film behind your song."[12]

Michael Eisner speaking at The UP Experience 2010 in October 2010.
Paramount President and CEO Michael Eisner hated "Up Where We Belong" and said it would never be a hit.

"Up Where We Belong" debuted on the Billboard Hot 100 in the issue dated August 21 of that year and enjoyed three weeks at number one during its 23 weeks there.[19] That same issue also marked its first appearance on the magazine's list of the 50 most popular Adult Contemporary songs in the U.S., where it stayed for 25 weeks, six of which were at its peak position at number three.[20] It also reached number seven on the UK Singles Chart in 1983[21] and received Silver certification from the British Phonographic Industry on February 1 of that year for reaching sales of 250,000 copies. [22] The Recording Industry Association of America awarded the song Platinum certification on January 17, 1989, for achieving sales of one million copies.[18]

Billboard reviewed the single at the time of its release in their July 31 issue. "This unlikely vocal pairing could prove less of a long shot than it sounds, given the recent gains made by other soundtrack associations. Add radio's ongoing affection for strong duets and a restrained performance by Cocker that matches him more sympathetically with Warnes's gentler style, and this track should find friends at A/C and mainstream pop stations."[23] Matthew Greenwald of AllMusic wrote, "A gospel-inspired piece of pop song craftsmanship, the song moves with an underlying grace and subtle beauty. Faith, virtue, and, yes, the power of love is at the lyrical core here, and [the songwriters] convey this with a literate and timeless style. Truly a modern-day pop standard."[24]

Awards and accolades

On January 29, 1983, Jennings, Nitzsche and Sainte-Marie won the Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song.[25] Cocker and Warnes won the Grammy Award for Best Pop Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocals on February 23 of that year.[26] Two months later, on April 11, the songwriters won the Academy Award for Best Original Song.[27] Their tune also won the BAFTA film award for Best Original Song in 1984.[28] On the Songs of the Century list compiled by the Recording Industry Association of America in 2001 the song comes in at number 323.[19] In 2004 it finished at number 75 on AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs survey of top tunes in American cinema, and in 2016 one of the duo's live renditions of the song came in at number 18 on Rolling Stone's list of the 20 Greatest Best Song Oscar Performances.[29]

Live performances

Singing with Joe was often risky and always thrilling - Jennifer Warnes[4]

Warnes described the agreement that she and Cocker had that "we toured the big wide world and never lip-synced once. That was our rule, no lip-syncing. Every performance was the real deal."[4] One of their earliest live appearances was on the November 20, 1982, episode of Solid Gold.[30]Saturday Night Live followed on February 5, 1983,[31] and their performance at the 25th Annual Grammy Awards came later that month, on February 23.[26] Backstage at the Grammys Warnes said about working with Cocker, "I was told it was the weirdest pairing ever,"[32] and regarding their April 11 appearance at the 55th Academy Awards,[33] she admitted, "Neither of us were comfortable in the Oscar world. Joe performing in a white tuxedo, me in pink taffeta--how absurd."[8]

In 2013 Cocker was honored in Berlin with a Goldene Kamera award,[34] and Warnes joined him to sing the song at the ceremony. The day after Cocker's death in 2014 Warnes wrote, "I realized yesterday that we will never sing our song again. That thought makes me feel sick. We met last year in Berlin to sing together. I didn't know that would be our last time."[4] Her visceral reaction to his death parallels the powerful chemistry they had in their many performances of the song, which she had summed up years earlier: "I always thought the pairing had a strong ring of truth to it. It was so unlikely, because Joe has this well-known, very raw, masculine energy. I was less well known and had this very vulnerable, quintessential female energy and we were very polarized, as men and women often are these days. But we met in the middle."[12]

Legacy

Joe Cocker en concert sur la scène Landaoudec lors du festival du bout du Monde à Crozon dans le Finistère (France).
Joe Cocker strayed from his rock/blues roots in recording "Up Where We Belong".

The success of "Up Where We Belong" was not without its drawbacks for Cocker. He admitted that Island Records owner Chris Blackwell also hated the song and "didn't even want to release it."[12] They had put out Cocker's first project for the label, Sheffield Steel, in June 1982, just a month before the song needed to be on store shelves if it was to coincide with the opening of the film.[35] Cocker said, "The song was recorded within a matter of hours. Sheffield Steel - I spent a year on that. And the single eclipsed it overnight."[16] But even ignoring its success, there was still the fact that the duet wasn't what Blackwell had envisioned for Cocker's output with the label. The singer said, "It wasn't R&B, and after doing Sheffield Steel it sort of rubbed him up the wrong way."[36]

Stewart Levine produced Cocker's next LP, which was intended for Island, but, the singer revealed, as with the duet, Blackwell "hated it, so we had a gentlemen's agreement and packed up the deal at Island, and I went to Capitol."[37] The new label was "not enthusiastic either, feeling that the album had too many slow ballads."[37] Another producer was brought in to give the album a different tone, and the result was the 1984 release Civilized Man.[37] Peaking at number 133 on the Billboard 200, it was his lowest charting studio album in the U.S. at that point.[38]

Capitol had been responsible for rejuvenating the careers of Tina Turner and Heart in the mid-80s, so a push was on to do so for their new client with his next project, the 1986 album Cocker.[39] Capitol's vice president of a&r, Don Grierson, explained, "After Civilized Man came out, Joe, Michael Lang [Cocker's manager], and I spent a lot of time zeroing in on just what the heck Joe Cocker was really all about. And it's my firm belief that Joe is a rocker."[39] His feeling was that "Up Where We Belong" turned out to be a double-edged sword. "It helped Joe in one sense, but it was very, very detrimental to him in another. It gave him a hit record and brought his name back to the mass market again. However, because it was such a pop, middle-of-the-road record, it took away Joe's roots in the eyes of the public and certainly in the industry."[39]

Credits and personnel

Credits adapted from album liner notes for The Best of Joe Cocker.[40]

Chart performance

Certifications and sales

Region Certification Certified units/Sales
Australia (ARIA)[62] Gold 35,000^
Canada (Music Canada)[63] Gold 5,000^
Spain (PROMUSICAE)[64] Gold 25,000^
United Kingdom (BPI)[22] Silver 250,000^
United States (RIAA)[65] Platinum 1,000,000^

^shipments figures based on certification alone

Notable cover versions and parodies

BeBe & CeCe Winans had a Christian radio hit with "Up Where We Belong", albeit with slightly different lyrics, as indicated here.

Televangelist Tammy Faye Bakker suggested that Bebe & Cece Winans, two of the singers from The PTL Club, record "Up Where We Belong" after she heard the original duet in a record store, and Larnelle Harris helped Bebe make the lyrics more appealing to a Christian audience.[66] Their 1984 cover of the song from their album Lord Lift Us Up reached number 27 on the Christian Radio Hits chart[67] issued by SoundScan.[68] The duo rerecorded their gospel version in 1996 for their Greatest Hits album,[69] and their new version won the 1998 GMA Dove Award for Contemporary Gospel Song of the Year.[67]

The part of the score of An Officer and a Gentleman that Jennings used in writing the chorus for "Up Where We Belong" can be heard in the final scene of the film in which Gere picks Winger up in his arms and carries her out of the factory past clapping co-workers. The last shot of the film freezes on their exit as the score comes to a big orchestral finish, and the credits start to roll as Cocker and Warnes begin singing the song at the chorus. Although "Up Where We Belong" is heard separately from the final scene, it has often taken the place of the score in send-ups of the grand finale over the years. Films and television shows that have used some variation of the song in doing this include Bridget Jones's Baby,[70]The Cleveland Show,[71]Everybody Hates Chris,[72]Family Guy,[73][74][75]Friends,[76]The Goldbergs,[77]The Office,[78]Sabrina the Teenage Witch,[79]Scrubs,[80]The Simpsons,[81] and South Park.[82]

See also

References

  1. ^ O'Neil 1999, p. 330.
  2. ^ O'Neil 1999, p. 334.
  3. ^ Leszczak 2016, p. 25.
  4. ^ a b c d "Joe Cocker Tribute: Jennifer Warnes Shares Heartfelt Remembrance of 'Up Where We Belong' Duet Partner". Billboard. Retrieved 2017. 
  5. ^ Leszczak 2016, pp. 25-26.
  6. ^ a b c d e Sill, Joel (2007). The Music of An Officer and a Gentleman (bonus feature from An Officer and a Gentleman, Special Collector's Edition) (DVD). Paramount. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Byrge 2016, p. 81.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Leszczak 2016, p. 26.
  9. ^ Whitburn 2009, p. 1041.
  10. ^ a b Bronson 2003, p. 562.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Hackford, Taylor (2007). An Officer and a Gentleman, Special Collector's Edition (commentary track) (DVD). Paramount. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Bean 2003, p. 152.
  13. ^ a b Jennings, Will (2007). The Music of An Officer and a Gentleman (bonus feature from An Officer and a Gentleman, Special Collector's Edition) (DVD). Paramount. 
  14. ^ a b "Up Where We Belong - Joe Cocker Digital Sheet Music (Digital Download)". MusicNotes.com. Alfred Music. 
  15. ^ Levine, Stewart (2007). The Music of An Officer and a Gentleman (bonus feature from An Officer and a Gentleman, Special Collector's Edition) (DVD). Paramount. 
  16. ^ a b c Bean 2003, p. 153.
  17. ^ a b c "Hackford Keynotes Billboard Confab: Early Music-Film Ties Best". Billboard. December 6, 1986. p. 51. 
  18. ^ a b White 1990, p. 50.
  19. ^ a b c Whitburn 2009, p. 1041.
  20. ^ a b Whitburn 2007, p. 178.
  21. ^ Roberts 2006, p. 136.
  22. ^ a b "British single certifications - Joe Cocker/Jennifer Warnes - Up Where We Belong". British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved 2017.  Select singles in the Format field. Select Silver in the Certification field. Enter Up Where We Belong in the search field and then press Enter.
  23. ^ "Billboard's Top Single Picks". Billboard. July 31, 1982. p. 51. 
  24. ^ "Up Where We Belong - Joe Cocker, Jennifer Warnes". AllMusic. Retrieved 2017. 
  25. ^ Sheward 1997, p. 159.
  26. ^ a b O'Neil 1999, pp. 346-347.
  27. ^ Wiley 1996, p. 1140.
  28. ^ British Film Institute 1985, p. 282.
  29. ^ Portwood, Jerry; Ehrlich, David; Fear, David. "20 Greatest Best Song Oscar Performances". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2017. 
  30. ^ "Show 11". Solid Gold. Season 3. Episode 11. November 20, 1982. 
  31. ^ "Sid Caesar/Joe Cocker/Jennifer Warnes". Saturday Night Live. Season 8. Episode 12. February 5, 1983. 
  32. ^ O'Neil 1999, p. 342.
  33. ^ Wiley 1996, p. 623.
  34. ^ "Joe Cocker, raspy-voiced British singer, dies at 70". Reuters. Retrieved 2017. 
  35. ^ Bean 2003, p. 150.
  36. ^ Bean 2003, p. 152-153.
  37. ^ a b c Bean 2003, p. 161.
  38. ^ Whitburn 2010, p. 166.
  39. ^ a b c "Cocker Returns To Rock No Longer A Civilized Man". Billboard. May 17, 1986. p. 20. 
  40. ^ (1992) The Best of Joe Cocker by Joe Cocker [CD booklet]. Hollywood: Capitol Records CDP 077778124320.
  41. ^ "Hits of the World". Billboard. April 2, 1983. p. 52. 
  42. ^ "Austriancharts.at - Joe Cocker & Jennifer Warnes - Up Where We Belong" (in German). Ö3 Austria Top 40. Retrieved January 16, 2018.
  43. ^ "Ultratop.be - Joe Cocker & Jennifer Warnes - Up Where We Belong" (in Dutch). Ultratop 50. Retrieved January 16, 2018.
  44. ^ "Top Singles" (PHP). RPM. Vol. 37 no. 15. November 27, 1982. Retrieved 2018. 
  45. ^ "Contemporary Adult" (PHP). RPM. Vol. 37 no. 17. December 11, 1982. Retrieved 2018. 
  46. ^ Nyman 2005, p. 117.
  47. ^ "Offiziele Deutsche Charts". GfK Entertainment Charts. Retrieved 2018.  Type "Up Where We Belong" in the Suchen field and press Enter.
  48. ^ "The Irish Charts - All there is to know". Irish Recorded Music Association. Retrieved 2018.  Type "Up Where We Belong" in the Search by Song Title field and press Enter.
  49. ^ "Charts.org.nz - Joe Cocker & Jennifer Warnes - Up Where We Belong". Top 40 Singles. Retrieved January 16, 2018.
  50. ^ "Norwegiancharts.com - Joe Cocker & Jennifer Warnes - Up Where We Belong". VG-lista. Retrieved January 16, 2018.
  51. ^ Salaverri, Fernando (September 2005). Sólo éxitos: año a año, 1959-2002 (1st ed.). Spain: Fundación Autor-SGAE. ISBN 84-8048-639-2. 
  52. ^ "Swedishcharts.com - Joe Cocker & Jennifer Warnes - Up Where We Belong". Singles Top 100. Retrieved January 16, 2018.
  53. ^ "Swisscharts.com - Joe Cocker & Jennifer Warnes - Up Where We Belong". Swiss Singles Chart. Retrieved January 16, 2018.
  54. ^ "Joe Cocker: Artist Chart History". Official Charts Company. Retrieved May 16, 2017.
  55. ^ "Cash Box Top 100 Singles". Cashbox. November 6, 1982. p. 4. 
  56. ^ "Top 100 Singles of 82" (PHP). RPM. Vol. 37 no. 19. December 25, 1982. p. 17. Retrieved 2018. 
  57. ^ "Top 100 Singles". Cashbox. December 25, 1982. p. 72. 
  58. ^ Kent, David (1993). "Top 25 Singles of 1983". Australian Chart Book 1970-1992. p. 435. ISBN 0-646-11917-6. 
  59. ^ Scaping, Peter, ed. (1984). "Top 100 singles: 1983". BPI Year Book 1984. British Phonographic Industry. pp. 42-43. ISBN 0-906154-04-9. 
  60. ^ "Top Adult Contemporary Singles". Billboard. December 24, 1982. p. TA-26. 
  61. ^ "Talent Almanac 1984: Top Pop Singles". Billboard. December 24, 1982. p. TA-18. 
  62. ^ "Joe Cocker & Jennifer Warnes Up Where We Belong ARIA Accredited Gold Record". Roots Vinyl Guide. Retrieved 2017. 
  63. ^ "Canadian single certifications - Joe Cocker - Up Where We Belong". Music Canada. Retrieved 2017. 
  64. ^ "Spanish certifications for 1979-1990" (PDF). PROMUSICAE. p. 917. Retrieved 2017. 
  65. ^ "American single certifications - Joe Cocker & Jennifer Warnes - Up Where We Belong". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved 2017.  If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Single, then click SEARCH
  66. ^ Carpenter 2005, p. 457.
  67. ^ a b Powell 2002, p. 1053.
  68. ^ Powell 2002, p. 16.
  69. ^ Greatest Hits (CD booklet). Bebe & Cece Winans. Brentwood, Tennessee: EMI Records/Sparrow Records. 1996. Back cover. 7243-8-37048-2-8 - via Discogs. 
  70. ^ Maguire, Sharon (Director) (2016). Bridget Jones's Baby (Motion picture). Universal Pictures. 
  71. ^ "Buried Pleasure". The Cleveland Show. Season 1. Episode 13. February 14, 2010. 
  72. ^ "Everybody Hates Food Stamps". Everybody Hates Chris. Season 1. Episode 9. November 17, 2005. 
  73. ^ "Emission Impossible". Family Guy. Season 3. Episode 11. November 8, 2001. 
  74. ^ "Chris Cross". Family Guy. Season 11. Episode 13. February 17, 2013. 
  75. ^ "Herpe the Love Sore". Family Guy. Season 12. Episode 16. April 6, 2014. 
  76. ^ "The One with the Chicken Pox". Friends. Season 2. Episode 23. May 9, 1996. 
  77. ^ "Jackie Likes Star Trek". The Goldbergs. Season 5. Episode 5. October 25, 2017. 
  78. ^ "The Return". The Office. Season 3. Episode 14. January 18, 2007. 
  79. ^ "Love Means Having to Say You're Sorry". Sabrina the Teenage Witch. Season 4. Episode 9. November 19, 1999. 
  80. ^ "His Story IV". Scrubs. Season 6. Episode 7. February 1, 2007. 
  81. ^ "Life on the Fast Lane". The Simpsons. Season 1. Episode 9. March 18, 1990. 
  82. ^ "Erection Day". South Park. Season 9. Episode 7. April 20, 2005. 

Bibliography

  • Bean, J. P. (2003), Joe Cocker: The Authorised Biography, Virgin Books, ISBN 1852270438 
  • British Film Institute (1985), Ellis, Mundy, ed., BFI Film and Television Yearbook 85, Concert Publications, ISBN 0851701833 
  • Bronson, Fred (2003), The Billboard Book of Number One Hits, Billboard Books, ISBN 9780823076772 
  • Byrge, Duane (2016), Behind the Scenes with Hollywood Producers: Interviews with 14 Top Film Creators, McFarland, ISBN 9780786472116 
  • Carpenter, Bil (2005), Uncloudy Days: The Gospel Music Encyclopedia, Hal Leonard, ISBN 9780879308414 
  • Leszczak, Bob (2016), Dynamic Duets: The Best Pop Collaborations from 1955 to 1999, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 9781442271494 
  • Nyman, Jake (2005), Suomi soi 4: Suuri suomalainen listakirja (in Finnish) (1st ed.), Tammi, ISBN 951-31-2503-3 
  • O'Neil, Thomas (1999), The Grammys, Perigree Books, ISBN 0-399-52477-0 
  • Powell, Mark Allan (2002), Encyclopedia of Contemporary Christian Music, Hendrickson Publishers, ISBN 1565636791 
  • Roberts, David (2006), British Hit Singles & Albums (19th ed.), Guinness World Records, ISBN 1-904994-10-5 
  • Sheward, David (1997), The Big Book of Show Business Awards, Billboard Books, ISBN 0-8230-7630-X 
  • Whitburn, Joel (2007), Joel Whitburn Presents Billboard Top Adult Songs, 1961-2006, Record Research, ISBN 0898201691 
  • Whitburn, Joel (2009), Joel Whitburn's Top Pop Singles, 1955-2008, Record Research, ISBN 0898201802 
  • White, Adam (1990), The Billboard Book of Gold & Platinum Records, Billboard Publications, ISBN 0823075478 

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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