White House National Security Council ( NSC) is the principal forum used by the president of the United States for consideration of national security, military, and foreign policy matters with senior national security advisors and Cabinet officials, and is part of the Executive Office of the President of the United States. Since its inception in 1947 under Harry S. Truman, the function of the Council has been to advise and assist the President on national security and foreign policies. The Council also serves as the President's principal arm for coordinating these policies among various government agencies. The Council has counterparts in the national security councils of many other nations.
The immediate predecessor to the National Security Council was the
National Intelligence Authority (NIA), which was established by President Harry S. Truman's Executive Letter of January 22, 1946, to oversee the Central Intelligence Group, the CIA's predecessor. The NIA was composed of the Secretary of State, the Secretary of War, the Secretary of the Navy, and the Chief of Staff to the Commander in Chief.
Ronald Reagan's National Security Council. Participants include George Shultz, William F. Martin, Cap Weinberger, Colin Powell and Howard Baker.
The National Security Council was created in 1947 by the
National Security Act. It was created because policymakers felt that the diplomacy of the State Department was no longer adequate to contain the Soviet Union, in light of the tension between the Soviet Union and the United States. The intent was to ensure coordination and concurrence among the  Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force and other instruments of national security policy such as the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), also created in the National Security Act. In 2004, the position of Director of National Intelligence (DNI) was created, taking over the responsibilities previously held by the head of CIA, the Director of Central Intelligence, as a cabinet-level position to oversee and coordinate activities of the Intelligence Community.
President Barack Obama at an NSC Meeting in the Situation Room. Participants include Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton, Defense Secretary Robert Gates, NSC Advisor Gen. James "Jim" Jones, Director of National Intelligence (DNI) Dennis Blair, Deputy National Security Advisor Tom Donilon, White House Counsel Greg Craig, CIA Director Leon Panetta, Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen. James Cartwright, and White House Chief of Staff Rahm Emanuel
On May 26, 2009, President
Barack Obama merged the White House staff supporting the Homeland Security Council (HSC) and the National Security Council into one National Security Staff (NSS). The HSC and NSC each continue to exist by statute as bodies supporting the President. The name of the staff organization was changed back to National Security Council Staff in 2014. 
Directorate of Global Health Security and Biodefense was formed in 2016 under the Obama administration, disbanded in 2018 under the Trump Administration, and reinstated in January 2021 during the presidency of Joe Biden.
On January 29, 2017, President Donald Trump restructured the Principals Committee (a subset of the full National Security Council), while at the same time altering the attendance of the
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and Director of National Intelligence.
National Security Presidential Memorandum 2, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and Director of National Intelligence were to sit on the Principals Committee as and when matters pertaining to them arise, but will remain part of the full National Security Council.  However, Chief of Staff  Reince Priebus clarified the next day that they still are invited to attend meetings. With  National Security Presidential Memorandum 4 in April 2017, the Director of National Intelligence and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff "shall" attend Principals Committee meetings and included the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency as a regular attendee. The reorganization also placed the  Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development as a permanent member of the Deputies Committee, winning moderate praise, while the White House Chief Strategist was removed.  
Authority and powers
The National Security Council was established by the
National Security Act of 1947 (PL 235 - 61 Stat. 496; U.S.C. 402), amended by the National Security Act Amendments of 1949 (63 Stat. 579; 50 U.S.C. 401 et seq.). Later in 1949, as part of the Reorganization Plan, the Council was placed in the Executive Office of the President.
High Value Detainee Interrogation Group also reports to the NSC.
A secret National Security Council panel pursues the killing of an individual, including American citizens, who has been called a suspected terrorist.
In this case, no public record of this decision or any operation to kill the suspect will be made available.  The panel's actions are justified by "two principal legal theories": They "were permitted by Congress when it  authorized the use of military forces against militants in the wake of the attacks of September 11, 2001; and they are permitted under international law if a country is defending itself."
Homeland Security Advisor
John O. Brennan, who helped codify targeted killing criteria by creating the Disposition Matrix database, has described the Obama Administration targeted killing policy by stating that "in order to ensure that our counterterrorism operations involving the use of lethal force are legal, ethical, and wise, President Obama has demanded that we hold ourselves to the highest possible standards and processes".
Reuters reported that
Anwar al-Awlaki, an American citizen, was on such a kill list and was killed accordingly.
On February 4, 2013, NBC published a leaked Department of Justice
memo providing a summary of the rationale used to justify targeted killing of US citizens who are senior operational leaders of Al-Qa'ida or associated forces.
The National Security Council, as of 2020 and as per statute
and National Security Presidential Memorandum-4, is chaired by the  President. Its members are the Vice President (statutory), the Secretary of State (statutory), the Secretary of Defense (statutory), the Secretary of Energy (statutory), the National Security Advisor (non-statutory), the Attorney General (non-statutory), the Secretary of Homeland Security (non-statutory), the Representative of the United States to the United Nations (non-statutory), and the Secretary of the Treasury (statutory). 
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the military advisor to the Council, the Director of National Intelligence is the intelligence advisor, and the Director of National Drug Control Policy is the drug control policy advisor. The Chief of Staff to the President, White House Counsel, and the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy are also regularly invited to attend NSC meetings. The Attorney General, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget and The Director of the Central Intelligence Agency are invited to attend meetings pertaining to their responsibilities. The heads of other executive departments and agencies, as well as other senior officials, are invited to attend meetings of the NSC when appropriate.
The Principals Committee of the National Security Council is the Cabinet-level senior interagency forum for consideration of national security policy issues. The Principals Committee is convened and chaired by the National Security Advisor. The regular attendees of the Principals Committee are the
Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, the Attorney General, the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of Homeland Security, the White House Chief of Staff, the Director of National Intelligence, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, the Homeland Security Advisor, and the United States Ambassador to the United Nations.
White House Counsel, the Deputy Counsel to the President for National Security Affairs, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the Deputy National Security Advisor, the Deputy National Security Advisor for Strategy, the National Security Advisor to the Vice President, and the NSC Executive Secretary may also attend all meetings of the Principals Committee. When considering international economic issues, the Principals Committee's regular attendees will include the Secretary of Commerce, the United States Trade Representative, and the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy.
National Security Council Deputies Committee is the senior sub-Cabinet interagency forum for consideration of national security policy issues. The Deputies Committee is also responsible for reviewing and monitoring the interagency national security process including for establishing and directing the Policy Coordination Committees. The Deputies Committee is convened and chaired by the  Deputy National Security Advisor or the Deputy Homeland Security Advisor.
Regular members of the Deputies Committee are the Deputy National Security Advisor for Strategy, the
Deputy Secretary of State, Deputy Secretary of the Treasury, the Deputy Secretary of Defense, the Deputy Attorney General, the Deputy Secretary of Energy, the Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security, the Deputy Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the Deputy Director of National Intelligence, the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the National Security Advisor to the Vice President, the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development, and the Deputy Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. Invitations to participate in or attend specific meetings are extended to Deputy or Under Secretary level of executive departments and agencies and to other senior officials when relevant issues are discussed. The Executive Secretary and the Deputy White House Counsel also attend. The relevant Senior Director on the National Security Council staff is also invited to attend when relevant.
Policy Coordination Committees
The Policy Coordination Committees of the National Security Council, established and directed by the Deputies Committee, are responsible for the management of the development and implementation of national security policies through interagency coordination. Policy Coordination Committees are the main day-to-day for interagency coordination of national security policy development, implementation and analysis in aide of the Deputies Committee and the Principals Committee. Policy Coordination Committees are chaired by Senior Directors on the National Security Council staff, or sometimes
National Economic Council staff, with Assistant Secretary-level officials from the relevant executive department or agency acting as co-chairs.
Directorate of Global Health Security and Biodefense
The Directorate of Global Health Security and Biodefense, created by Barack Obama in 2016 in response to the
2014 Ebola outbreak, was responsible "to prepare for the next disease outbreak and prevent it from becoming an epidemic or pandemic."  The directorate was disbanded when a May 2018 change in organizational structure by John Bolton, Trump's recently appointed head of the National Security Council, resulted in the effective elimination of the office then led by Rear Admiral  Tim Ziemer, Sr. Director for Global Health Security and Biothreats. Remaining staff were moved to other NSC departments, prompting Ziemer's resignation, thus completing the elimination of the office.  
The responsibilities that formerly belonged to the directorate, along with those of arms control and nonproliferation, and of weapons of mass destruction terrorism, were absorbed into a single new directorate, counterproliferation and biodefense, and assigned to
Tim Morrison in July 2018 as director. Morrison characterized the consolidation as part of an overall NSC "reduction of force" and called it "specious" to say the office was "dissolved," describing the previous size of the organization as "bloat," and stating "That is why Trump began streamlining the NSC staff in 2017."  Trump defended the 2018 cuts, describing the financial motivation, when questioned in a February 2020 press conference, suggesting that people on a pandemic response team are unnecessary between pandemics, saying "Some of the people we cut, they haven't been used for many, many years." No source of information could be found to support the president's statement, likely because the team was created in 2016 and disbanded in 2018. He continued: "And rather than spending the money -- and I'm a business person -- I don't like having thousands of people around when you don't need them."  The size of the team before cuts was estimated at 430 people, but the "thousands" referenced by the president also included reduction in the staff numbers of the CDC.  
In January 2021, the directorate was reinstated by President
Joe Biden, who appointed Elizabeth Cameron as Senior Director for Global Health Security and Biodefense, a position she had previously held under the Obama administration and briefly under the Trump administration.
presidential transition, President-elect Joe Biden announced the creation of the position of U.S. Special Presidential Envoy for Climate, the occupant of which will be a member of the National Security Council.
Assistant to the President and National Security Advisor: Jake Sullivan
 Senior Advisor to the National Security Advisor: Ariana Berengaut
Chief of Staff and Executive Secretary for the National Security Council: Yohannes Abraham
Advisor to the Chief of Staff and Executive Secretary for the National Security Council: Medha Raj  Deputy Chief of Staff and Deputy Executive Secretary: Ryan Harper
Deputy Executive Secretary: Dilpreet Sidhu
 Deputy Director for Visits and Diplomatic Affairs: Darius Edgerton
 Associate Director for Visits and Diplomatic Affairs: Nicole Fasano  Assistant to the President and Principal
Deputy National Security Advisor: Jonathan Finer
 Senior Advisor to the Principal Deputy National Security Advisor: Ella Lipin Assistant to the President and
Homeland Security Advisor and Deputy National Security Advisor: Elizabeth Sherwood-Randall
 Deputy Assistant to the President & Deputy National Security Advisor for Cyber and Emerging Technology:
Anne Neuberger  Deputy Assistant to the President, Deputy Director of the National Economic Council and Deputy National Security Advisor for International Economics:
Daleep Singh Assistant to the President, Deputy Counsel to the President and National Security Council Legal Advisor: Johnathan Cedarbaum
 Associate Counsel and Deputy Legal Advisor to the NSC: Ashley Deeks
Director for Global Criminal Justice: Steven Hill  Senior Director for Defense: Cara Abercrombie
Director for Defense Innovation and Cyber Policy: Lt. Colonel Nadine Nally (United States Army)
 Director for Space Policy: Audrey Schaffer  Senior Director for Strategic Planning:
Director for Strategic Planning: Alexander Bick
 Director for Planning and Programming: Gelila Teshome  Senior Director for Partnerships and Global Engagement: Tanya Bradsher
Director for Partnerships: Jim Thompson  Senior Director for Legislative Affairs: Rebecca Brocato
Director for Legislative Affairs: Amanda Lorman
 Director for Legislative Affairs: Nicole Tisdale
 Chief of Staff & Policy Advisor for Legislative Affairs: Gershom Sacks  Senior Director for Global Health Security and Biodefense: Elizabeth Cameron
Director for Biodefense: Daniel Gastfriend
 Director for Biotechnology Risks and Biological Weapon Nonproliferation: Megan Frisk
 Director for Countering Biological Threats & Global Health Security: Mark Lucera
 Director for Medical and Biodefense Preparedness/ Director for International COVID Response: Hilary Marston
 Senior Advisor and Director for Emerging Biological Threats: Maureen Bartee  Co-ordinator for the Indo-Pacific:
Kurt M. Campbell
Senior Director for East Asia and Oceania: Edgard Kagan
Senior Director for South Asia: Sumona Guha
Senior Director for China: Laura Rosenberger
 Senior Director for China: Rush Doshi
 Director for China: Julian Gewirtz  Special Assistant, National Security Council Indo-Pacific Directorate: Sarah Donilon  Co-ordinator for Technology and National Security: Jason Matheny
 Senior Director for Technology and National Security: Tarun Chhabra
Director for Technology and National Security: Saif M. Khan
 Director for Technology and National Security: Michelle Rozo
 Director for Technology and Democracy: Chanan Weissman  Senior Director for Resilience and Response: Caitlin Durkovich
Director for Resilience and Response: Nabeela Barbari  Senior Director for Intelligence Programs: Maher Bitar
 Senior Director for Development, Global Health & Humanitarian Response: Linda Etim
Director for Global Health: Ladan Fakory
 Director for Global Health Response: Nidhi Bouri
 Director for Humanitarian Coordination: Rachel Grant
 Director for Refugees: Jacqui Pilch  Senior Director for Western Hemisphere Affairs: Juan Gonzalez
Director for Brazil and the Southern Cone: Kate M. Putnam
 Director for Regional Protection and Migration Management: Eric Sigmon  Senior Director for International Economics and Competitiveness: Peter Harrell
Director for International Economics and Competitiveness: Adam Deutsch
 Director for International Economics and Competitiveness: Jessica McBroom
 Director for Digital Technology Policy and International Economics: Ruth Berry  Senior Director for International Economics and Labor:
Jennifer M. Harris Senior Director for Press & NSC Spokesperson: Emily Horne
Director of Strategic Communications/ Assistant Press Secretary: Patrick Evans
 Director of Strategic Communications/ Assistant Press Secretary: Dean Lieberman
 Director of Strategic Communications/ Assistant Press Secretary: Kedenard Raymond
 Director of Strategic Communications/ Assistant Press Secretary: Sean Savett
 Director of Strategic Communications/ Assistant Press Secretary: Saloni Sharma
 Policy Advisor, Office of the Spokesperson and Senior Director for Press/ Strategic Communications: Jasmine Williams  Co-ordinator for the Southern Border: TBC
Senior Director for Africa: Dana L. Banks
 Director for African Affairs: F. David Diaz
 Director for Africa: Deniece Laurent-Mantey  Co-ordinator for Democracy and Human Rights: Shanthi Kalathil
Senior Director for Democracy and Human Rights: Rob Berschinski
 Director for Democracy and Human Rights: Tess McEnery
 Director for Human Rights and Civil Society: Jesse Bernstein
 Director for Anticorruption: Chandana Ravi  Senior Director for Russia and Central Asia: Eric Green
 Director for Russia: Katrina Elledge  Senior Director for Counter-terrorism: Clare Linkins
Director for Counter-terrorism: Alexandra Miller
 Director for Counter-terrorism: Annie Rohroff  Senior Director for Europe: Amanda Sloat
Co-ordinator for Middle East and North Africa:
Senior Director for Middle East and North Africa: Ambassador Barbara A. Leaf
Director for the Arabian Peninsula: Evyenia Sidereas
 Director for Iran: Sam Martin
 Director for Iraq and Syria: Zehra Bell
 Director for Israeli-Palestinian Affairs: Julie Sawyer
 Director for Jordan and Lebanon: Maxwell Martin
 Director for North African Affairs: Josh Harris
 Director for Political-Military Affairs and Yemen: K.C. Evans  Senior Director for Energy & Climate Change: Melaine Nakagawa
Director for Climate Diplomacy and Energy Transformation: Helaina Matza
 Director for Climate Investment, Trade, and Environment: Victoria Orero
 Director for Climate Security and Resilience: Jennifer DeCesaro  Senior Director for Speechwriting and Strategic Initiatives: Carlyn Reichel
Senior Director for Multilateral Affairs: Curtis Ried
Director for Global Engagement and Multilateral Diplomacy at the NSC and NEC: Andy Rabens
 Director for Multilateral Initiatives: Negah Angha  Senior Director for Arms Control, Disarmament & Non-Proliferation: Mallory Stewart
Senior Director for Cyber: Andrew Scott
 Director for International Cyber Policy: Teddy Nemeroff  Senior Director for Cybersecurity and Policy: Amit Mital
 Director for Cybersecurity and Secure Digital Innovation: Carole House  Senior Director for Trans-border: Katie Tobin
Director for Trans-border Security: Andrea Flores 
Encyclopedia of American foreign policy, 2nd ed. Vol. 2, New York: Scribner, 2002, National Security Council, 22 April 2009
Directors of Central Intelligence as Leaders of the US Intelligence Community, Douglas F. Garthoff, 2007, cia.gov
Helene Cooper (May 26, 2009). "In Security Shuffle, White House Merges Staffs". The New York Times . Retrieved 2017.
Caitlin Hayden (February 10, 2014). "NSC Staff, the Name Is Back! So Long, NSS". (Press release) whitehouse.gov . Retrieved 2017 – via National Archives.
Merrit Kennedy (January 29, 2017). "With National Security Council Shakeup, Steve Bannon Gets A Seat At The Table". NPR . Retrieved 2017.
"Presidential Memorandum Organization of the National Security Council and the Homeland Security Council" (Press release). Office of the Press Secretary. January 31, 2017. Archived from the original on January 29, 2017 . Retrieved 2017.
Jim Garamone (January 31, 2017). "No Change to Chairman's Status as Senior Military Adviser, Officials Say". United States Department of Defense . Retrieved 2017.
Alan Yuhas (January 29, 2017). "Trump chief of staff: defense officials not off NSC after Bannon move". The Guardian . Retrieved 2017.
 Lawfare Blog NSPM-4: "Organization of the National Security Council, the Homeland Security Council, and Subcommittees": A Summary
Scott Morris (February 7, 2017). "Maybe the Trump Administration Just Elevated Development Policy, or Maybe Not". Center for Global Development . Retrieved 2017.
Jennifer Jacobs (April 5, 2017). "Bannon Loses National Security Council Role in Trump Shakeup". Bloomberg.com. Bloomberg . Retrieved 2017.
BBC (April 6, 2017). "Steve Bannon loses National Security Council seat". BBC News . Retrieved 2017.
Ed Barnes (May 12, 2010). "Elite High Value Interrogation Unit Is Taking Its First Painful Steps". Fox News Channel . Retrieved 2017.
^ a b c d
Mark Hosenball (October 5, 2011). "Secret panel can put Americans on "kill list. "" Reuters . Retrieved 2017.
John O. Brennan (April 30, 2012). (Speech). The Efficacy and Ethics of U.S. Counterterrorism Strategy Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars . Retrieved 2017.
Lawfulness of a Lethal Operation Directed Against a U.S. Citizen Who Is a Senior Operational Leader of Al-Qa'ida or An Associated Force (PDF) (Report). United States Department of Justice. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-08-26 . Retrieved .
^ a b
"50 U.S. Code § 3021 - National Security Council". LII / Legal Information Institute . Retrieved .
"National Security Presidential Memorandum-4 of April 4, 2017" (PDF).
"50 U.S. Code § 3021 - National Security Council". Legal Information Institute [LII]. Cornell Law School . Retrieved 2021.
"Organization of the National Security Council System" (PDF). February 13, 2009.
"National Security Council". whitehouse.gov . Retrieved 2017 – via National Archives.
^ a b
Office of the Press Secretary (January 28, 2017). "Organization of the National Security Council and the Homeland Security Council" (PDF) (Press release). White House Office . Retrieved 2017.
"Biden to Convene World Leaders to Talk Climate on Earth Day". Bloomberg.com. 2021-01-22 . Retrieved .
^ a b c d
 Federal Register National Security Presidential Memorandum (NSPM-4)
 White House Office of the Press Secretary Presidential Memorandum Organization of the National Security Council and the Homeland Security Council
Benen, Steve (9 March 2020). "Trump struggles to explain why he disbanded his global health team". MSNBC . Retrieved 2020.
^ a b Cameron, Beth,
"I ran the White House pandemic office. Trump closed it", Washington Post op-ed, March 13, 2020. Retrieved 2020-03-17.
Weber, Lauren (10 May 2018). "Sudden Departure Of White House Global Health Security Head Has Experts Worried". HuffPost . Retrieved 2020.
^ Sun, Lena H.,
"Top White House official in charge of pandemic response exits abruptly", Washington Post, May 10, 2018. Retrieved 2020-03-17.
Morrison, Tim, "No, the White House didn't 'dissolve' its pandemic response office. I was there", Washington Post op-ed, March 16, 2020. Retrieved 2020-03-17.
^ a b Kessler, Glenn and Kelly, Meg. (20 March 2020). "Was the White House office for global pandemics eliminated?".
Washington Post website Retrieved 20 March 2020.
Brady, James (2 February 2020). "Remarks by President Trump, Vice President Pence, and Members of the Coronavirus Task Force in Press Conference". whitehouse.gov . Retrieved 2020 – via National Archives.
Palma, Bethania (26 Feb 2020). "Did Trump Administration Fire the US Pandemic Response Team?". Snopes . Retrieved 2020.
Crowley, Michael (2021-01-08). "Announcing National Security Council staff appointees, Biden restores the office for global health threats". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2021-01-22 . Retrieved .
Kate Sullivan. "Biden prioritizes climate crisis by naming John Kerry special envoy". CNN . Retrieved .
^ a b c d e f g
"White House Senior Staff". . Archived from Biden-Harris Transition the original on January 20, 2021 . Retrieved 2021 – via Wayback Machine.
Wren, Adam. "Knowing the Buttiverse: We're tracking 59 ex-staffers from Secretary Pete's 2020 campaign and where they are now". Business Insider . Retrieved .
"Dilpreet Sidhu LinkedIn profile".
"Darius Edgerton LinkedIn profile".
"Nicole Fasano LinkedIn profile".
^ a b
"https://twitter.com/alexbward/status/1413620983173365768". Twitter . Retrieved .
February 19; 2021. "More Harvard Law faculty and alumni tapped to serve in the Biden administration". Harvard Law Today . Retrieved . CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list ( link)
"John MacWilliams LinkedIn profile".
"Steven Hill LinkedIn profile".
"Nadine Nally LinkedIn profile".
"Audrey Schaffer LinkedIn profile".
"Alexander Bick LinkedIn profile".
[Gelila Teshome LinkedIn profile " https://www.linkedin.com/in/gelila-a-teshome-70225b3/"].
"Jim Thompson LinkedIn profile".
"Amanda Lorman LinkedIn profile".
"Nicole Tisdale LinkedIn profile".
"Gershom Sacks LinkedIn profile".
"Daniel Gastfriend LinkedIn profile".
^ a b c d e f
May 10, Published; 2021 (2021-05-10). "Key Global Health Positions and Officials in the U.S. Government". KFF . Retrieved . CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list ( link)
"Maureen Bartee LinkedIn profile".
^ a b c
Wertime, David. "Challenger to the throne: A Biden China doctrine emerges". POLITICO . Retrieved .
Stein, Sam; Meyer, Theodoric. "What Biden really thinks of the Jan. 6 commission". POLITICO . Retrieved .
"Jason Matheny LinkedIn profile".
"Saif M. Khan LinkedIn profile".
"Michelle Rozo LinkedIn profile".
"Chanan Weissman LinkedIn profile".
"StackPath". www.meritalk.com . Retrieved .
Bertr, Natasha. "He helped Adam Schiff impeach Trump. Now he's joining Biden's NSC". POLITICO . Retrieved .
"Jacqui Pilch LinkedIn profile".
"Kate M. Putnam LinkedIn profile".
"Eric Sigmon LinkedIn profile".
"Adam Deutsch LinkedIn profile".
"Jessica McBroom LinkedIn profile".
"Ruth Berry LinkedIn profile".
^ a b c d e f
Bade, Rachael; Lizza, Ryan; Daniels, Eugene; Palmeri, Tara. "POLITICO Playbook: GOP dreads the return of Trump rallies". POLITICO . Retrieved .
Kohn, Henry. "Biden administration shows promise for U.S.-Africa relations, but can it deliver? o Today News Africa". todaynewsafrica.com . Retrieved .
"F. David Diaz LinkedIn profile".
"Deniece Laurent-Mantey LinkedIn profile".
Ward, Alex (2021-03-12). "Biden's National Security Council to get a key human rights official". Vox . Retrieved .
"Tess McEnery LinkedIn profile".
"Jesse Bernstein LinkedIn profile".
"Chandana Ravi LinkedIn profile".
Nichols, Hans. "Former Trump officials help Biden with Putin summit prep". Axios . Retrieved .
"Katrina Elledge LinkedIn profile".
"Alexandra Miller LinkedIn profile".
^ a b c d e f g h
Gramer, Jack Detsch, Robbie. "Meet Biden's Middle East Team". Foreign Policy . Retrieved .
"Helaina Matza LinkedIn profile".
"Victoria Orero LinkedIn profile".
"Jennifer DeCesaro LinkedIn profile".
"Andy Rabens LinkedIn profile".
"Negah Angha LinkedIn profile".
"Andrew Scott LinkedIn profile".
"Teddy Nemeroff LinkedIn profile".
"White House Appoints Amit Mital NSC Senior Director for Cybersecurity and Policy". www.meritalk.com . Retrieved .
"Carole House LinkedIn profile".
Gramer, Jack Detsch, Robbie. "Pressure Mounts on Biden to Cancel Billions More in Arms Sales to Saudi Arabia". Foreign Policy . Retrieved . This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Archives and Records Administration.
This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the White House.
This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of Justice.
This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the U.S. Government Publishing Office.
This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Congressional Research Service.
"Arzin Merkezine Seyahat: ABD Ulusal Güvenlik Konseyi" ["Journey to the Center of the World: U.S. National Security Council"]. Article on US NSC (in Turkish). Best, Richard A., Jr. "The National Security Council: An Organizational Assessment". (Congressional Research Service, 2009)
online. Bolton, M. Kent.
U.S. National Security and Foreign Policymaking After 9/11: Present at the Re-Creation, Rowman & Littlefield; 2007, ISBN 978-0-7425-4847-3. Brown, Cody M.
, Project on National Security Reform (2008). The National Security Council: A Legal History of the President's Most Powerful Advisers Cutler, Robert. "The Development of the National Security Council".
Foreign Affairs 34.3 (1956): 441-458. JSTOR 20031176.
Daalder, Ivo H. and I. M. Destler, . Simon & Schuster; 2009, In the Shadow of the Oval Office: Profiles of the National Security Advisers and the Presidents They Served--From JFK to George W. Bush ISBN 978-1-4165-5319-9.
Annual Report to Congress on White House Office Staff; Executive Office of the President, Wednesday, July 1, 2009 Falk, Stanley L. "The National Security Council Under Truman, Eisenhower, and Kennedy".
Political Science Quarterly 79.3 (1964): 403-434. JSTOR 2145907. Gans, John.
White House Warriors: How the National Security Council Transformed the American Way of War (Liveright, 2019). online review.
Karl F. Inderfurth and Loch K. Johnson, eds. Fateful Decisions: Inside the National Security Council. Oxford University Press, 2004. ISBN 978-0-19-515966-0. Nelson, Anna Kasten. "President Truman and the Evolution of the National Security Council".
Journal of American History 72.2 (1985): 360-378. JSTOR 1903380. Nelson, Anna Kasten. "The 'top of policy hill': President Eisenhower and the National Security Council".
Diplomatic History 7.4 (1983): 307-326. JSTOR 24911374.
James Peck (2006). Washington's China: The National Security World, the Cold War, and the Origins of Globalism. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press. Rothkopf, David J. (March/April 2005).
"Inside the Committee that Runs the World" ( Archived copy, including missing image). . Foreign Policy
David J. Rothkopf, Running The World: the Inside Story of the National Security Council and the Architects of American Power, PublicAffairs; 2006, ISBN 978-1-58648-423-1. Sander, Alfred D. "Truman and the National Security Council: 1945-1947".
Journal of American History (1972): 369-388. JSTOR online 1890196 online.
Thorpe, George C. (1917). "[Chapter] V: National Organization of Fighting Forces". . Kansas City, Mo.: Franklin Hudson Pub. Co. Pure Logistics: The Science of War Preparation OCLC 6109722. Advocates for a "National Board of Strategy". Whittaker, Alan G., Frederick C. Smith, and Elizabeth McKune. (Industrial College of the Armed Forces, 2008). The national security policy process: The national security council and interagency system