United Front (China)
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United Front China
Socialist United Front
Simplified Chinese?
Traditional Chinese?
Patriotic United Front
Simplified Chinese()
Traditional Chinese()
People's Democratic United Front (1945-1966)[1]
Simplified Chinese
Traditional Chinese
Revolutionary United Front
(1966-1978)[2]
Simplified Chinese
Traditional Chinese
National Emblem of the People's Republic of China (2).svg

politics and government of
China

The United Front (Chinese: ?; pinyin: T?ngy? Zhànxiàn) in China is a popular front of the legally permitted parties in the country, led by the Communist Party of China (CPC). Besides the CPC, it includes eight minor parties and the All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce. It is managed by the CPC Central Committee United Front Work Department (Chinese: ). Its current department head is You Quan.[3] The member parties of the Front are completely subservient to the CPC, and must accept the "leading role" of the CPC as a condition of their continued existence.[4]

History

The CPC organized the "National Revolution United Front" (Chinese: ) with the Kuomintang during the Northern Expedition of 1926-1928 and then the "Workers' and Peasants' Democratic United Front" (Chinese: ) in the Chinese Soviet Republic era of 1931-1937. Mao Zedong originally promoted the "Anti-Japanese National United Front" (Chinese: ), with the name indicating that the proletarian Chinese Communists had united with the bourgeoisie against Imperial Japan[5] in the 1930s. It "assumed its current form" in 1946,[6] three years before the Chinese Communist Party defeated the authoritarian governing party Kuomintang's Nationalist government of Chiang Kai-shek. Mao credited the United Front as one of his "Three Magic Weapons" against the Kuomintang--alongside the Leninist Chinese Communist party and the Red Army[7]--and credited the Front with playing a part in his victory.[6]

Constitutional status

The United Front holds no real power independent of the Communist Party of China; it exists mainly to give non-Communist forces a platform in the society of the People's Republic.[8] The CPC's relationship with other parties is based on the principle of "long-term coexistence and mutual supervision, treating each other with full sincerity and sharing weal or woe".[attribution needed][4] Its leaders are mostly selected by the Communist Party, or are themselves CPC members.[9] This process is institutionalized in the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC).[4] Although China is a one-party state, the United Front parties have nominal representation in the National People's Congress.

"In building socialism it is essential to rely on workers, peasants and intellectuals and to unite all forces that can be united. In the long years of revolution and construction, there has been formed under the leadership of the Communist Party of China a broad patriotic united front which is composed of the democratic parties and people's organizations and which embraces all socialist working people, all builders of socialism, all patriots who support socialism, and all patriots who stand for the reunification of the motherland. This united front will continue to be consolidated and developed. The Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, a broadly based representative organization of the united front which has played a significant historical role, will play a still more important role in the country's political and social life, in promoting friendship with other countries and in the struggle for socialist modernization and for the reunification and unity of the country. The system of the multi-party cooperation and political consultation led by the Communist Party of China will exist and develop for a long time to come."

--Preamble of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China[10]

United Front members

The Chinese United Front also includes the following organisations:

Organs

The two organs affiliated with United Front are the United Front Work Department and the more high-profile Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC). According to Yi-Zheng Lian, the organs "are often poorly understood outside China because there are no equivalents for them in the West".[6]

United Front Work Department

The United Front Work Department is headed by the chief of the secretariat of the CCP's Central Committee. It oversees a dozen organizations such as the Chinese Students and Scholars Association.[11] It helps (for example) Chinese students and academics training or residing in the West, enjoining them to conduct "people diplomacy" on behalf of the People's Republic of China.[6]

Electoral history

National People's Congress elections

Election Seats +/- Position
1982-83
Steady Steady 1st
1987-88
Increase 1 Steady 1st
1993-94
Steady Steady 1st
1997-98
Steady Steady 1st
2002-03
Increase 5 Steady 1st
2007-08
Increase 3 Steady 1st
2012-13
Steady Steady 1st
2017-18
Decrease 7 Steady 1st

See also

References

  1. ^ 1954 Constitution, http://www.npc.gov.cn/wxzl/wxzl/2000-12/26/content_4264.htm
  2. ^ 1975 Constitution: http://www.npc.gov.cn/wxzl/wxzl/2000-12/06/content_4362.htm; 1978 Constitution: http://www.npc.gov.cn/wxzl/wxzl/2000-12/06/content_4365.htm
  3. ^ http://www.zytzb.gov.cn/tzb2010/youquan/ldzc_yq.shtml
  4. ^ a b c "IV. The System of Multi-Party Cooperation and Political Consultation". China.org.cn. Retrieved .
  5. ^ Compare: "Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung. INTRODUCING THE COMMUNIST: October 4, 1939". Marxist.org. October 4, 1939. Retrieved 2018. Although the united front was formed and has been maintained for three years now, the bourgeoisie, and especially the big bourgeoisie, has constantly been trying to destroy our Party, the big bourgeois capitulators and die-hards have been instigating serious friction throughout the country, and the anti-Communist clamour is incessant. All this is being used by the big bourgeois capitulators and die-hards to prepare the way for capitulating to Japanese imperialism, breaking up the united front and dragging China backwards. Ideologically, the big bourgeoisie is trying to "corrode" communism, whilst politically and organizationally it is trying to liquidate the Communist Party, the Border Region and the Party's armed forces.
  6. ^ a b c d Lian, Yi-Zheng (21 May 2018). "China Has a Vast Influence Machine, and You Don't Even Know It". New York Times. Retrieved 2018.
  7. ^ Compare: "Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung. INTRODUCING THE COMMUNIST: October 4, 1939". Marxist.org. October 4, 1939. Retrieved 2018. ... our eighteen years of experience have taught us that the united front, armed struggle and Party building are the Chinese Communist Party's three 'magic weapons', its three principal magic weapons for defeating the enemy in the Chinese revolution.
  8. ^ New Approaches to the Study of Political Order in China, by Donald Clarke, Modern China, 2009.
  9. ^ Judicial politics as state-building, Zhu, Suli, Pp. 23-36 in Stéphanie Balme and Michael W. Dowdle (eds.), Building Constitutionalism in China.New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  10. ^ Constitution of the People's Republic of China. The National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China. Retrieved on 23 February 2018.
  11. ^ Bowe, Alexander (August 24, 2018). "China's Overseas United Front Work: Background and Implications for the United States" (PDF). United States-China Economic and Security Review Commission. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 9, 2018. Retrieved 2019.

Further reading

External links


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