Unicode Character Property
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Unicode Character Property

The Unicode Standard assigns character properties to each code point.[1] These properties can be used to handle "characters" (code points) in processes, like in line-breaking, script direction right-to-left or applying controls. Slightly inconsequently, some "character properties" are also defined for code points that have no character assigned, and code points that are labeled like "<not a character>". The character properties are described in Standard Annex #44.[2]

Properties have levels of forcefulness: normative, informative, contributory, or provisional. For simplicity of specification, a character property can be assigned by specifying a continuous range of code points that have the same property.

Name

A Unicode character is assigned a unique Name (na).[1] The name is composed of uppercase letters A-Z, digits 0-9, - (hyphen-minus) and <space>. Some sequences are excluded: names beginning with a space or hyphen, names ending with a space or hyphen, repeated spaces or hyphens, and space after hyphen are not allowed. The name is guaranteed to be unique within Unicode, and can be used to identify a code point and its character. Ideographic characters, of which there are tens of thousands, are named in the pattern "cjk unified ideograph-hhhh". For example, CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E00. Formatting characters are named too:   NO-BREAK SPACE.

The following classes of code point do not have a Name (na=""): Controls (General Category: Cc), Private use (Co), Surrogate (Cs), Non-characters (Cn) and Reserved (Cn). They may be referenced, informally, by a generic or specific meta-name, called "Code Point Labels": <control>, <control-0088>, <reserved>, <noncharacter-hhhh>, <private-use-hhhh>, <surrogate>. Since these labels contain <>-brackets, they can never appear as a Name, which prevents confusion.

Version 1.0 names

In version 2.0 of Unicode, many names were changed. From then on the rule "a name will never change" came into effect, including the strict (normative) use of alias names. Disused version 1.0-names were moved to the property Alias, to provide some backward compatibility.

Character name alias

Starting from Unicode version 2.0, the published name for a code point will never change. Therefore, in the event of a character name being misspelled or if the character name is completely wrong or seriously misleading, a formal Character Name Alias may be assigned to the character, and this alias may be used by applications instead of the actual defective character name.[1] For example, PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL RIGHT WHITE LENTICULAR BRAKCET has the character name alias "PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL RIGHT WHITE LENTICULAR BRACKET" in order to mitigate the misspelling of "bracket" as "brakcet" in the actual character name; YI SYLLABLE WU has the character name alias "YI SYLLABLE ITERATION MARK" because contrary to the character name it does not have a fixed syllabic value.

In addition to character name aliases which are corrections to defective character names, some characters are assigned aliases which are alternative names or abbreviations. Five types of character name aliases are defined in the Unicode Standard:

  • Correction: corrections for misspelled or seriously incorrect character names;
  • Control: ISO 6429 names for C0 and C1 control functions (which are not assigned character names in the Unicode Standard);
  • Alternate: alternative names for some format characters (only U+FEFF "ZERO WIDTH NO-BREAK SPACE" which has the alias "BYTE ORDER MARK");
  • Figment: Documented labels for some C1 control code functions which are not actual names in any standard;
  • Abbreviation: Abbreviations or acronyms for control codes, format characters, spaces, and variation selectors.

All formal character name aliases follow the rules for permissible character names, and are guaranteed to be unique within both the character name alias and the character name namespaces (for this reason, the ISO 6429 name "BELL" is not defined as an alias for U+0007 because U+1F514 is named "BELL").[1]

As of Unicode version 12.1, twenty-eight formal character name aliases are defined as corrections for defective character names.[3]

Character Name Alias
01A2 ? LATIN CAPITAL LETTER OI LATIN CAPITAL LETTER GHA
01A3 ? LATIN SMALL LETTER OI LATIN SMALL LETTER GHA
0709 ? SYRIAC SUBLINEAR COLON SKEWED RIGHT SYRIAC SUBLINEAR COLON SKEWED LEFT
0CDE ? KANNADA LETTER FA KANNADA LETTER LLLA
0E9D ? LAO LETTER FO TAM LAO LETTER FO FON
0E9F ? LAO LETTER FO SUNG LAO LETTER FO FAY
0EA3 ? LAO LETTER LO LING LAO LETTER RO
0EA5 ? LAO LETTER LO LOOT LAO LETTER LO
0FD0 ? TIBETAN MARK BSKA- SHOG GI MGO RGYAN TIBETAN MARK BKA- SHOG GI MGO RGYAN
11EC ? HANGUL JONGSEONG IEUNG-KIYEOK HANGUL JONGSEONG YESIEUNG-KIYEOK
11ED ? HANGUL JONGSEONG IEUNG-SSANGKIYEOK HANGUL JONGSEONG YESIEUNG-SSANGKIYEOK
11EE ? HANGUL JONGSEONG SSANGIEUNG HANGUL JONGSEONG SSANGYESIEUNG
11EF ? HANGUL JONGSEONG IEUNG-KHIEUKH HANGUL JONGSEONG YESIEUNG-KHIEUKH
2118 ? SCRIPT CAPITAL P WEIERSTRASS ELLIPTIC FUNCTION
2448 ? OCR DASH MICR ON US SYMBOL
2449 ? OCR CUSTOMER ACCOUNT NUMBER MICR DASH SYMBOL
2B7A ? LEFTWARDS TRIANGLE-HEADED ARROW WITH DOUBLE HORIZONTAL STROKE LEFTWARDS TRIANGLE-HEADED ARROW WITH DOUBLE VERTICAL STROKE
2B7C ? RIGHTWARDS TRIANGLE-HEADED ARROW WITH DOUBLE HORIZONTAL STROKE RIGHTWARDS TRIANGLE-HEADED ARROW WITH DOUBLE VERTICAL STROKE
A015 ? YI SYLLABLE WU YI SYLLABLE ITERATION MARK
FE18 ? PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL RIGHT WHITE LENTICULAR BRAKCET PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL RIGHT WHITE LENTICULAR BRACKET
122D4 ? CUNEIFORM SIGN SHIR TENU CUNEIFORM SIGN NU11 TENU
122D5 ? CUNEIFORM SIGN SHIR OVER SHIR BUR OVER BUR CUNEIFORM SIGN NU11 OVER NU11 BUR OVER BUR
16E56 ? MEDEFAIDRIN CAPITAL LETTER HP MEDEFAIDRIN CAPITAL LETTER H
16E57 ? MEDEFAIDRIN CAPITAL LETTER NY MEDEFAIDRIN CAPITAL LETTER NG
16E76 ? MEDEFAIDRIN SMALL LETTER HP MEDEFAIDRIN SMALL LETTER H
16E77 ? MEDEFAIDRIN SMALL LETTER NY MEDEFAIDRIN SMALL LETTER NG
1B001 ? HIRAGANA LETTER ARCHAIC YE HENTAIGANA LETTER E-1
1D0C5 ? BYZANTINE MUSICAL SYMBOL FHTORA SKLIRON CHROMA VASIS BYZANTINE MUSICAL SYMBOL FTHORA SKLIRON CHROMA VASIS

Apart from these normative names, informal names may be shown in the Unicode code charts. These are other commonly used names for a character, and need not be restricted to letters A-Z, digits 0-9, - (hyphen-minus) and <space>. These informal names are not guaranteed to be unique, and may be changed or removed in later versions of the standard.

General Category

Each code point is assigned a value for General Category. This is one of the character properties that are also defined for unassigned code points, and code points that are defined "not a character".

General Category (Unicode Character Property)[a]
Value Category Major, minor Basic type[b] Character assigned[b] Count Remarks
 
Letter
Lu Letter, uppercase Graphic Character 1,788
Ll Letter, lowercase Graphic Character 2,151
Lt Letter, titlecase Graphic Character 31 Ligatures containing uppercase followed by lowercase letters (e.g., ?, Lj, Nj, and Dz)
Lm Letter, modifier Graphic Character 259 A modifier letter
Lo Letter, other Graphic Character 121,414 An ideograph or a letter in a unicase alphabet
Mark
Mn Mark, nonspacing Graphic Character 1,826
Mc Mark, spacing combining Graphic Character 429
Me Mark, enclosing Graphic Character 13
Number
Nd Number, decimal digit Graphic Character 630 All these, and only these, have Numeric Type = De[c]
Nl Number, letter Graphic Character 236 Numerals composed of letters or letterlike symbols (e.g., Roman numerals)
No Number, other Graphic Character 888 E.g., vulgar fractions, superscript and subscript digits
Punctuation
Pc Punctuation, connector Graphic Character 10 Includes "_" underscore
Pd Punctuation, dash Graphic Character 24 Includes several hyphen characters
Ps Punctuation, open Graphic Character 75 Opening bracket characters
Pe Punctuation, close Graphic Character 73 Closing bracket characters
Pi Punctuation, initial quote Graphic Character 12 Opening quotation mark. Does not include the ASCII "neutral" quotation mark. May behave like Ps or Pe depending on usage
Pf Punctuation, final quote Graphic Character 10 Closing quotation mark. May behave like Ps or Pe depending on usage
Po Punctuation, other Graphic Character 588
Symbol
Sm Symbol, math Graphic Character 948 Mathematical symbols (e.g., +, -, =, ×, ÷, ?, ?, ?). Does not include parentheses and brackets, which are in categories Ps and Pe. Also does not include !, *, -, or /, which despite frequent use as mathematical operators, are primarily considered to be "punctuation".
Sc Symbol, currency Graphic Character 62 Currency symbols
Sk Symbol, modifier Graphic Character 121
So Symbol, other Graphic Character 6,161
Separator
Zs Separator, space Graphic Character 17 Includes the space, but not TAB, CR, or LF, which are Cc
Zl Separator, line Format Character 1 Only LINE SEPARATOR (LSEP)
Zp Separator, paragraph Format Character 1 Only PARAGRAPH SEPARATOR (PSEP)
Other
Cc Other, control Control Character 65 (will never change)[c] No name,[d] <control>
Cf Other, format Format Character 161 Includes the soft hyphen, joining control characters (zwnj and zwj), control characters to support bi-directional text, and language tag characters
Cs Other, surrogate Surrogate Not (but abstract) 2,048 (will never change)[c] No name,[d] <surrogate>
Co Other, private use Private-use Not (but abstract) 137,468 total (will never change)[c] (, 131,068 ) No name,[d] <private-use>
Cn Other, not assigned Noncharacter Not 66 (will never change)[c] No name,[d] <noncharacter>
Reserved Not 836,536 No name,[d] <reserved>
  1. ^ "Table 4-4: General Category" (PDF). The Unicode Standard. Unicode Consortium. March 2019.
  2. ^ a b "Table 2-3: Types of code points" (PDF). The Unicode Standard. Unicode Consortium. March 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d e Unicode Character Encoding Stability Policies: Property Value Stability Stability policy: Some gc groups will never change. gc=Nd corresponds with Numeric Type=De (decimal).
  4. ^ a b c d e "Table 4-9: Construction of Code Point Labels" (PDF). The Unicode Standard. Unicode Consortium. March 2019. A Code Point Label may be used to identify a nameless code point. E.g. <control-hhhh>, <control-0088>. The Name remains blank, which can prevent inadvertently replacing, in documentation, a Control Name with a true Control code. Unicode also uses <not a character> for <noncharacter>.

Punctuation

Characters have separate properties to denote they are a punctuation character. The properties all have a Yes/No values: Dash, Quotation_Mark, Sentence_Terminal, Terminal_Punctuation.

Whitespace

Whitespace is a commonly used concept for a typographic effect. Basically it covers invisible characters that have a spacing effect in rendered text. It includes spaces, tabs, and new line formatting controls. In Unicode, such a character has the property set "WSpace=yes". In version 12.1, there are 25 whitespace characters.

Unicode characters with White_Space property[a][b]
Name Code point Width box May break? In
IDN?
Script Block General
category
Notes
character tabulation U+0009 9 Yes No Common Basic Latin Other,
control
HT, Horizontal Tab. HTML/XML named entity: &Tab;, LaTeX: '\tab'
line feed U+000A 10 Is a line-break Common Basic Latin Other,
control
LF, Line feed. HTML/XML named entity: &NewLine;
line tabulation U+000B 11 Is a line-break Common Basic Latin Other,
control
VT, Vertical Tab
form feed U+000C 12 Is a line-break Common Basic Latin Other,
control
FF, Form feed
carriage return U+000D 13 Is a line-break Common Basic Latin Other,
control
CR, Carriage return
space U+0020 32 Yes No Common Basic Latin Separator,
space
Most common (normal ASCII space)
next line U+0085 133 Is a line-break Common Latin-1
Supplement
Other,
control
NEL, Next line
no-break space U+00A0 160   No No Common Latin-1
Supplement
Separator,
space
Non-breaking space: identical to U+0020, but not a point at which a line may be broken. HTML/XML named entity: &nbsp;, LaTeX:
ogham space mark U+1680 5760 Yes No Ogham Ogham Separator,
space
Used for interword separation in Ogham text. Normally a vertical line in vertical text or a horizontal line in horizontal text, but may also be a blank space in "stemless" fonts. Requires an Ogham font.
en quad U+2000 8192   Yes No Common General
Punctuation
Separator,
space
Width of one en. U+2002 is canonically equivalent to this character; U+2002 is preferred.
em quad U+2001 8193 Yes No Common General
Punctuation
Separator,
space
Also known as "mutton quad". Width of one em. U+2003 is canonically equivalent to this character; U+2003 is preferred.
en space U+2002 8194 Yes No Common General
Punctuation
Separator,
space
Also known as "nut". Width of one en. U+2000 En Quad is canonically equivalent to this character; U+2002 is preferred. HTML/XML named entity: &ensp;, LaTeX: '\enspace'
em space U+2003 8195 Yes No Common General
Punctuation
Separator,
space
Also known as "mutton". Width of one em. U+2001 Em Quad is canonically equivalent to this character; U+2003 is preferred. HTML/XML named entity: &emsp;, LaTeX: '\quad'
three-per-em space U+2004 8196 Yes No Common General
Punctuation
Separator,
space
Also known as "thick space". One third of an em wide. HTML/XML named entity: &emsp13;
four-per-em space U+2005 8197 Yes No Common General
Punctuation
Separator,
space
Also known as "mid space". One fourth of an em wide. HTML/XML named entity: &emsp14;
six-per-em space U+2006 8198 Yes No Common General
Punctuation
Separator,
space
One sixth of an em wide. In computer typography, sometimes equated to U+2009.
figure space U+2007 8199 No No Common General
Punctuation
Separator,
space
Figure space. In fonts with monospaced digits, equal to the width of one digit. HTML/XML named entity: &numsp;
punctuation space U+2008 8200 Yes No Common General
Punctuation
Separator,
space
As wide as the narrow punctuation in a font, i.e. the advance width of the period or comma.[8] HTML/XML named entity: &puncsp;
thin space U+2009 8201 Yes No Common General
Punctuation
Separator,
space
One-fifth (sometimes one-sixth) of an em wide. Recommended for use as a thousands separator for measures made with SI units. Unlike U+2002 to U+2008, its width may get adjusted in typesetting.[9] HTML/XML named entity: &thinsp;; LaTeX: '\,'
hair space U+200A 8202 Yes No Common General
Punctuation
Separator,
space
Thinner than a thin space. HTML/XML named entity: &hairsp; (does not work in all browsers)
line separator U+2028 8232 Is a line-break Common General
Punctuation
Separator,
line
paragraph separator U+2029 8233 Is a line-break Common General
Punctuation
Separator,
paragraph
narrow no-break space U+202F 8239 No No Common General
Punctuation
Separator,
space
Narrow no-break space. Similar in function to U+00A0 No-Break Space. When used with Mongolian, its width is usually one third of the normal space; in other context, its width sometimes resembles that of the Thin Space (U+2009).
medium mathematical space U+205F 8287 Yes No Common General
Punctuation
Separator,
space
MMSP. Used in mathematical formulae. Four-eighteenths of an em.[10] In mathematical typography, the widths of spaces are usually given in integral multiples of an eighteenth of an em, and 4/18 em may be used in several situations, for example between the a and the + and between the + and the b in the expression a + b.[11] HTML/XML named entity: &MediumSpace;
ideographic space U+3000 12288   Yes No Common CJK Symbols
and
Punctuation
Separator,
space
As wide as a CJK character cell (fullwidth). Used, for example, in tai tou.
Related Unicode characters without White_Space property
 Name  Code point Width box May break? In
IDN?
Script Block General
category
Notes
mongolian vowel separator U+180E 6158 Yes No Mongolian Mongolian Other,
Format
MVS. A narrow space character, used in Mongolian to cause the final two characters of a word to take on different shapes.[12] It is no longer classified as space character (i.e. in Zs category) in Unicode 6.3.0, even though it was in previous versions of the standard.
zero width space U+200B 8203 Yes No ? General
Punctuation
Other,
Format
ZWSP, zero-width space. Used to indicate word boundaries to text processing systems when using scripts that do not use explicit spacing. It is similar to the soft hyphen, with the difference that the latter is used to indicate syllable boundaries, and should display a visible hyphen when the line breaks at it. HTML/XML named entity: &NegativeMediumSpace;
zero width non-joiner U+200C 8204 Yes Context-dependent[13] ? General
Punctuation
Other,
Format
ZWNJ, zero-width non-joiner. When placed between two characters that would otherwise be connected, a ZWNJ causes them to be printed in their final and initial forms, respectively. HTML/XML named entity: &zwnj;
zero width joiner U+200D 8205 Yes Context-dependent[14] ? General
Punctuation
Other,
Format
ZWJ, zero-width joiner. When placed between two characters that would otherwise not be connected, a ZWJ causes them to be printed in their connected forms. HTML/XML named entity: &zwj;
word joiner U+2060 8288 No No ? General
Punctuation
Other,
Format
WJ, word joiner. Similar to U+200B, but not a point at which a line may be broken. HTML/XML named entity: &NoBreak;
zero width non-breaking space U+FEFF 65279  No No ? Arabic
Presentation
Forms-B
Other,
Format
Zero-width non-breaking space. Used primarily as a Byte Order Mark. Use as an indication of non-breaking is deprecated as of Unicode 3.2; see U+2060 instead.
  1. ^ White_Space is a binary Unicode property.[15]
  2. ^ "Unicode 12.0 UCD: PropList.txt". 2019-01-22. Retrieved .

Other general characteristics

Ideographic, alphabetic, noncharacter.

Display-related properties

Shaping, width.

Bidirectional writing

Six character properties pertain to bi-directional writing: Bidi_Class, Bidi_Control, Bidi_Mirrored, Bidi_Mirroring_Glyph, Bidi_Paired_Bracket and Bidi_Paired_Bracket_Type.

One of Unicode's major features is support of bi-directional (Bidi) text display right-to-left (R-to-L) and left-to-right (L-to-R). The Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm UAX9[16] describes the process of presenting text with altering script directions. For example, it enables a Hebrew quote in an English text. The Bidi_Character_Type marks a character's behaviour in directional writing. To override a direction, Unicode has defined special formatting control characters (Bidi-Controls). These characters can enforce a direction, and by definition only affect bi-directional writing.

Each code point has a property called Bidi_Class. It defines its behaviour in a bidirectional text as interpreted by the algorithm:

Bidirectional character type (Unicode character property Bidi_Class)[1]
Type[2] Description Strength Directionality General scope Bidi_Control character[3]
L Left-to-Right Strong L-to-R Most alphabetic and syllabic characters, Han ideographs, non-European or non-Arabic digits, LRM character, ... U+200E LEFT-TO-RIGHT MARK (LRM)
R Right-to-Left Strong R-to-L Adlam, Hebrew, Mandaic, Mende Kikakui, N'Ko, Samaritan, ancient scripts like Kharoshthi and Nabataean, RLM character, ... U+200F RIGHT-TO-LEFT MARK (RLM)
AL Arabic Letter Strong R-to-L Arabic, Hanifi Rohingya, Sogdian, Syriac, and Thaana alphabets, and most punctuation specific to those scripts, ALM character, ... U+061C ARABIC LETTER MARK (ALM)
EN European Number Weak European digits, Eastern Arabic-Indic digits, Coptic epact numbers, ...
ES European Separator Weak plus sign, minus sign, ...
ET European Number Terminator Weak degree sign, currency symbols, ...
AN Arabic Number Weak Arabic-Indic digits, Arabic decimal and thousands separators, Rumi digits, Hanifi Rohingya digits, ...
CS Common Number Separator Weak colon, comma, full stop, no-break space, ...
NSM Nonspacing Mark Weak Characters in General Categories Mark, nonspacing, and Mark, enclosing (Mn, Me)
BN Boundary Neutral Weak Default ignorables, non-characters, control characters other than those explicitly given other types
B Paragraph Separator Neutral paragraph separator, appropriate Newline Functions, higher-level protocol paragraph determination
S Segment Separator Neutral Tabs
WS Whitespace Neutral space, figure space, line separator, form feed, General Punctuation block spaces (smaller set than the Unicode whitespace list)
ON Other Neutrals Neutral All other characters, including object replacement character
LRE Left-to-Right Embedding Explicit L-to-R LRE character only U+202A LEFT-TO-RIGHT EMBEDDING (LRE)
LRO Left-to-Right Override Explicit L-to-R LRO character only U+202D LEFT-TO-RIGHT OVERRIDE (LRO)
RLE Right-to-Left Embedding Explicit R-to-L RLE character only U+202B RIGHT-TO-LEFT EMBEDDING (RLE)
RLO Right-to-Left Override Explicit R-to-L RLO character only U+202E RIGHT-TO-LEFT OVERRIDE (RLO)
PDF Pop Directional Format Explicit PDF character only U+202C POP DIRECTIONAL FORMATTING (PDF)
LRI Left-to-Right Isolate Explicit L-to-R LRI character only U+2066 LEFT-TO-RIGHT ISOLATE (LRI)
RLI Right-to-Left Isolate Explicit R-to-L RLI character only U+2067 RIGHT-TO-LEFT ISOLATE (RLI)
FSI First Strong Isolate Explicit FSI character only U+2068 FIRST STRONG ISOLATE (FSI)
PDI Pop Directional Isolate Explicit PDI character only U+2069 POP DIRECTIONAL ISOLATE (PDI)
Notes
1.^ Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm (UAX#9), As of Unicode version 12.0
2.^ Possible Bidirectional character types for character property: Bidi_Class or 'type'
3.^ Bidi_Control characters: Twelve Bidi_Control formatting characters are defined. They are invisible, and have no effect apart from directionality. Nine of them have a unique, overruling BiDi-type that is used by the algorithm. Their type is also their acronym (e.g. character 'LRE' has BiDi type 'LRE').

In normal situations, the algorithm can determine the direction of a text by this character property. To control more complex Bidi situations, e.g. when an English text has a Hebrew quote, extra options are added to Unicode. Twelve characters have the property Bidi_Control=Yes: ALM, FSI, LRE, LRI, LRM, LRO, PDF, PDI, RLE, RLI, RLM and RLO as named in the table. These are invisible formatting control characters, only used by the algorithm and with no effect outside of bidirectional formatting.[16] Despite the name, they are formatting characters, not control characters, and have General category "Other, format (Cf)" in the Unicode definition.

Basically, the algorithm determines a sequence of characters with the same strong direction type (R-to-L or L-to-R), taking in account an overruling by the special Bidi-controls. Number strings (Weak types) are assigned a direction according to their strong environment, as are Neutral characters. Finally, the characters are displayed per a string's direction.

Two character properties are relevant to determining a mirror image of a glyph in bidirectional text: Bidi_Mirrored=Yes indicates that the glyph should be mirrored when written R-to-L. The property Bidi_Mirroring_Glyph=U+hhhh can then point to the mirrored character. For example, brackets "" are mirrored this way. Shaping cursive scripts such as Arabic, and mirroring glyphs that have a direction, is not part of the algorithm.

Casing

The Case value is Normative in Unicode. It pertains to those scripts with uppercase (aka capital, majuscule) and the lowercase (aka small, minuscule) letters. Case-difference occurs in Adlam, Armenian, Cherokee, Coptic, Cyrillic, Deseret, Glagolitic, Greek, Khutsuri and Mkhedruli Georgian, Latin, Medefaidrin, Old Hungarian, Osage and Warang Citi scripts.

(upper, lower, title, folding--both simple and full)

Numeric values and types

Decimal

Characters are classified with a Numeric type.[1] Characters such as fractions, subscripts, superscripts, Roman numerals, currency numerators, encircled numbers, and script-specific digits are type Numeric. They have a numeric value that can be decimal, including zero and negatives, or a vulgar fraction. If there is not such a value, as with most of the characters, the numeric type is "None".

The characters that do have a numeric value are separated in three groups: Decimal (De), Digit (Di) and Numeric (Nu, i.e. all other). "Decimal" means the character is a straight decimal digit. Only characters that are part of a contiguous encoded range 0..9 have numeric type Decimal. Other digits, like superscripts, have numeric type Digit. All numeric characters like fractions and Roman numerals end up with the type "Numeric". The intended effect is that a simple parser can use these decimal numeric values, without being distracted by say a numeric superscript or a fraction. Seventy-three CJK Ideographs that represent a number, including those used for accounting, are typed Numeric.

On the other hand, characters that could have a numeric value as a second meaning are still marked Numeric type "None", and have no numeric value (""). E.g. Latin letters can be used in paragraph numbering like "II.A.1.b", but the letters "I", "A" and "b" are not numeric (type "None") and have no numeric value.

Hexadecimal digits

Hexadecimal characters are those in the series with hexadecimal values 0...9ABCDEF (sixteen characters, decimal value 0-15). The character property Hex_Digit is set to Yes when a character is in such a series:

Characters in Unicode marked Hex_Digit=Yes[a]
0123456789ABCDEF Basic Latin, capitals Also ASCII_Hex_Digit=Yes
0123456789abcdef Basic Latin, small letters Also ASCII_Hex_Digit=Yes
0123456789ABCDEF Fullwidth forms, capitals
0123456789abcdef Fullwidth forms, small letters
a. ^ "Unicode 12.0 UCD: PropList.txt". 2019-01-22. Retrieved .

Forty-four characters are marked as Hex_Digit. The ones in the Basic Latin block are also marked as ASCII_Hex_Digit.

Unicode has no separate characters for hexadecimal values. A consequence is, that when using regular characters it is not possible to determine whether hexadecimal value is intended, or even whether a value is intended at all. That should be determined at a higher level, e.g. by prepending "0x" to a hexadecimal number or by context. The only feature is that Unicode can note that a sequence can or can not be a hexadecimal value.

Block

A block is a uniquely named, contiguous range of code points. It is identified by its first and last code point. Blocks do not overlap. A block may contain code points that are reserved, not-assigned etc. Each character that is assigned, has a single "block name" value from the 300 names assigned as of Unicode version 12.1 Unassigned code points outside of an existing block, have the default value "No_block".

Script

Each assigned character can have a single value for its "Script" property, signifying to which script it belongs.[25] The value is a four-letter code in the range Aaaa-Zzzz, as available in ISO 15924, which is mapped to a writing system. Apart from when describing the background and usage of a script, Unicode does not use a connection between a script and languages that use that script. So "Hebrew" refers to the Hebrew script, not to the Hebrew language.

The special code Zyyy for "Common" allows a single value for a character that is used in multiple scripts. The code Zinh "Inherited script", used for combining characters and certain other special-purpose code points, indicates that a character "inherits" its script identity from the character with which it is combined. (Unicode formerly used the private code Qaai for this purpose.) The code Zzzz "Unknown" is used for all characters that do not belong to a script (i.e. the default value), such as symbols and formatting characters. Overall, characters of a single script can be scattered over multiple blocks, like Latin characters. And the other way around too: multiple scripts can be present is a single block, e.g. block Letterlike Symbols contains characters from the Latin, Greek and Common scripts.

When the Script is "" (blank), according to Unicode the character does not belong to a script. This pertains to symbols, because the existing ISO script codes "Zmth" (Mathematical notation), "Zsym" (Symbol), and "Zsye" (Symbol, emoji variant) are not used in Unicode. The "Script" property is also blank for code points that are not a typographic character like controls, substitutes, and private use code points.

If there is a specific script alias name in ISO 15924, it is used in the character name: A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A, and א HEBREW LETTER ALEF.

ISO 15924 Script in Unicode[e]
Code No. Name Alias[f] Direc­tion Ver­sion Char­acters Remark
Adlm 166 Adlam Adlam R-to-L 9.0 88
Afak 439 Afaka Varies Not in Unicode, proposal under review by the Unicode Technical Committee[26][27]
Aghb 239 Caucasian Albanian Caucasian Albanian L-to-R 7.0 53 Ancient/historic
Ahom 338 Ahom, Tai Ahom Ahom L-to-R 8.0 58 Ancient/historic
Arab 160 Arabic Arabic R-to-L 1.0 1,281
Aran 161 Arabic (Nastaliq variant) R-to-L Typographic variant of Arabic
Armi 124 Imperial Aramaic Imperial Aramaic R-to-L 5.2 31 Ancient/historic
Armn 230 Armenian Armenian L-to-R 1.0 95
Avst 134 Avestan Avestan R-to-L 5.2 61 Ancient/historic
Bali 360 Balinese Balinese L-to-R 5.0 121
Bamu 435 Bamum Bamum L-to-R 5.2 657
Bass 259 Bassa Vah Bassa Vah L-to-R 7.0 36 Ancient/historic
Batk 365 Batak Batak L-to-R 6.0 56
Beng 325 Bengali (Bangla) Bengali L-to-R 1.0 96
Bhks 334 Bhaiksuki Bhaiksuki L-to-R 9.0 97 Ancient/historic
Blis 550 Blissymbols Varies Not in Unicode, proposal in initial/exploratory stage[26]
Bopo 285 Bopomofo Bopomofo L-to-R 1.0 72
Brah 300 Brahmi Brahmi L-to-R 6.0 109 Ancient/historic
Brai 570 Braille Braille L-to-R 3.0 256
Bugi 367 Buginese Buginese L-to-R 4.1 30
Buhd 372 Buhid Buhid L-to-R 3.2 20
Cakm 349 Chakma Chakma L-to-R 6.1 70
Cans 440 Unified Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics Canadian Aboriginal L-to-R 3.0 710
Cari 201 Carian Carian L-to-R 5.1 49 Ancient/historic
Cham 358 Cham Cham L-to-R 5.1 83
Cher 445 Cherokee Cherokee L-to-R 3.0 172
Chrs 109 Chorasmian R-to-L Not in Unicode
Cirt 291 Cirth Varies Not in Unicode
Copt 204 Coptic Coptic L-to-R 1.0 137 Ancient/historic, Disunified from Greek in 4.1
Cpmn 402 Cypro-Minoan L-to-R Not in Unicode
Cprt 403 Cypriot syllabary Cypriot R-to-L 4.0 55 Ancient/historic
Cyrl 220 Cyrillic Cyrillic L-to-R 1.0 443
Cyrs 221 Cyrillic (Old Church Slavonic variant) Varies Ancient/historic, typographic variant of Cyrillic
Deva 315 Devanagari (Nagari) Devanagari L-to-R 1.0 154
Diak 342 Dives Akuru L-to-R Not in Unicode
Dogr 328 Dogra Dogra L-to-R 11.0 60 Ancient/historic
Dsrt 250 Deseret (Mormon) Deseret L-to-R 3.1 80
Dupl 755 Duployan shorthand, Duployan stenography Duployan L-to-R 7.0 143
Egyd 070 Egyptian demotic R-to-L Not in Unicode
Egyh 060 Egyptian hieratic R-to-L Not in Unicode
Egyp 050 Egyptian hieroglyphs Egyptian Hieroglyphs L-to-R 5.2 1,080 Ancient/historic
Elba 226 Elbasan Elbasan L-to-R 7.0 40 Ancient/historic
Elym 128 Elymaic Elymaic R-to-L 12.0 23 Ancient/historic
Ethi 430 Ethiopic (Ge?ez) Ethiopic L-to-R 3.0 495
Geok 241 Khutsuri (Asomtavruli and Nuskhuri) Georgian Varies Unicode groups Geok and Geor together as "Georgian"
Geor 240 Georgian (Mkhedruli and Mtavruli) Georgian L-to-R 1.0 173 For Unicode, see also Geok
Glag 225 Glagolitic Glagolitic L-to-R 4.1 132 Ancient/historic
Gong 312 Gunjala Gondi Gunjala Gondi L-to-R 11.0 63
Gonm 313 Masaram Gondi Masaram Gondi L-to-R 10.0 75
Goth 206 Gothic Gothic L-to-R 3.1 27 Ancient/historic
Gran 343 Grantha Grantha L-to-R 7.0 85 Ancient/historic
Grek 200 Greek Greek L-to-R 1.0 518 Sometimes expressed as boustrophedon (mirroring of alternate lines rather than purely left-to-right)
Gujr 320 Gujarati Gujarati L-to-R 1.0 91
Guru 310 Gurmukhi Gurmukhi L-to-R 1.0 80
Hanb 503 Han with Bopomofo (alias for Han + Bopomofo) Varies See Hani, Bopo
Hang 286 Hangul (Hang?l, Hangeul) Hangul L-to-R 1.0 11,739 Hangul syllables relocated in 2.0
Hani 500 Han (Hanzi, Kanji, Hanja) Han L-to-R 1.0 89,233
Hano 371 Hanunoo (Hanunóo) Hanunoo L-to-R 3.2 21
Hans 501 Han (Simplified variant) Varies Subset Hani
Hant 502 Han (Traditional variant) Varies Subset Hani
Hatr 127 Hatran Hatran R-to-L 8.0 26 Ancient/historic
Hebr 125 Hebrew Hebrew R-to-L 1.0 134
Hira 410 Hiragana Hiragana L-to-R 1.0 379
Hluw 080 Anatolian Hieroglyphs (Luwian Hieroglyphs, Hittite Hieroglyphs) Anatolian Hieroglyphs L-to-R 8.0 583 Ancient/historic
Hmng 450 Pahawh Hmong Pahawh Hmong L-to-R 7.0 127
Hmnp 451 Nyiakeng Puachue Hmong Nyiakeng Puachue Hmong L-to-R 12.0 71
Hrkt 412 Japanese syllabaries (alias for Hiragana + Katakana) Katakana or Hiragana Varies See Hira, Kana
Hung 176 Old Hungarian (Hungarian Runic) Old Hungarian R-to-L 8.0 108 Ancient/historic
Inds 610 Indus (Harappan) R-to-L Not in Unicode, proposal in initial/exploratory stage[26]
Ital 210 Old Italic (Etruscan, Oscan, etc.) Old Italic L-to-R 3.1 39 Ancient/historic
Jamo 284 Jamo (alias for Jamo subset of Hangul) Varies Subset Hang
Java 361 Javanese Javanese L-to-R 5.2 90
Jpan 413 Japanese (alias for Han + Hiragana + Katakana) Varies See Hani, Hira and Kana
Jurc 510 Jurchen L-to-R Not in Unicode
Kali 357 Kayah Li Kayah Li L-to-R 5.1 47
Kana 411 Katakana Katakana L-to-R 1.0 304
Khar 305 Kharoshthi Kharoshthi R-to-L 4.1 68 Ancient/historic
Khmr 355 Khmer Khmer L-to-R 3.0 146
Khoj 322 Khojki Khojki L-to-R 7.0 62 Ancient/historic
Kitl 505 Khitan large script L-to-R Not in Unicode
Kits 288 Khitan small script T-to-B Not in Unicode
Knda 345 Kannada Kannada L-to-R 1.0 89
Kore 287 Korean (alias for Hangul + Han) L-to-R See Hani and Hang
Kpel 436 Kpelle L-to-R Not in Unicode, proposal in initial/exploratory stage[26]
Kthi 317 Kaithi Kaithi L-to-R 5.2 67 Ancient/historic
Lana 351 Tai Tham (Lanna) Tai Tham L-to-R 5.2 127
Laoo 356 Lao Lao L-to-R 1.0 82
Latf 217 Latin (Fraktur variant) Varies Typographic variant of Latin
Latg 216 Latin (Gaelic variant) L-to-R Typographic variant of Latin
Latn 215 Latin Latin L-to-R 1.0 1,366 See Latin script in Unicode
Leke 364 Leke L-to-R Not in Unicode
Lepc 335 Lepcha (Róng) Lepcha L-to-R 5.1 74
Limb 336 Limbu Limbu L-to-R 4.0 68
Lina 400 Linear A Linear A L-to-R 7.0 341 Ancient/historic
Linb 401 Linear B Linear B L-to-R 4.0 211 Ancient/historic
Lisu 399 Lisu (Fraser) Lisu L-to-R 5.2 48
Loma 437 Loma L-to-R Not in Unicode, proposal in initial/exploratory stage[26]
Lyci 202 Lycian Lycian L-to-R 5.1 29 Ancient/historic
Lydi 116 Lydian Lydian R-to-L 5.1 27 Ancient/historic
Mahj 314 Mahajani Mahajani L-to-R 7.0 39 Ancient/historic
Maka 366 Makasar Makasar L-to-R 11.0 25 Ancient/historic
Mand 140 Mandaic, Mandaean Mandaic R-to-L 6.0 29
Mani 139 Manichaean Manichaean R-to-L 7.0 51 Ancient/historic
Marc 332 Marchen Marchen L-to-R 9.0 68 Ancient/historic
Maya 090 Mayan hieroglyphs Not in Unicode
Medf 265 Medefaidrin (Oberi Okaime, Oberi ?kaim?) Medefaidrin L-to-R 11.0 91
Mend 438 Mende Kikakui Mende Kikakui R-to-L 7.0 213
Merc 101 Meroitic Cursive Meroitic Cursive R-to-L 6.1 90 Ancient/historic
Mero 100 Meroitic Hieroglyphs Meroitic Hieroglyphs R-to-L 6.1 32 Ancient/historic
Mlym 347 Malayalam Malayalam L-to-R 1.0 117
Modi 324 Modi, Mo Modi L-to-R 7.0 79 Ancient/historic
Mong 145 Mongolian Mongolian T-to-B 3.0 167 Includes Clear, Manchu scripts
Moon 218 Moon (Moon code, Moon script, Moon type) Not in Unicode, proposal in initial/exploratory stage[26]
Mroo 264 Mro, Mru Mro L-to-R 7.0 43
Mtei 337 Meitei Mayek (Meithei, Meetei) Meetei Mayek L-to-R 5.2 79
Mult 323 Multani Multani L-to-R 8.0 38 Ancient/historic
Mymr 350 Myanmar (Burmese) Myanmar L-to-R 3.0 223
Nand 311 Nandinagari Nandinagari L-to-R 12.0 65 Ancient/historic
Narb 106 Old North Arabian (Ancient North Arabian) Old North Arabian R-to-L 7.0 32 Ancient/historic
Nbat 159 Nabataean Nabataean R-to-L 7.0 40 Ancient/historic
Newa 333 Newa, Newar, Newari, Nep?la lipi Newa L-to-R 9.0 94
Nkdb 085 Naxi Dongba (na²¹?i³³ to³³ba²¹, Nakhi Tomba) L-to-R Not in Unicode
Nkgb 420 Nakhi Geba (na²¹?i³³ g?²¹ba²¹, 'Na-'Khi ²Gg?-¹baw, Nakhi Geba) L-to-R Not in Unicode, proposal in initial/exploratory stage[26]
Nkoo 165 N'Ko NKo R-to-L 5.0 62
Nshu 499 Nüshu Nushu L-to-R 10.0 397
Ogam 212 Ogham Ogham 3.0 29 Ancient/historic
Olck 261 Ol Chiki (Ol Cemet', Ol, Santali) Ol Chiki L-to-R 5.1 48
Orkh 175 Old Turkic, Orkhon Runic Old Turkic R-to-L 5.2 73 Ancient/historic
Orya 327 Oriya (Odia) Oriya L-to-R 1.0 90
Osge 219 Osage Osage L-to-R 9.0 72
Osma 260 Osmanya Osmanya L-to-R 4.0 40
Palm 126 Palmyrene Palmyrene R-to-L 7.0 32 Ancient/historic
Pauc 263 Pau Cin Hau Pau Cin Hau L-to-R 7.0 57
Perm 227 Old Permic Old Permic L-to-R 7.0 43 Ancient/historic
Phag 331 Phags-pa Phags-pa T-to-B 5.0 56 Ancient/historic
Phli 131 Inscriptional Pahlavi Inscriptional Pahlavi R-to-L 5.2 27 Ancient/historic
Phlp 132 Psalter Pahlavi Psalter Pahlavi R-to-L 7.0 29 Ancient/historic
Phlv 133 Book Pahlavi R-to-L Not in Unicode
Phnx 115 Phoenician Phoenician R-to-L 5.0 29 Ancient/historic
Piqd 293 Klingon (KLI pIqaD) L-to-R Rejected for inclusion in the Unicode Standard[28][29]
Plrd 282 Miao (Pollard) Miao L-to-R 6.1 149
Prti 130 Inscriptional Parthian Inscriptional Parthian R-to-L 5.2 30 Ancient/historic
Qaaa 900 Reserved for private use (start) Not in Unicode
Qaai 908 (Private use) Not in Unicode (Before version 5.2, this was used instead of Zinh)
Qabx 949 Reserved for private use (end) Not in Unicode
Rjng 363 Rejang (Redjang, Kaganga) Rejang L-to-R 5.1 37
Rohg 167 Hanifi Rohingya Hanifi Rohingya R-to-L 11.0 50
Roro 620 Rongorongo Not in Unicode, proposal in initial/exploratory stage[26]
Runr 211 Runic Runic L-to-R 3.0 86 Ancient/historic
Samr 123 Samaritan Samaritan R-to-L 5.2 61
Sara 292 Sarati Not in Unicode
Sarb 105 Old South Arabian Old South Arabian R-to-L 5.2 32 Ancient/historic
Saur 344 Saurashtra Saurashtra L-to-R 5.1 82
Sgnw 095 SignWriting SignWriting T-to-B 8.0 672
Shaw 281 Shavian (Shaw) Shavian L-to-R 4.0 48
Shrd 319 Sharada, rad? Sharada L-to-R 6.1 94
Shui 530 Shuishu L-to-R Not in Unicode
Sidd 302 Siddham, Siddha?, Siddham?t?k? Siddham L-to-R 7.0 92 Ancient/historic
Sind 318 Khudawadi, Sindhi Khudawadi L-to-R 7.0 69
Sinh 348 Sinhala Sinhala L-to-R 3.0 110
Sogd 141 Sogdian Sogdian R-to-L 11.0 42 Ancient/historic
Sogo 142 Old Sogdian Old Sogdian R-to-L 11.0 40 Ancient/historic
Sora 398 Sora Sompeng Sora Sompeng L-to-R 6.1 35
Soyo 329 Soyombo Soyombo L-to-R 10.0 83 Ancient/historic
Sund 362 Sundanese Sundanese L-to-R 5.1 72
Sylo 316 Syloti Nagri Syloti Nagri L-to-R 4.1 44
Syrc 135 Syriac Syriac R-to-L 3.0 88
Syre 138 Syriac (Estrangelo variant) R-to-L Typographic variant of Syriac
Syrj 137 Syriac (Western variant) R-to-L Typographic variant of Syriac
Syrn 136 Syriac (Eastern variant) R-to-L Typographic variant of Syriac
Tagb 373 Tagbanwa Tagbanwa L-to-R 3.2 18
Takr 321 Takri, kr?, kr? Takri L-to-R 6.1 67
Tale 353 Tai Le Tai Le L-to-R 4.0 35
Talu 354 New Tai Lue New Tai Lue L-to-R 4.1 83
Taml 346 Tamil Tamil L-to-R 1.0 123
Tang 520 Tangut Tangut L-to-R 9.0 6,892 Ancient/historic
Tavt 359 Tai Viet Tai Viet L-to-R 5.2 72
Telu 340 Telugu Telugu L-to-R 1.0 98
Teng 290 Tengwar L-to-R Not in Unicode
Tfng 120 Tifinagh (Berber) Tifinagh L-to-R 4.1 59
Tglg 370 Tagalog (Baybayin, Alibata) Tagalog L-to-R 3.2 20
Thaa 170 Thaana Thaana R-to-L 3.0 50
Thai 352 Thai Thai L-to-R 1.0 86
Tibt 330 Tibetan Tibetan L-to-R 2.0 207 Added in 1.0, removed in 1.1 and reintroduced in 2.0
Tirh 326 Tirhuta Tirhuta L-to-R 7.0 82
Ugar 040 Ugaritic Ugaritic L-to-R 4.0 31 Ancient/historic
Vaii 470 Vai Vai L-to-R 5.1 300
Visp 280 Visible Speech L-to-R Not in Unicode
Wara 262 Warang Citi (Varang Kshiti) Warang Citi L-to-R 7.0 84
Wcho 283 Wancho Wancho L-to-R 12.0 59
Wole 480 Woleai R-to-L Not in Unicode, proposal in initial/exploratory stage[26]
Xpeo 030 Old Persian Old Persian L-to-R 4.1 50 Ancient/historic
Xsux 020 Cuneiform, Sumero-Akkadian Cuneiform L-to-R 5.0 1,234 Ancient/historic
Yezi 192 Yezidi R-to-L Not in Unicode
Yiii 460 Yi Yi L-to-R 3.0 1,220
Zanb 339 Zanabazar Square (Zanabazarin Dörböljin Useg, Xewtee Dörböljin Bicig, Horizontal Square Script) Zanabazar Square L-to-R 10.0 72 Ancient/historic
Zinh 994 Code for inherited script Inherited Inherited 571
Zmth 995 Mathematical notation L-to-R Not a 'script' in Unicode
Zsym 996 Symbols Not a 'script' in Unicode
Zsye 993 Symbols (emoji variant) Not a 'script' in Unicode
Zxxx 997 Code for unwritten documents Not a 'script' in Unicode
Zyyy 998 Code for undetermined script Common 7,805
Zzzz 999 Code for uncoded script Unknown 976,118 All other code points
Notes
  1. ^ ISO 15924 publications As of 19 August 2019
  2. ^ ISO 15924 Normative text file As of 19 August 2019
  3. ^ ISO 15924 Changes (including Aliases for Unicode; as of 19 August 2019)
  4. ^ Unicode version 12.1
  5. ^ Unicode charts
  6. ^ Unicode uses the "Property Value Alias" (Alias) as the script-name. These Alias names are part of Unicode and are published informatively next to ISO 15924

Normalization properties

Decompositions, decomposition type, canonical combining class, composition exclusions, and more.

Age

Age is the version of the Standard in which the code point was first designated. The version number is shortened to the numbering major.minor, although there more detailed version numbers are used: versions 4.0.0 and 4.0.1 both are named 4.0 as Age. Given the releases, Age can be from the range: 1.1, 2.0, 2.1, 3.0, 3.1, 3.2, 4.0, 4.1, 5.0, 5.1, 5.2, 6.0, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, 10.0, 11.0, 12.0 and 12.1.[30] The long values for Age begin in a V and use an underscore instead of a dot: V1_1, for example.[2] Codepoints without a specifically assigned age value have the value "NA", with the long form "Unassigned".

Deprecated

Once a character has been defined, it will not be withdrawn or changed in defining properties (code point, name). But it can be declared deprecated: A coded character whose use is strongly discouraged.[31] As of Unicode version 10.0, fifteen characters are deprecated:

  • U+0149 LATIN SMALL LETTER N PRECEDED BY APOSTROPHE: use the sequence '0020 006E (' n) instead
  • U+0673 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH WAVY HAMZA BELOW: use the sequence 0627 065F () instead
  • U+0F77 TIBETAN VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC RR: use the sequence 0FB2 0F81 () instead
  • U+0F79 TIBETAN VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC LL: use the sequence 0FB3 0F81 () instead
  • U+17A3 KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QAQ: use 17A2 KHMER LETTER QA (?) instead
  • U+17A4 KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QAA: use the sequence 17A2 17B6 () instead
  • U+206A INHIBIT SYMMETRIC SWAPPING
  • U+206B ACTIVATE SYMMETRIC SWAPPING
  • U+206C INHIBIT ARABIC FORM SHAPING
  • U+206D ACTIVATE ARABIC FORM SHAPING
  • U+206E NATIONAL DIGIT SHAPES
  • U+206F NOMINAL DIGIT SHAPES
  • U+2329 LEFT-POINTING ANGLE BRACKET: use 3008 LEFT ANGLE BRACKET (?) instead
  • U+232A RIGHT-POINTING ANGLE BRACKET: use 3009 RIGHT ANGLE BRACKET (?) instead
  • U+E0001 LANGUAGE TAG

The format characters U+206A through U+206F and U+E0001 should not be used at all, but for the other deprecated characters there are recommended alternatives, as shown above.

Boundaries

The Unicode Standard specifies the following boundary-related properties:

  • Grapheme cluster
  • Word
  • Line
  • Sentence

References

  1. ^ a b c d e "The Unicode Standard, Chapter 4: Character Properties" (PDF). Unicode, Inc. March 2019. Retrieved .
  2. ^ a b "Unicode Standard Annex #44: Unicode Character Database". The Unicode Standard. 2017-06-14.
  3. ^ "UCD: Name Aliases". Unicode Character Database. Unicode Consortium. 2019-03-08.
  4. ^ "Character design standards - space characters". Character design standards. Microsoft. 1998-1999. Archived from the original on August 23, 2000. Retrieved .
  5. ^ The Unicode Standard 5.0, printed edition, p.205
  6. ^ "General Punctuation" (PDF). The Unicode Standard 5.1. Unicode Inc. 1991-2008. Retrieved .
  7. ^ Sargent, Murray III (2006-08-29). "Unicode Nearly Plain Text Encoding of Mathematics (Version 2)". Unicode Technical Note #28. Unicode Inc. pp. 19-20. Retrieved .
  8. ^ Gillam, Richard (2002). Unicode Demystified: A Practical Programmer's Guide to the Encoding Standard. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-70052-2.
  9. ^ Faltstrom, P., ed. (August 2010). "Zero Width Non-Joiner". The Unicode Code Points and Internationalized Domain Names for Applications (IDNA). IETF. sec. A.1. doi:10.17487/RFC5892. RFC 5892. Retrieved 2019.
  10. ^ Faltstrom, P., ed. (August 2010). "Zero Width Joiner". The Unicode Code Points and Internationalized Domain Names for Applications (IDNA). IETF. sec. A.2. doi:10.17487/RFC5892. RFC 5892. Retrieved 2019.
  11. ^ "Unicode Standard Annex #44, Unicode Character Database".
  12. ^ a b "Unicode Standard Annex #9: Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm". The Unicode Standard. 2017-05-14.
  13. ^ "Unicode Standard Annex #24: Unicode Script Property". The Unicode Standard. 2015-06-01.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Proposed New Scripts". Unicode Consortium. 2018-05-25. Retrieved .
  15. ^ "Roadmap to the SMP". Unicode Consortium. 2018-08-08. Retrieved .
  16. ^ Michael Everson (1997-09-18). "Proposal to encode Klingon in Plane 1 of ISO/IEC 10646-2".
  17. ^ The Unicode Consortium (2001-08-14). "Approved Minutes of the UTC 87 / L2 184 Joint Meeting".
  18. ^ "UCD: Derived Age". Unicode Character Database. Unicode Consortium. 2019-01-22.
  19. ^ "The Unicode Standard, Chapter 3.4 Characters and Encoding, D13: Deprecated character" (PDF). The Unicode Standard. March 2019.

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