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In the table above, if there are two consonants in a row, the one to the right is voiced, and the one to the left is voiceless.
There is no complete agreement about the phonetic nature of /?/. According to some linguists, it is pharyngeal  ( [or sometimes in weak positions] when devoiced). According to others, it is glottal .
Word-finally, /m/, /l/, /r/ are voiceless , , after voiceless consonants. In case of /r/, it only happens after /t/.
/w/ is most commonly bilabial before vowels but can alternate with labiodental (most commonly before /i/), and can be a true labiovelar before /?/ or /u/. It is also vocalized to [u?] before a consonant at the beginning of a word, after a vowel before a consonant or after a vowel at the end of a word. If /w/ occurs before a voiceless consonant and not after a vowel, the voiceless articulation is also possible.
/r/ often becomes a single tap in the spoken language.
/t, d, d?, n, n?, s, s?, z, z?, t?s, t?s?, d?z, d?z?/ are dental [t?, d?, d, n?, n, s?, s, z?, z, ts?, ts, dz?, dz], while /t?, l, l?, r, r?/ are alveolar [t?, l, l?, r, r?].
The group of palatalized consonants consists of 10 phonemes: /j, d?, z?, l?, n?, r?, s?, t?, t?s?, d?z?/. All except /j/ have a soft and a hard variant. There is no agreement about the nature of the palatalization of /r?/; sometimes, it is considered as a semi-palatalized[clarification needed] consonant. Labial consonants /p, b, m, f/ have just semi-palatalized versions, and /w/ has only the hard variant. The palatalization of the consonants /?, ?, ?, k, x, t, ?, d/ is weak; they are usually treated rather as the allophones of the respective hard consonants, not as separate phonemes.
Unlike Russian and several other Slavic languages, Ukrainian does not have final devoicing for most obstruents, as can be seen, for example, in "cart", which is pronounced , not *['?is].
The fricative articulations [v, ?] are voiced allophones of /f, x/ respectively if they are voiced before other voiced consonants. (See #Consonant assimilation.) /x, ?/ do not form a perfect voiceless-voiced phoneme pair, but their allophones may overlap if /?/ is devoiced to [x] (rather than [h]). In the standard language, /f, w/ do not form a voiceless-voiced phoneme pair at all, as [v] does not phonemically overlap with /w/, and [?] (voiceless allophone of /w/) does not phonemically overlap with /f/.
When two or more consonants occur word-finally, a vowel is epenthesized under the following conditions: Given a consonantal grouping C1(?)C2(?), C being any consonant. The vowel is inserted between the two consonants and after the ?. A vowel is not inserted unless C2 is either /k/, /w/, /l/, /m/, /r/, or /t?s/. Then:
If C1 is /w/, /?/, /k/, or /x/, the epenthisized vowel is always [o]
No vowel is epenthesized if the /w/ is derived from a Common Slavic vocalic *l, for example, /w?wk/ (see below)
If C2 is /l/, /m/, /r/, or /t?s/, then the vowel is /?/.
The combinations, /-stw//-sk/ are not broken up.
If the C1 is /j/ (?), the above rules may apply. However, both forms (with and without the fill vowel) often exist.
Alternation of vowels and semivowels
Ukrainian also has a non-syllabic [u?], as an allophone of /w/. The semivowels /j/ and /w/ alternate with the vowels /i/ and /u/ respectively. The semivowels are used in syllable codas: after a vowel and before a consonant, either within a word or between words:
?/'win i'd?/ ('he's coming')
?/w?'n? 'jd?/ ('she's coming')
?/'win i w?'n?/ ('he and she')
?/w?'n? j 'win/ ('she and he');
??/ut?'m?ws 'w/ ('already gotten tired')
??/u' wt?'m?ws/ ('already gotten tired')
?./'win ut?m?ws/ ('He's gotten tired.')
? ./'win u 'x?ti/ ('He's inside the house.')
? ./w?'n? w 'x?ti/ ('She's inside the house.')
?/pidu'tt?/ ('to learn/teach (a little more)')
??/'w?wtt?/ ('to have learnt')
That feature distinguishes Ukrainian phonology remarkably from Russian and Polish, two related languages with many cognates.
There is no word-final or assimilatory devoicing in Ukrainian. There is, however, assimilatory voicing: voiceless obstruents are voiced when preceding voiced obstruents. (But the reverse is not true, and sonorants do not trigger voicing.)
The exceptions are , , , , , , and derivatives: /?/ may then be devoiced to or even merge with /x/.
Unpalatalized dental consonants /n, t, d, t?s, d?z, s, z, r, l/ become palatalized if they are followed by other palatalized dental consonants /n?, t?, d?, t?s?, d?z?, s?, z?, r?, l?/. They are also typically palatalized before the vowel /i/. Historically, contrasting unpalatalized and palatalized articulations of consonants before /i/ were possible and more common, with the absence of palatalization usually reflecting that regular sound changes in the language made an /i/ vowel actually evolve from an older, non-palatalizing /?/ vowel. Ukrainian grammar still allows for /i/ to alternate with either /?/ or /?/ in the regular inflection of certain words. The absence of consonant palatalization before /i/ has become rare, however, but is still allowed.
While the labial consonants /m, p, b, f, w/ cannot be phonemically palatalized, they can still precede one of the iotating vowels ? ? ? ?, when many speakers replace the would-be sequences *|m?, p?, b?, f?, w?| with the consonant clusters /mj, pj, bj, fj, wj/, a habit also common in nearby Polish. The separation of labial consonant from /j/ is already hard-coded in many Ukrainian words (and written as such with an apostrophe), such as in ?'?/wj?t'sl?w/ "Vyacheslav", '?/i'mj?/ "name" and ?'/pj?t?/ "five".
Dental sibilant consonants /t?s, d?z, s, z/ become palatalized before any of the labial consonants /m, p, b, f, w/ followed by one of the iotating vowels ? ? ? ?, but the labial consonants themselves cannot retain phonemic palatalization. Thus, words like ?/s?w(j)?t/ "holiday" and ?/sw?t/ "matchmaker" retain their separate pronunciations (whether or not an actual /j/ is articulated).
Sibilant consonants (including affricates) in clusters assimilate with the place of articulation and palatalization state of the last segment in a cluster. The most common case of such assimilation is the verbal ending - in which |?s| assimilates into /s?:?/.
Dental plosives /t, t?, d, d?/ assimilate to affricate articulations before coronal affricates or fricatives /t?s, d?z, s, z, t?s?, d?z?, s?, z?, t, d, ?, ?/ and assume the latter consonant's place of articulation and palatalization. If the sequences |t.t?s, d.d?z, t.t?s?, d.d?z?, t.t, d.d| regressively assimilate to */t?s.t?s, d?z.d?z, t?s?.t?s?, d?z?.d?z?, t.t, d.d/, they gain geminate articulations /t?s:, d?z:, t?s?:, d?z?:, t:, d:/.
Deviations of spoken language
There are some typical deviations which may appear in spoken language (often under the influence of Russian); usually they are considered as phonetic errors by pedogogists.
for and [?t] or even for [?t]
[r?] for /r/, [b?] for /b/, [v?] for /w/ (?, ??, ?'?)
[v] or [f] (the latter in syllable-final position) for [w ~ u? ~ ~ ? ~ ?] (?, ?, ?, ??), in effect also turning /f, w/ into a true voiceless-voiced phoneme pair, which is not the case in the standard language
The Common Slavic nasal vowel *? is reflected as /j?/; a preceding labial consonant generally was not palatalized after this, and after a postalveolar it became /?/. Examples: Common Slavic *p?t? became Ukrainian /pj?t?/ (?'); Common Slavic *tel? became Ukrainian /t?'l/ (); and Common Slavic *kur became Ukrainian /kur't/ ().
Common Slavic *? (Cyrillic ?), generally became Ukrainian /i/ except:
word-initially, where it became /ji/: Common Slavic *(j)?sti became Ukrainian /'jist?/
after the postalveolar sibilants where it became /?/: Common Slavic *leti became Ukrainian /l?'t?/ (?)
Common Slavic *i and *y are both reflected in Ukrainian as /?/
The Common Slavic combination -C?jV, where V is any vowel, became -C?:V, except:
if C is labial or /r/ where it became -CjV
if V is the Common Slavic *e, then the vowel in Ukrainian mutated to /?/, e.g., Common Slavic *?it?je became Ukrainian /'t?:?/ ()
if V is Common Slavic *?, then the combination became /?j/, e.g., genitive plural in Common Slavic *myj? became Ukrainian /m?'j/ ()
if one or more consonants precede C then there is no doubling of the consonants in Ukrainian
Sometime around the early thirteenth century, the voiced velar stop lenited to [?] (except in the cluster *zg). Within a century, /?/ was reintroduced from Western European loanwords and, around the sixteenth century, [?]debuccalized to [?].
Common Slavic combinations *dl and *tl were simplified to /l/, for example, Common Slavic *mydlo became Ukrainian /'m?l?/ ().
Common Slavic *?l and *?l became /?w/. For example, Common Slavic *v?lk? became /w?wk/ (?) in Ukrainian.