|Phonetic usage:||[je], [j?]|
|The Cyrillic script|
Ukrainian Ye (? ?; italics: ? ?) is a character of the Cyrillic script. It is a separate letter in the Ukrainian alphabet (8th position since 1992, 7th position before then), the Pannonian Rusyn alphabet, and both the Carpathian Rusyn alphabets; in all of these, it comes directly after ?. In modern Church Slavonic, it is considered a variant form of Ye (? ?) (there, the selection of ? and ? is driven by orthography rules). Until the mid-19th century, ?/? was also used in Romanian and Serbian (the letter was eliminated in Vuk Karad?i?'s alphabet and replaced by digraph ). Other modern Slavonic languages may use ?/? shapes instead of ?/? for decorative purposes. Then, the letter is usually referred to by the older name Yest and the descriptive name Long E.
In Ukrainian, ?/? commonly represents the sound /je/ or /j?/ like the pronunciation of ⟨ye⟩ in "yes". (See usage for more detail.)
Ukrainian Ye is romanized as ⟨je⟩ or ⟨e⟩. See scientific transliteration of Cyrillic.
Letter ?/? was derived from one of variant forms of Cyrillic Ye (? ?), known as "long E" or "anchor E". ?-shaped letter can be found in late uncial (ustav) and semi-uncial (poluustav) Cyrillic manuscripts, especially ones of Ukrainian origin. Typically it corresponds to the letter Iotated E (? ?) of older monuments. Certain old primers and grammar books of Church Slavonic language had listed ?/? as a letter distinct from ?/? and placed it near the end of the alphabet (the exact alphabet position varies). Among modern-style Cyrillic scripts (known as "civil script" or "Petrine script"), ?/? was first used in Serbian books (end of the 18th century and first half of the 19th century); sometimes, Serbian printers might be using ?/? instead of ?/? due to font availability. For the modern Ukrainian language, ?/? is used since 1837 (orthography of almanach "? ?" (Rusalka Dnestrovaya)). In Cyrillic numerals, ? is always preferred to E to represent 5.
In Khanty, the letter represents the sound /je/.
In oldest Slavonic manuscripts, ? is just a graphical variant of ? and thus represents /e/ without palatalization. Later ? replaces ? (i.e. denotes /?e/ after consonants and /je/ after vowels and in an initial position). Yet later, it also accepts both decorative role (as an initial letter of a word, even if there were no iotation) and an orthographical one, to make distinction between certain homonymical forms (mostly between plural and singular).
Since the mid-17th century, the Church Slavonic orthography has the following main rules related to the usage of shapes ? and ?:
In the modern Church Slavonic alphabet, the 6th letter is typically shown as (one uppercase accompanied with two variants of lowercase).
Old Believers print their books using an older variant of New Church Slavonic language. Its orthography combines the fully formal system described above with the older tradition to use ? phonetically (after vowels, to represent iotated /je/).
|Unicode name||CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER
|CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER|
|UTF-8||208 132||D0 84||209 148||D1 94|
|Numeric character reference||Є
|Named character reference||Є||є|
|Code page 855||135||87||134||86|
|Code page 866||242||F2||243||F3|