Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXVII, alternatively 27th Dynasty or Dynasty 27), also known as the First Egyptian Satrapy ( Old Persian: Mudr?ya ), was effectively a province (  satrapy) of the Achaemenid Persian Empire between 525 BC and 404 BC. It was founded by Cambyses II, the King of Persia, after the Battle of Pelusium (525 BC) and his conquest of Egypt, and his subsequent crowning as Pharaoh of Egypt. It was disestablished upon the rebellion and crowning of Amyrtaeus as Pharaoh. A second period of Achaemenid rule in Egypt occurred under the Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypt (343-332 BC).
pharaoh of the 26th Dynasty, Psamtik III, was defeated by Cambyses II at the battle of Pelusium in the eastern Nile delta in May of 525 BC. Cambyses was crowned Pharaoh of Egypt in the summer of that year at the latest, beginning the first period of Persian rule over Egypt (known as the 27th Dynasty). Egypt was then joined with Cyprus and Phoenicia to form the sixth satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire, with Aryandes as the local satrap (provincial governor).
As Pharaoh of Egypt, Cambyses' reign saw the fiscal resources of traditional Egyptian temples diminished considerably. One decree, written on papyrus in
demotic script ordered a limitation on resources to all Egyptian temples, excluding Memphis, Heliopolis and Wenkhem (near Abusir). Cambyses left Egypt sometime in early 522 BC, dying en route to Persia, and was nominally succeeded briefly by his younger brother Bardiya, although contemporary historians suggest Bardiya was actually Gaumata, an impostor, and that the real Bardiya had been murdered some years before by Cambyses, ostensibly out of jealousy. Darius I, suspecting this impersonation, led a coup against "Bardiya" in September of that year, overthrowing him and being crowned as King and Pharaoh the next morning.
As the new Persian King, Darius spent much of his time quelling rebellions throughout his empire. Sometime in late 522 BC or early 521 BC a local Egyptian prince led a rebellion and declared himself Pharaoh
Petubastis III. The main cause of this rebellion is uncertain, but the Ancient Greek military historian Polyaenus states that it was oppressive taxation imposed by the satrap Aryandes. Polyaenus further writes that Darius himself marched to Egypt, arriving during a period of mourning for the death of the sacred Herald of Ptah bull. Darius made a proclamation that he would award a sum of one hundred talents to the man who could produce the next Herald, impressing the Egyptians with his piety such that they flocked en masse to his side, ending the rebellion. 
Modern impression of an Achaemenid cylinder seal from
, with king holding two lion griffins at bay and Egyptian
is a protection over me". Circa 6th-5th century BC.
Darius took a greater interest in Egyptian internal affairs than Cambyses. He reportedly codified the laws of Egypt, and notably completed the excavation of a canal system at
Suez, allowing passage from the Bitter Lakes to the Red Sea, much preferable to the arduous desert land route. This feat allowed Darius to import skilled Egyptian laborers and artisans to construct his palaces in Persia. The result of this was a minor brain drain in Egypt, due to the loss of these skilled individuals, creating a demonstrable lowering of quality in Egyptian architecture and art from this period. Nevertheless, Darius was more devoted to supporting Egyptian temples than Cambyses, earning himself a reputation for religious tolerance in the region. In 497 BC, during a visit by Darius to Egypt, Aryandes was executed for treason, most likely for attempting to issue his own coinage, a visible attempt to distance Egypt from the rest of the Persian Empire.  Darius died in 486 BC, and was succeeded by  Xerxes I.
Egyptian soldier of the Achaemenid army, circa 470 BCE.
Upon the accession of Xerxes, Egypt again rebelled, this time possibly under
Psamtik IV, although different sources dispute that detail. Xerxes quickly quelled the rebellion, installing his brother Achaemenes as satrap. Xerxes ended the privileged status of Egypt held under Darius, and increased supply requirements from the country, probably to fund his invasion of Greece. Furthermore, Xerxes promoted the Zoroastrian god Ahura Mazda at the expense of traditional Egyptian deities, and permanently stopped the funding of Egyptian monuments. Xerxes was murdered in 465 BC by Artabanus, beginning a dynastic struggle that ended with Artaxerxes I being crowned the next King and Pharaoh.
In 460 BC another major Egyptian rebellion took place, led by a Libyan chief named
Inaros II, substantially assisted by the Athenians of Greece. Inaros defeated an army led by Achaemenes, killing the satrap in the process, and took Memphis, eventually exerting control over large parts of Egypt. Inaros and his Athenian allies were finally defeated by a Persian army led by general  Megabyzus in 454 BC and consequently sent into retreat. Megabyzus promised Inaros no harm would come of him or his followers if he surrendered and submitted to Persian authority, terms Inaros agreed to. Nevertheless, Artaxerxes eventually had Inaros executed, although exactly how and when is a matter of dispute. Artaxerxes died in 424 BC.
Xerxes II only ruled for forty-five days, being murdered by his brother Sogdianus. Sogdianus was consequently murdered by his brother Ochus, who became Darius II. Darius II ruled from 423 BC to 404 BC, and nearing the end of his reign a rebellion led by Amyrtaeus took place, potentially beginning as early as 411 BC. In 405 BC Amyrtaeus, with the help of Cretan mercenaries expelled the Persians from Memphis, declaring himself Pharaoh the next year and ending the 27th Dynasty. Darius II's successor,  Artaxerxes II made attempts to begin an expedition to retake Egypt, but due to political difficulty with his brother Cyrus the Younger, abandoned the effort. Artaxerxes II was still recognized as the rightful Pharaoh in some parts of Egypt as late as 401 BC, although his sluggish response to the situation allowed Egypt to solidify its independence.
During the period of independent rule three indigenous dynasties reigned: the
28th, 29th, and 30th Dynasty. Artaxerxes III (358 BC) reconquered the Nile valley for a brief second period (343 BC), which is called the 31st Dynasty of Egypt.
The Achaemenid rule over Egypt had been often viewed as either weak or oppressive. H. P. Colburn (2019) analyses suggest Achaemenid legacy there was significant and the Egyptians had a wide variety of experiences in this period.
Pharaohs of the 27th Dynasty
Egyptian alabaster vase of Darius I with quadrilingual hieroglyphic and cuneiform inscriptions. The hieroglyph reads: "King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Lord of the Two Lands, Darius, living forever, year 36".
The pharaohs of the 27th Dynasty ruled for approximately one hundred and twenty one years, from 525 BC to 404 BC. Rulers with violet background were native Egyptian pharaohs who rebelled against the Achaemenid rule.
Timeline of the 27th Dynasty (Achaemenid Pharaohs only)
Satraps of the 27th Dynasty
Name of satrap
Cambyses II, Darius I
Deposed following a revolt in 522 BC, later restored in 518 BC then deposed again by Darius I
Possibly killed during a revolt
Xerxes I, Artaxerxes I
A brother of Xerxes I, later killed by the rebel Inaros II
Artaxerxes I, Xerxes II, Artaxerxes II
Longest ruling satrap of Egypt
O'Brien, Patrick Karl (2002). . Oxford University Press. pp. 42-43. Atlas of World History ISBN . 9780195219210
. 1999. Philip's Atlas of World History
Davidson, Peter (2018). . i5 Publishing LLC. Atlas of Empires: The World's Great Powers from Ancient Times to Today ISBN . 9781620082881
Barraclough, Geoffrey (1989). . Times Books. p. 79. The Times Atlas of World History ISBN . 0723003041
^ "a Persian hero slaughtering an Egyptian pharaoh while leading four other Egyptian captives"
Hartley, Charles W.; Yazicio?lu, G. Bike; Smith, Adam T. (2012). . Cambridge University Press. p. ix, photograph 4.6. The Archaeology of Power and Politics in Eurasia: Regimes and Revolutions ISBN . 9781139789387
^ "Victor, apparently wearing the tall Persian headdress rather than a crown, leads four bareheaded Egyptian captives by a rope tied to his belt. Victor spears a figure wearing Egyptian type crown." in
Root, Margaret Cool (1979). . Diffusion, E.J. Brill. p. 182. The king and kingship in Achaemenid art: essays on the creation of an iconography of empire ISBN . 9789004039025
^ "Another seal, also from Egypt, shows a Persian king, his left hand grasping an Egyptian with an Egyptian hairdo (pschent), whom he thrusts through with his lance while holding four prisoners with a rope around their necks."
Briant, Pierre (2002). . Eisenbrauns. p. 215. From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire ISBN . 9781575061207
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"Museum item, accession number: 36.106.2". www.metmuseum.org. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Giovino, Mariana (2006). "Egyptian Hieroglyphs on Achaemenid Period Cylinder Seals". Iran. Iran, vol. 44. 44: 105-114. doi: 10.1080/05786967.2006.11834682. JSTOR 4300705. S2CID 193426061.
electricpulp.com. "DARIUS iii. Darius I the Great - Encyclopaedia Iranica". www.iranicaonline.org . Retrieved .
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Photius. "Photius' excerpt of Ctesias' Persica (2)". www.livius.org . Retrieved .
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dates     Egypt
Chronology of the Neolithic period 4000-3200 BCE
Naqada culture (4000-3100 BCE)
Sumerian period (4000-2340 BCE) Susa I
Pre-Dynastic period (4000-2900 BCE)
Naqada I Naqada II
Uruk period (4000-3100 BCE) (Anonymous "King-priests") Legendary ante-deluvian rulers: In Eridu: Alulim, Alalngar, then in Bad-tibira: En-men-lu-ana, En-men-gal-ana, Dumuzid, the Shepherd, then in Larag: En-sipad-zid-ana, then in Zimbir: En-men-dur-ana, then in Shuruppag: Ubara-Tutu "then the flood swept over"  Susa II (Uruk influence or control)
Proto-Dynastic period ( Naqada III) Early or legendary kings:
Upper Egypt Finger Snail Fish Pen-Abu Animal Stork Canide Bull Scorpion I Shendjw Iry-Hor Ka Scorpion II Narmer / Menes
Lower Egypt Hedju Hor Ny-Hor Hsekiu Khayu Tiu Thesh Neheb Wazner Nat-Hor Mekh Double Falcon Wash 3100-2900 BCE
Early Dynastic Period First Dynasty of Egypt Narmer Menes Hor-Aha Djer Djet Merneith ? Den Anedjib Semerkhet Qa'a Sneferka
Jemdet Nasr period Proto-Elamite period ( Susa III) (3100-2700 BCE)
Second Dynasty of Egypt Hotepsekhemwy Nebra/Raneb Nynetjer Ba Nubnefer Horus Sa Weneg-Nebty Wadjenes Senedj Seth-Peribsen Sekhemib-Perenmaat Neferkara I Neferkasokar Hudjefa I Khasekhemwy
Early Dynastic Period I (2900-2700 BCE)
First Eblaite Kingdom (Semitic)
First kingdom of Mari (Semitic)
Kish I dynasty Jushur, Kullassina-bel Nangishlishma, En-tarah-ana Babum, Puannum, Kalibum
Kalumum Zuqaqip Atab Mashda Arwium Etana Balih En-me-nuna Melem-Kish Barsal-nuna
Uruk I dynasty Mesh-ki-ang-gasher
Enmerkar ("conqueror of Aratta")
Early Dynastic Period II (2700-2600 BCE)
Zamug, Tizqar, Ilku Iltasadum
Lugalbanda Dumuzid, the Fisherman
En-me-barage-si ("made the land of Elam submit") 
Aga of Kish
Old Elamite period (2700-1500 BCE) Indus-Mesopotamia relations
Third Dynasty of Egypt Djoser Sekhemkhet Sanakht Nebka Khaba Qahedjet Huni
Early Dynastic Period III (2600-2340 BCE)
Sagisu Abur-lim Agur-lim Ibbi-Damu Baba-Damu
Kish II dynasty (5 kings) Uhub Mesilim
Ur-Nungal Udulkalama Labashum
Lagash En-hegal Lugalshaengur
Ur A-Imdugud Ur-Pabilsag Meskalamdug (Queen Puabi) Akalamdug
Enun-dara-anna Mes-he Melamanna Lugal-kitun
Adab Nin-kisalsi Me-durba Lugal-dalu
Old Kingdom of Egypt Fourth Dynasty of Egypt Snefru Khufu Djedefre Khafre Bikheris Menkaure Shepseskaf
Thamphthis Ur I dynasty Mesannepada "King of Ur and Kish", victorious over Uruk
Phoenicia (2500-539 BCE)
Second kingdom of Mari (Semitic) Ikun-Shamash Iku-Shamagan Ansud Sa'umu Ishtup-Ishar Ikun-Mari Iblul-Il Nizi
Akshak dynasty Unzi Undalulu
Kish III dynasty Ku-Baba
Uruk II dynasty Enshakushanna
Umma I dynasty Pabilgagaltuku
Lagash I dynasty Ur-Nanshe Akurgal
A'annepada Meskiagnun Elulu Balulu
Awan dynasty Peli Tata Ukkutahesh Hishur
Fifth Dynasty of Egypt Userkaf Sahure Neferirkare Kakai Neferefre Shepseskare Nyuserre Ini Menkauhor Kaiu Djedkare Isesi Unas
Elamite invasions (3 kings)  Shushuntarana Napilhush
Eannatum (King of Lagash, Sumer, Akkad, conqueror of Elam)
Adub-Damu Igrish-Halam Irkab-Damu
Kish IV dynasty Puzur-Suen Ur-Zababa
Ur-Lumma Il Gishakidu (Queen Bara-irnun)
Enannatum Entemena Enannatum II Enentarzi
Ur II dynasty Nanni Mesh-ki-ang-Nanna II
Sixth Dynasty of Egypt Teti Userkare Pepi I Merenre Nemtyemsaf I Pepi II Merenre Nemtyemsaf II Netjerkare Siptah
Adab dynasty Lugalannemundu "King of the four quarters of the world"
Enna-Dagan Ikun-Ishar Ishqi-Mari
Mari Anbu, Anba, Bazi, Zizi of Mari, Limer, Sharrum-iter 
Puzur-Nirah Ishu-Il Shu-Sin
Uruk III dynasty Lugalzagesi (Governor of Umma, King of all Sumer)
Akkadian Period (2340-2150 BCE)
Akkadian Empire (Semitic) Sargon of Akkad Rimush Manishtushu
Akkadian Governors: Eshpum Ilshu-rabi Epirmupi Ili-ishmani
Lugal-ushumgal (vassal of the Akkadians)
First Intermediate Period Seventh Dynasty of Egypt
Eighth Dynasty of Egypt
Second Eblaite Kingdom (Semitic) (Vassals of UR III)
Shakkanakku dynasty (Semitic) Ididish Shu-Dagan Ishma-Dagan (Vassals of the Akkadians)
Igigi, Imi, Nanum, Ilulu (3 years) Dudu Shu-turul
Uruk IV dynasty Ur-nigin Ur-gigir
Lagash II dynasty Puzer-Mama Ur-Ningirsu I Pirig-me Lu-Baba Lu-gula Ka-ku Hishep-Ratep Helu Khita Puzur-Inshushinak
Ninth Dynasty of Egypt Meryibre Khety Neferkare VII Nebkaure Khety Setut
Neo-Sumerian Period (2150-2000 BCE)
Nûr-Mêr Ishtup-Ilum Ishgum-Addu Apil-kin
Gutian dynasty (21 kings) La-erabum Si'um
Kuda (Uruk) Puzur-ili Ur-Utu
Umma II dynasty Lugalannatum (vassal of the Gutians)
Ur-Baba Gudea Ur-Ningirsu Ur-gar Nam-mahani
Tenth Dynasty of Egypt Meryhathor Neferkare VIII Wahkare Khety Merykare
Iddi-ilum Ili-Ishar Tura-Dagan Puzur-Ishtar Hitial-Erra Hanun-Dagan (Vassals of Ur III)  Uruk V dynasty Utu-hengal
Ur III dynasty "Kings of Ur, Sumer and Akkad" Ur-Nammu Shulgi Amar-Sin Shu-Sin Ibbi-Sin
Middle Kingdom of Egypt Eleventh Dynasty of Egypt Mentuhotep I Intef I Intef II Intef III Mentuhotep II Mentuhotep III Mentuhotep IV
circa 2000 BCE
Amorite invasions Elamite invasions Kindattu ( Shimashki Dynasty)
Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt Amenemhat I Senusret I Amenemhat II Senusret II Senusret III Amenemhat III Amenemhat IV Sobekneferu ?
Third Eblaite Kingdom (Semitic) Ibbit-Lim Immeya Indilimma
Old Assyrian Empire (2025-1378 BCE) Puzur-Ashur I Shalim-ahum Ilu-shuma Erishum I Ikunum Sargon I Puzur-Ashur II Naram-Sin Erishum II Shamshi-Adad I Ishme-Dagan I Mut-Ashkur Rimush Asinum Ashur-dugul Ashur-apla-idi Nasir-Sin Sin-namir Ipqi-Ishtar Adad-salulu Adasi Bel-bani Libaya Sharma-Adad I Iptar-Sin Bazaya Lullaya Shu-Ninua Sharma-Adad II Erishum III Shamshi-Adad II Ishme-Dagan II Shamshi-Adad III Ashur-nirari I Puzur-Ashur III Enlil-nasir I Nur-ili Ashur-shaduni Ashur-rabi I Ashur-nadin-ahhe I Enlil-Nasir II Ashur-nirari II Ashur-bel-nisheshu Ashur-rim-nisheshu Ashur-nadin-ahhe II
Isin-Larsa period ( Amorites) : Dynasty of Isin Ishbi-Erra Shu-Ilishu Iddin-Dagan Ishme-Dagan Lipit-Eshtar Ur-Ninurta Bur-Suen Lipit-Enlil Erra-imitti Enlil-bani Zambiya Iter-pisha Ur-du-kuga Suen-magir Damiq-ilishu Dynasty of Larsa: Naplanum Emisum Samium Zabaia Gungunum Abisare Sumuel Nur-Adad Sin-Iddinam Sin-Eribam Sin-Iqisham Silli-Adad Warad-Sin Rim-Sin I (...) Rim-Sin II Uruk VI dynasty: Alila-hadum Sumu-binasa Naram-Sin of Uruk Sîn-kid Sîn-iribam Sîn-g?mil Ilum-gamil Anam of Uruk Irdanene Rim-Anum Nabi-ili?u
Sukkalmah dynasty Siwe-Palar-Khuppak
Second Intermediate Period Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt
Fourteenth Dynasty of Egypt
Abraham ( Biblical)
First Babylonian dynasty ("Old Babylonian Period") ( Amorites) Sumu-abum Sumu-la-El Sin-muballit Sabium Apil-Sin Sin-muballit Hammurabi Samsu-iluna Abi-eshuh Ammi-ditana Ammi-saduqa Samsu-Ditana Early Kassite rulers
Second Babylonian dynasty (" Sealand Dynasty") Ilum-ma-ili Itti-ili-nibi Damqi-ilishu Ishkibal Shushushi Gulkishar mDI?+U-EN Peshgaldaramesh Ayadaragalama Akurduana Melamkurkurra Ea-gamil
Sixteenth Dynasty Abydos Dynasty Seventeenth Dynasty
Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt (" Hyksos") Semqen 'Aper-'Anati Sakir-Har Khyan Apepi Khamudi
Mitanni (1600-1260 BCE) Kirta Shuttarna I Parshatatar
New Kingdom of Egypt Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt Ahmose I Amenhotep I
Third Babylonian dynasty ( Kassites) Agum-Kakrime Burnaburiash I Kashtiliash III Ulamburiash Agum III Karaindash Kadashman-harbe I Kurigalzu I Kadashman-Enlil I Burnaburiash II Kara-hardash Nazi-Bugash Kurigalzu II Nazi-Maruttash Kadashman-Turgu Kadashman-Enlil II Kudur-Enlil Shagarakti-Shuriash Kashtiliashu IV Enlil-nadin-shumi Kadashman-Harbe II Adad-shuma-iddina Adad-shuma-usur Meli-Shipak II Marduk-apla-iddina I Zababa-shuma-iddin Enlil-nadin-ahi
Middle Elamite period
Kidinuid dynasty Igehalkid dynasty Untash-Napirisha Thutmose I Thutmose II Thutmose III
Hatshepsut ? Amenhotep II Thutmose IV Amenhotep III Akhenaten Smenkhkare Neferneferuaten ? Tutankhamun Ay Horemheb
Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt Ramesses I Seti I Ramesses II Merneptah Amenmesses Seti II Siptah Twosret ? Elamite Empire Shutrukid dynasty Shutruk-Nakhunte
Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt Setnakhte Ramesses III Ramesses IV Ramesses V Ramesses VI Ramesses VII Ramesses VIII Ramesses IX Ramesses X Ramesses XI Third Intermediate Period
Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt Smendes Amenemnisu Psusennes I Amenemope Osorkon the Elder Siamun Psusennes II
Phoenicia Kingdom of Israel Saul Ish-bosheth David Solomon
Middle Assyrian Empire Eriba-Adad I Ashur-uballit I Enlil-nirari Arik-den-ili Adad-nirari I Shalmaneser I Tukulti-Ninurta I Ashur-nadin-apli Ashur-nirari III Enlil-kudurri-usur Ninurta-apal-Ekur Ashur-dan I Ninurta-tukulti-Ashur Mutakkil-Nusku Ashur-resh-ishi I Tiglath-Pileser I Asharid-apal-Ekur Ashur-bel-kala Eriba-Adad II Shamshi-Adad IV Ashurnasirpal I Shalmaneser II Ashur-nirari IV Ashur-rabi II Ashur-resh-ishi II Tiglath-Pileser II Ashur-dan II
Fourth Babylonian dynasty (" Second Dynasty of Isin") Marduk-kabit-ahheshu Itti-Marduk-balatu Ninurta-nadin-shumi Nebuchadnezzar I Enlil-nadin-apli Marduk-nadin-ahhe Marduk-shapik-zeri Adad-apla-iddina Marduk-ahhe-eriba Marduk-zer-X Nabu-shum-libur
Neo-Elamite period (1100-540 BCE)
Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth Babylonian dynasties ("Period of Chaos") Simbar-shipak Ea-mukin-zeri Kashshu-nadin-ahi Eulmash-shakin-shumi Ninurta-kudurri-usur I Shirikti-shuqamuna Mar-biti-apla-usur Nabû-mukin-apli
Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt Shoshenq I Osorkon I Shoshenq II Takelot I Osorkon II Shoshenq III Shoshenq IV Pami Shoshenq V Pedubast II Osorkon IV
Twenty-third Dynasty of Egypt Harsiese A Takelot II Pedubast I Shoshenq VI Osorkon III Takelot III Rudamun Menkheperre Ini Twenty-fourth Dynasty of Egypt Tefnakht Bakenranef
Kingdom of Samaria Kingdom of Judah
Neo-Assyrian Empire Adad-nirari II Tukulti-Ninurta II Ashurnasirpal II Shalmaneser III Shamshi-Adad V Shammuramat (regent) Adad-nirari III Shalmaneser IV Ashur-Dan III Ashur-nirari V
Ninth Babylonian Dynasty Ninurta-kudurri-usur II Mar-biti-ahhe-iddina Shamash-mudammiq Nabu-shuma-ukin I Nabu-apla-iddina Marduk-zakir-shumi I Marduk-balassu-iqbi Baba-aha-iddina (five kings) Ninurta-apla-X Marduk-bel-zeri Marduk-apla-usur Eriba-Marduk Nabu-shuma-ishkun Nabonassar Nabu-nadin-zeri Nabu-shuma-ukin II Nabu-mukin-zeri Humban-Tahrid dynasty Urtak Teumman Ummanigash Tammaritu I Indabibi Humban-haltash III
Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt (" Black Pharaohs") Piye Shebitku Shabaka Taharqa Tanutamun
( Sargonid dynasty) Tiglath-Pileser + Shalmaneser + Marduk-apla-iddina II Sargon + Sennacherib + Marduk-zakir-shumi II Marduk-apla-iddina II Bel-ibni Ashur-nadin-shumi + Nergal-ushezib Mushezib-Marduk Esarhaddon + Ashurbanipal Ashur-etil-ilani Sinsharishkun Sin-shumu-lishir Ashur-uballit II
Assyrian conquest of Egypt
Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt Necho I Psamtik I Necho II Psamtik II Wahibre Ahmose II Psamtik III
Neo-Babylonian Empire Nabopolassar Nebuchadnezzar II Amel-Marduk Neriglissar Labashi-Marduk Nabonidus
Median Empire Deioces Phraortes Madius Cyaxares Astyages
Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt ( Achaemenid conquest of Egypt)
Achaemenid Empire Cyrus Cambyses Darius I Xerxes Artaxerxes I Darius II Artaxerxes II Artaxerxes III Artaxerxes IV Darius III
Twenty-eighth Dynasty of Egypt Twenty-ninth Dynasty of Egypt
Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt
Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypt 331-141 BCE
Ptolemaic dynasty Ptolemy I Soter Ptolemy Keraunos Ptolemy II Philadelphus Ptolemy III Euergetes Ptolemy IV Philopator Ptolemy V Epiphanes Cleopatra I Syra (regent) Ptolemy VI Philometor Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Cleopatra II Philometor Soter Ptolemy VIII Physcon Cleopatra III Ptolemy IX Lathyros Ptolemy X Alexander Berenice III Ptolemy XI Alexander Ptolemy XII Auletes Cleopatra VI Tryphaena Berenice IV Epiphanea Ptolemy XIII Ptolemy XIV Cleopatra VII Philopator Ptolemy XV Caesarion
Hellenistic Period : Argead dynasty Alexander I Philip Alexander II Antigonus
: Seleucid Empire Seleucus I Antiochus I Antiochus II Seleucus II Seleucus III Antiochus III Seleucus IV Antiochus IV Antiochus V Demetrius I Alexander III Demetrius II Antiochus VI Dionysus Diodotus Tryphon Antiochus VII Sidetes
Kingdom of Judea Simon Thassi John Hyrcanus Aristobulus I Alexander Jannaeus Salome Alexandra Hyrcanus II Aristobulus II Antigonus II Mattathias
Alexander II Zabinas Seleucus V Philometor Antiochus VIII Grypus Antiochus IX Cyzicenus Seleucus VI Epiphanes Antiochus X Eusebes Antiochus XI Epiphanes Demetrius III Eucaerus Philip I Philadelphus Antiochus XII Dionysus Antiochus XIII Asiaticus Philip II Philoromaeus
Parthian Empire Mithridates I Phraates Hyspaosines Artabanus Mithridates II Gotarzes Mithridates III Orodes I Sinatruces Phraates III Mithridates IV Orodes II Phraates IV Tiridates II Musa Phraates V Orodes III Vonones I Artabanus II Tiridates III Artabanus II Vardanes I Gotarzes II Meherdates Vonones II Vologases I Vardanes II Pacorus II Vologases II Artabanus III Osroes I
30 BCE-116 CE
Roman Empire (
Roman conquest of Egypt) Province of Egypt
Province of Mesopotamia under Trajan
Parthamaspates of Parthia
Province of Mesopotamia
Sinatruces II Mithridates V Vologases IV Osroes II Vologases V Vologases VI Artabanus IV
Sasanian Empire Province of Asoristan Ardashir I Shapur I Hormizd I Bahram I Bahram II Bahram III Narseh Hormizd II Adur Narseh Shapur II Ardashir II Shapur III Bahram IV Yazdegerd I Shapur IV Khosrow Bahram V Yazdegerd II Hormizd III Peroz I Balash Kavad I Jamasp Kavad I Khosrow I Hormizd IV Khosrow II Bahram VI Chobin Vistahm
Palmyrene Empire Vaballathus Zenobia Antiochus
Province of Egypt
Province of Mesopotamia
Palaestina Prima, Palaestina Secunda
Sasanian conquest of Egypt) Province of Egypt Shahrbaraz Sahralanyozan Shahrbaraz
Sasanian Empire Province of Asoristan Khosrow II Kavad II
Byzantine Empire Ardashir III Shahrbaraz Khosrow III Boran Shapur-i Shahrvaraz Azarmidokht Farrukh Hormizd Hormizd VI Khosrow IV Boran Yazdegerd III Peroz III Narsieh
Palaestina Prima, Palaestina Secunda
Muslim conquest of Egypt
Muslim conquest of the Levant
Muslim conquest of Mesopotamia and Persia Rulers of Ancient Central Asia