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Trioecy (or subdioecy) is a extremely rare reproductive system characterized by the coexistence of males, females, and hermaphrodites. It has been found in both plants and animals.[1][2][3]

Evolution of trioecy

Trioecy is usually viewed as evolutionarily unstable. however, its exact stability over evolution is unclear but, many speculate it is a transient state. Trioecy is often associated with evolutionary transitioning from Gynodioecy to Dieocy. Other studies support show that trioecious populations originated from gonochoristic ancestors which were invaded by a mutant selfing hermaphrodite, creating a trioecious population. [4][2]

Species that exhibit trioecy

The following species have been observed to exhibit a trioecious breeding system.[5][6][7][8][9]

Also see


  1. ^
  2. ^ a b Chaudhuri, Jyotiska; Bose, Neelanjan; Tandonnet, Sophie; Adams, Sally; Zuco, Giusy; Kache, Vikas; Parihar, Manish; von Reuss, Stephan H.; Schroeder, Frank C.; Pires-daSilva, Andre (December 3, 2015). "Mating dynamics in a nematode with three sexes and its evolutionary implications". Scientific Reports. 5 (1): 17676. doi:10.1038/srep17676 – via
  3. ^ Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior. Academic Press. 2019-01-21. ISBN 978-0-12-813252-4.
  4. ^
  5. ^ Silva, C. A.; Oliva, M.; Vieira, M. F.; Fernandes, G. W. (October 27, 2008). "Trioecy in Coccoloba cereifera Schwacke (Polygonaceae), a narrow endemic and threatened tropical species". doi:10.1590/S1516-89132008000500017 – via Semantic Scholar. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  6. ^
  7. ^ Armoza-Zvuloni, Rachel; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Loya, Yossi; Schlesinger, Ami; Rosenfeld, Hanna (2014-06-01). "Trioecy, a Unique Breeding Strategy in the Sea Anemone Aiptasia diaphana and Its Association with Sex Steroids". Biology of Reproduction. 90 (6). doi:10.1095/biolreprod.113.114116. ISSN 0006-3363.
  8. ^ Perry, Laura E.; Pannell, John R.; Dorken, Marcel E. (2012-04-19). "Two's Company, Three's a Crowd: Experimental Evaluation of the Evolutionary Maintenance of Trioecy in Mercurialis annua (Euphorbiaceae)". PLOS ONE. 7 (4): e35597. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035597. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3330815. PMID 22532862.
  9. ^ Salinas, Bentlee (2018-12-21). Plant Cytogenetics, Breeding and Evolution. Scientific e-Resources. ISBN 978-1-83947-274-9.

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