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Trioecy (or subdioecy) is a extremely rare reproductive system characterized by the coexistence of males, females, and hermaphrodites. It has been found in both plants and animals.   
Evolution of trioecy
Trioecy is usually viewed as evolutionarily unstable. however, its exact stability over evolution is unclear but, many speculate it is a transient state. Trioecy is often associated with evolutionary transitioning from
Gynodioecy to Dieocy. Other studies support show that trioecious populations originated from gonochoristic ancestors which were invaded by a mutant selfing hermaphrodite, creating a trioecious population.  
Species that exhibit trioecy
The following species have been observed to exhibit a trioecious breeding system.
    
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Chaudhuri, Jyotiska; Bose, Neelanjan; Tandonnet, Sophie; Adams, Sally; Zuco, Giusy; Kache, Vikas; Parihar, Manish; von Reuss, Stephan H.; Schroeder, Frank C.; Pires-daSilva, Andre (December 3, 2015). "Mating dynamics in a nematode with three sexes and its evolutionary implications". Scientific Reports. 5 (1): 17676. doi: – via www.nature.com. 10.1038/srep17676
. Academic Press. 2019-01-21. Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior ISBN . 978-0-12-813252-4
Silva, C. A.; Oliva, M.; Vieira, M. F.; Fernandes, G. W. (October 27, 2008). "Trioecy in Coccoloba cereifera Schwacke (Polygonaceae), a narrow endemic and threatened tropical species". doi: – via Semantic Scholar. 10.1590/S1516-89132008000500017
Armoza-Zvuloni, Rachel; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Loya, Yossi; Schlesinger, Ami; Rosenfeld, Hanna (2014-06-01). "Trioecy, a Unique Breeding Strategy in the Sea Anemone Aiptasia diaphana and Its Association with Sex Steroids". Biology of Reproduction. 90 (6). doi: . 10.1095/biolreprod.113.114116 ISSN 0006-3363.
Perry, Laura E.; Pannell, John R.; Dorken, Marcel E. (2012-04-19). "Two's Company, Three's a Crowd: Experimental Evaluation of the Evolutionary Maintenance of Trioecy in Mercurialis annua (Euphorbiaceae)". PLOS ONE. 7 (4): e35597. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035597. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC . 3330815 PMID 22532862.
Salinas, Bentlee (2018-12-21). . Scientific e-Resources. Plant Cytogenetics, Breeding and Evolution ISBN . 978-1-83947-274-9