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A geometric transformation is any bijection of a set having some geometric structure to itself or another such set. Specifically, "A geometric transformation is a function whose domain and range are sets of points. Most often the domain and range of a geometric transformation are both R2 or both R3. Often, geometric transformations are required to be 1-1 functions, so that they have inverses."  The study of geometry may be approached via the study of these transformations.
Geometric transformations can be classified by the dimension of their operand sets (thus distinguishing between planar transformations and those of space, for example). They can also be classified according to the properties they preserve: