Transcription Into Japanese
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In contemporary Japanese writing, foreign-language loanwords and foreign names are normally written in the katakana script, which is one component of the Japanese writing system. As far as possible, sounds in the source language are matched to the nearest sounds in the Japanese language, and the result is transcribed using standard katakana characters, each of which represents one syllable (strictly mora). For example, America is written ? (A-me-ri-ka). To accommodate various foreign-language sounds not present in Japanese, a system of extended katakana has also developed to augment standard katakana.

Katakana, like hiragana, has a one-to-one correspondence between sounds and characters. Therefore, once the "Japanese sound" of a word is established, there is no ambiguity in its katakana spelling (unlike spelling in English, for example).

A much less common form of transcription, not covered in this article, uses kanji characters for their phonetic values. For information on this method see Ateji.

Practicalities of transcription

Word length

Because Japanese is written with relatively complex Kanji characters, Japanese text must generally be written larger for legibility. Furthermore, as both Kanji and Kana are traditionally of equal width and height, Japanese characters are generally much larger than Latin characters. As Kanji are logographic and Kana encode entire syllables (or rather, morae), the higher information density of Japanese writing usually evens out with the larger text so that Japanese and English texts take about the same amount of space, but challenges arise with foreign consonant clusters incompatible with Japanese phonotactics and the Kana system. For example, the word remote control becomes the cumbersome ? (ri-m?-to-ko-n-to-r?-ru) in Japanese. Here, additional vowels are added between [t] and [k], between [t] and [?], and after [?] at the word's end, and the vowels of mo and ro have been lengthened to mimic the English pronunciation. These additional sounds not only add to the word's length when spoken, but it also severely bloats the word when written. As such, the word is typically shortened to simply ? (ri-mo-ko-n) in modern Japanese speech and writing.

Syllable structure

Since Japanese has few closed syllables, syllable-final consonants in the source language are often represented using the -u (or sometimes -o or -i) kanas with implicitly silent vowels - though this vowel often is pronounced in Japanese - or the syllable coda is not represented at all. For example, the name Jim is written (Ji-mu). A similar principle applies to consonant clusters; for example spring would be transcribed as (su-pu-ri-n-gu), and scratch would be transcribed as (su-ku-ra-cchi).

Diphthongs

Japanese has only five native vowel sounds, each a pure vowel (monophthong) with a long and short form, and some degree of approximation is necessary when representing vowels from, for example, English. Diphthongs are represented by sequences of vowels, and pronounced with hiatus, as a sequence of discrete monophthongs, not a diphthong, as in ? Bu-ra-u-n "Brown", na-i-su "nice", di-a "dear/deer", re-a "rare". etc. The English spelling <ore> (phonologically /?:/ (RP) or /?:r/ (GA)) is usually "diphthongized" as o-a in Japanese (e.g. ko-a "core"), possibly because it is also pronounced as a diphthong (/o?/) in some accents of English. The English /e?/ is transcribed to either e-e ( e-e-su "ace") or e-i (? Su-pe-i-n "Spain"); similarly, // is transcribed to either o-o ( sho-o "show") or o-u (? sha-do-u "shadow").

Phonemes

Japanese does not have separate l and r sounds, and l- is normally transcribed using the kana that are perceived as representing r-. For example, London becomes ? (Ro-n-do-n). Other sounds not present in Japanese may be converted to the nearest Japanese equivalent; for example, the name Smith is written (Su-mi-su). Foreign sounds can be difficult to express in Japanese, resulting in spellings such as Furushichofu (Khrushchev), ? Ar? H?mene? (Ali Khamenei) and ? Itsuhaku P?ruman or Its?ku P?ruman (Itzhak Perlman).

The English voiceless labialized velar approximant /hw/ (orthographically wh), which is a distinct phoneme from /w/ in some varieties of English, can be transcribed as ho(w)-. For example, White is ? Howaito, whale is ? ho?ru.

French /w/ is typically transcribed as u, but the sequence /wa/ is as o-(w)a (e.g. Po-a-ro "Poirot").

The English /ti(:)/ and /t?/ is typically transcribed to ? chi (e.g. ch?mu "team"), but ti is also used ( tia "tear"). The suffix -tic can be transcribed to either -chikku or ? -tikku. However, -ty is almost always transcribed to (?) -ti(i), not *?(?) *-chi(i) (e.g. p?t? "party", ? infiniti "infinity").

The English schwa /?/ is variously "transcribed" to a, e, o, depending on the English spelling (this is more of transliteration than it is transcription). For example, ? dyu-a-ru "dual", ? dyu-e-ru "duel", Te-su-ta-me-n-to "Testament", ? Ro-n-do-n "London". There are no definite rules when it comes to the schwa, however; e.g. ? ra-n-da-mu "random", ? o-o-pu-n "open", ? za "the". The British /?/ which is equivalent to the North American /?/ is transcribed to a(-a); e.g. (?) ko-n-pyu-u-ta(-a) "computer", ? mo-o-ta-a "motor". On the other hand, the French schwa is transcribed to u or o (e.g. ? so-mu-ri-e "sommelier", ? do "de") similarly to instances where there's a lack of vowels, and the German schwa is almost always transcribed to e (e.g. A-ru-be-ru-to "Albert", un-di-i-ne "undine").

Although the diphthong /au/ across languages is usually transcribed as a-u, local reading transcriptions of the same sequence from Mandarin, represented in both Wade-Giles and Pinyin as ao are represented as a-o instead, again in more of a manner of transliteration based on these systems - e.g. ma-o tso-o-to-n (Mao Zedong).

The English /æ/ is typically transcribed to a; e.g. ma-n "man", ? cha-ne-ru "channel". The sequences /kæ/ and /?æ/ are sometimes transcribed to kya and gya respectively; e.g. kyandi "candy", gya-ra-ku-shi-i "galaxy".

The older English suffix -age /-?d?/ is always transcribed to -e-e-ji as if it were pronounced as /e?d?/ as in "age" or "rage"; e.g. me-s-se-e-ji "message", pa-k-ke-e-ji "package". The more recent -age /-?:?/ is more "properly" transcribed to -a-a-ju; e.g. mi-ra-a-ju "mirage". However, "garage" /g?'r?:?/ is more commonly transcribed to ? ga-re-e-ji as it also has /'gær?d?/ as an alternative pronunciation in British English.

The phoneme /v/ in various languages is transcribed either to b or v, although it is unknown whether there is such an equivalent phoneme /v/ in Japanese. For example, ? Benechia / Ve-ne-tsi-a "Venezia" (Italian for "Venice"), ? o-o-ba-a "over", ra-bu / ravu "love".

The German /v/ (orthographically w) can be transcribed in several ways. In long-established words, it is generally w. E.g.: Walküre "valkyrie" > wa-ru-kyu-u-re. In newer transcriptions, it can also be v. E.g.: Schwestern "sisters" > ? shu-ve-su-tan.

Wa is usually written as ?, although is sometimes used in transcriptions from Ancient Greek or Latin (e.g. Mi-ne-ru-wa "Minerva").

French vowels are usually phonemically transcribed, but non-phonemic stressed vowels (utterance-final) are sometimes also transcribed as long vowels. Compare the examples of me-zo-n "maison" and ka-re-e "Calais", in which the same vowel /?/ is transcribed as e and e-e depending on whether it is stressed or not. The French schwa is ignored altogether: words are usually transcribed as if there were no schwa at all. For example, the word "le" is transcribed as ? ru, as is the single sound /l/ in "cheval" > shuvaru.

Although a syllable-final /n/ is typically transcribed using the moraic ? n, ? is used in French to transcribe nasalized vowels, so French words with a final /n/ often use ? nu instead for distinction, e.g. Ma-do-re-e-nu "Madeleine". This is especially the case when the masculine and feminine of a word are distinct in French, e.g. bon --> bo-n, vs. bonne --> bo-n-nu (the n is sometimes doubled, especially when the French orthography use two n, even if it has no consequence in the French pronunciation).

Plain short consonants may be transcribed as geminated consonants to reflect the laxness of the preceding vowel, although this is not universal and there are plenty of exceptions. For example: English kick is ki-k-ku and castle is kya-s-su-ru, but extra is e-ku-su-to-ra and battle is ba-to-ru. This practice expands to almost all English obstruents regardless of their voicing (/k/, /?/, /s/, /z/, /f/, etc.), also to German/Scots /x/, occasionally to /n/ and /m/ (as pseudo-geminated consonant sequences /nn/ or /nm/). For example: English bag is ?(?)? ba-(g)-gu; English Anna is A-n-na; English gamma is ga-n-ma; English shuffle is sha-f-fu-ru; German Mach is ma-h-ha, Masoch is ? Ma-zo-h-ho.

German [x] is transcribed roughly as h-h, accordingly to its preceding vowel, if it's not followed by a vowel (e.g. ma-h-ha "Mach", Ba-h-ha "Bach", ? Ma-zo-h-ho "Masoch"); [ç], its allophone occurring only after high vowels and consonants, are as h if not followed by a vowel (e.g. ? me-ru-hen "Märchen"), or as hi if not (e.g. ? Ri-hi-ta-a "Richter"). Russian /x/ is transcribed as fu if not followed by a vowel (e.g. Ka-za-fu-su-ta-n "Kazakhstan"). Mandarin [ç] (in pinyin x(i)) is transcribed as sh (e.g. shao from ? xi?o "little").

Geminated consonants are typically transcribed consistently and faithfully, as gemination is also featured in Japanese. The only notable exceptions are /rr/ and //, although /ll/ and // are still transcribed. Examples: Arabic: ?‎, romanizedAll?h is A-r-ra-a-fu; Italian Donatello is Do-na-te-r-ro; Italian degli is de-r-ri; but Italian Verrocchio is simply Ve-ro-k-ki-o, not *Ve-r-ro-k-ki-o. Italian // may be transcribed as the lengthened portion of the preceding vowel and a sequence of /nj/. For example, Sardegna is Sa-ru-de-e-nya.

Similar to the way speakers of English say Italian words, Japanese does not usually transcribe the Italian glide /j/ to reflect its true nature, but as /i/, perhaps for consistency and convenience. For example, Venezia is Ve-ne-tsi-a, Sicilia is ? Shi-chi-ri-a. Contemporary transcriptions of palatalized consonants from Slavic languages, however, are made using y?on, e.g.: Russian ? Pya-chi-go-ru-su-ku (Pyatigorsk), Polish = Bye-ru-su-ko=bya-wa (Bielsko-Bia?a).

Modern English compounds are usually transcribed in a way that reflects the independent pronunciations of the individual components. That is to say, there is no phonetic linking between components. For example, "overall" is transcribed as ? o-o-ba-a-o-o-ru, not *o-o-ba-a-ro-o-ru as it is pronounced in English. However, there are a few exceptions, such as "pineapple", which is transcribed as pa-i-na-p-pu-ru, or "double-u", as da-bu-ryu-u.

Long vowels

Long vowels are generally written with ? to indicate lengthening, as in k?ra (cola), rather than writing a distinct vowel × *koura. There are two irregularities of note here. Firstly, lengthening of the final vowel may be ambiguous, and vary over time or between users. For example, in present Japan, "computer" is generally represented as ? konpy?t? (long final), but in some cases, such as the computer industry, following Japanese Industrial Standards, it is represented as konpy?ta (short final).[1] Secondly, in modern Chinese loanwords, notably food names, in careful transcription diphthongs are represented by separate vowels, even if in Japanese they would appear to be a long vowel; this is particularly common with òu, especially in ? dòu "(soy) bean", usually rendered as . Further, long vowels in the Japanese transcription need not reflect Chinese pronunciation. For example, the dish "Dongpo pork", in pinyin d?ngp?ròu (d?ng·p?·ròu), is represented in Japanese as donp?rou, or more commonly tonp?rou. Note that in Chinese pinyin ? represents a high tone, while in Japanese ? represents a long vowel, and /d/ is pronounced differently (Chinese /d/ is similar to Japanese or English /t/). This distinction is not always followed, and varies by term: the spelling tonp?r? is also common; and in terms such as twice cooked pork, the spelling is more common, despite representing diphthongs.

Extended katakana

In modern times, an extended katakana system has developed to cater for foreign sounds not present in Japanese. Most of these novel katakana forms are digraphs, composed of standard katakana characters, but in digraph combinations not found in native words. For example, the word photo is transcribed as (fo-to), where the novel digraph (fo) is made up from ? (normally fu) plus a novel small combining form of ? (normally o). In other cases novel diacritics may be applied to create new sounds, such as ? for vu, which consists of ? (u) combined with a dakuten to indicate a voiced pronunciation.

Interpunct

Japanese is written without spaces between words, and, to aid understanding, foreign phrases and names are sometimes transliterated with an interpunct separating the words, called a nakaguro (, middle dot); for example, (Bill Gates). When it is assumed that the reader knows the separate gairaigo words in the phrase, the middle dot is omitted, especially for wasei eigo. For example, the phrase ? konpy?t? g?mu ("computer game") contains two well-known gairaigo, and therefore is not written with a middle dot; the same principle is applied for ? panti sutokkingu ("pantyhose", lit. "panty stocking"), Japanese coinage.

Katakana tables

The following tables give the Hepburn romanization and an approximate IPA transcription for katakana as used in contemporary Japanese. Their use in transcription is, of course, in the inverse direction.

Standard katakana

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Theoretical combinations yi, ye and wu are  unused .
  2. ^ a b c The characters in positions wi and we are  obsolete  in modern Japanese, and have been replaced by ? (i) and ? (e). The character wo, in practice normally pronounced o, is preserved in only one use: as a particle. This is normally written in hiragana (?), so katakana ? sees only limited use. See Goj?on and the articles on each character for details.
  3. ^ a b c d e The ? (di) and ? (du) kana (often romanised as ji and zu) are primarily used for  etymologic spelling , when the unvoiced equivalents ? (ti) and ? (tu) (often romanised as chi and tsu) undergo a sound change (rendaku) and become voiced when they occur in the middle of a compound word. In other cases, the identically-pronounced ? (ji) and ? (zu) are used instead. ? (di) and ? (du) can never begin a word, and they are not common in katakana, since the concept of rendaku does not apply to transcribed foreign words, one of the major uses of katakana.

Extended katakana

The following katakana tokushuon ()[2] have been developed or proposed specifically for the purposes of transcribing foreign words. Examples such as (tu) in (cartoon), (ti) in ?(party), (tsa) in (Mozart) are found mostly in foreign words.

Color key
 Orange  General kana combinations used for loanwords or foreign place names or personal names, set forth by the Japanese government's Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT, Monbush?).[3]
 Blue  Combinations used for more accurate transliteration of foreign sounds, again set forth by MEXT.[clarification needed]
 Beige  Suggestions by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI Z39.11)[4] and the British Standards Institution (BS 4812)[5], both are identical and from 1972.[clarification needed] Attention: In these old standards are still obsolete kanas like ?(wi) and ?(we) included, same for ?(va), ?(vi), ?(ve), ?(vo).
 Purple  Combinations that appear in the 1974 version of the Hy?jun-shiki formatting.[6]


Table of transcription from English

English phonemes Common English graphemes Japanese transcription in modified Hepburn romanization Examples
Received Pronunciation General American If the English consonant is prevocalic and not postvocalic If the English consonant is intervocalic If the English consonant is not prevocalic
/æ/ ?a?; ?ae?; ?al?; ?au? a; ? hando "hand"; ramu "ram", "RAM"; samon, ? s?mon "salmon"
Exception: ? endo "and"
/?/; /?:/ /?:/; /?:/ ?a?; ?ach?; ?au?; ?o?; ?ou? o; a; ? nokku "knock"; ? shoppu "shop"; ? orakuru "oracle"; ?? wori?, ? w?ri? "warrior"; ?? wotchi "watch"; yotto "yacht"; ? tsumor?, tumor? "tomorrow"; Koronbia "Colombia"; ? sakk? "soccer"; ? karejji "college"; ? kakuteru "cocktail"; karifuraw? "cauliflower"; bar?b?ru "volleyball"; rainoserasu "rhinoceros"; d?ru "doll"; ? w?t? "water"; ? g?guru "goggle"; ? T?masu "Thomas"
/?:/ /æ/; /?:/ ?a?; ?al?; ?au? ?, a ?nto "aunt"; h?fu "half"; basu "bath"; ?? fasuto, ? f?suto "fast"; Shikago "Chicago"; dansu "dance"
/?:(?)/ /?:?/ ?ar?; ?ear?; ?er? ?r; a ? k? "car"; ? m?k? "marker"; h?to "heart"; s?jento "sergeant"; m?mar?do, mamar?do "marmalade"
/a?/ ?ai?; ?ei?; ?eigh?; ?i?; ?ic?; ?ie?; ?igh?; ?is?; ?oy?; ?uy?; ?y?; ?ye? ai hai "high", "hi"; raito "right", "light"; gai "guy"; gaido "guide"; ? sutairu "style"; haito "height"
/a(?)/ /a/; /a?/ ?ia(r)?; ?igher?; ?ire?; ?iro? aiar; aiyar aia; ai?; aiya; aiy? ?? fai?, ?? faiy? "fire"; ? aian "iron"; daiar?, daiyar? "diary"; daiyamondo "diamond"
Exceptions: Airurando "Ireland"; ? airon "iron"
/a?l/ /l/ ?ile? airu, uru, oru ? misairu "missile"; reputairu, ? reputoru "reptile"
/a?/ ?au?; ?ou?; ?ough?; ?ow? au; a taun "town"; daun "down"; purau "plough", "plow"; ? faund?shon, ?? fand?shon "foundation"
/a(?)/ /a/ ?our?; ?ower? aw?r aw? paw? "power"; aw? "our", "hour"
/b/ ?b?; ?bb?; ?be?; ?pb? b b; bb bu; bbu benchi "bench"; ?? babburu "bubble"; ?? rabu "lab"; ? buraz? "brother"; ? Bureiku "Blake"
Exception: kappub?do "cupboard"
/d/ ?d?; ?dd?; ?de? d d; dd; j do; ddo; zu; zzu; tto desu "death"; ? beddo "bed"; ? Sand? "Sunday"; ? d?mu "doom"; ? doragon "dragon"; ? kiddo, ? kizzu "kid"; ?? Ridor? "Riddler"; ? zetto "zed"; andeddo, andetto "undead"; ? Ejison, Edison, Edisun "Edison"; kurejitto "credit"
/dju(:)/ /du(:)/; /d/ ?dew?; ?du?; ?due? dy?; dyu ? dy?ku "duke"; dyuaru "dual"; dyueru "duel"; dy? "dew", "due"; ? edyuk?shon "education"
/dz/ ?ds?; ?dds? zu; zzu ? eizu "AIDS"; ? kizzu "kids"; ? guzzu "goods"
/d?/ ?di?; ?dg?; ?dge?; ?g?; ?ge?; ?j? j j; jj; z ji; jji; tsu ? janpu "jump"; ? ejji "edge"; ? Jer? "Gerry", "Jerry"; ?? bajetto "budget"; ? gar?ji "garage"; soruj? "soldier"; ? enjeru, ? enzeru "angel"; ??, ?? Jeminai "Gemini"; ? kyabetsu "cabbage"
/ð/ ?th?; ?the? z; j zu ? za, j? "the"; maz? "mother"; ??? arugorizumu "algorithm"
/?/ ?ae?; ?e?; ?ea?; ?ie?; ?oe? e ? endo "end"; heddo "head"; ? furendo "friend"
Exception s?t? "sweater"
/(?)/ // ?ar?; ?air?; ?are?; ?ear?; ?eir?; ?ere?; ?ey're? ear; er ea; e? ea, e? "air"; ? shea "share"; bea "bear"; eria "area"
Exception? pur?r? "prairie"
/?/ ?a? a ?kans? "Arkansas"; Ingurando "England"; ? marigan "mulligan"; ? abauto "about"; konma "comma"
Exception? puredet? "predator"
?o? o; u; a komon "common"; ?? obu "of"; tsud?, ?? tud? "today"; dainas?, dainos? "dinosaur"; ? sekando "second"
?gh?; ?ou?; ?ough?; ?u? a sara "thorough"; bara "borough"; Edinbara "Edinburgh"; Arubak?ki "Albuquerque"; ?? Ny?fandorando "Newfoundland"
/?(?)/ /?/ ?ar?; ?er?; ?ure? ar a; ? ? hang? "hanger", "hangar"; konpy?ta, ? konpy?t? "computer"; ? Rob?to "Robert"; fy?ch? "future"; ? n?zan "northern"; puropati "property"; hankach?fu "hankerchief"
?or?; ?our? ar ?; oru ? m?t? "motor"; kar? "colour"; ? k?soru "cursor"; Meruborun "Melbourne"
/?d/ /?d/ ?oard?; ?ord? ?do Okkusuf?do "Oxford"
/?l/; /l/ ?al? aru purop?zaru "proposal"; ? raibaru "rival"; ? taidaru "tidal"; ofisharu "official"
?ael?; ?el?; ?le? uru; oru; eru ? b?guru "bagel"; ? massuru "muscle"; ? t?buru "table"; ? saikuru "cycle"; midoru "middle"; sut?puru "staple"; ketoru "kettle"; pazuru "puzzle"; paneru "panel"; reberu, reveru "level", "revel", "rebel"; ? Maikeru "Michael"
/?m/ ?am?; ?em?; ?om?; ?ome? amu kingudamu "kingdom"; ? randamu "random"; ? Seiramu "Salem"; ? Gossamu "Gotham"; ? ?samu "awesome"
?um? amu; umu ? arubamu "album"; opossamu "opossum"; dy?teriumu "deuterium"; baky?mu "vacuum"
/?n/; /n/ ?ain?; ?en?; ?on? un; on; en ? haifun "hyphen"; sebun "seven"; f?run "fallen"; ? ?pun "open"; ? t?kun "token"; ? r?zun "reason"; ? sh?zun "season"; ? purizun "prison"; ? ressun "lesson"; ? sekondo "second"; sadon "sudden"; Suw?den "Sweden"; maunten "mountain"; ? Buriten "Britain"; tesutamento "testament"; Heren "Hellen"
Exception: ? kuraianto "client"; ? sekando "second"
/?s/ ?us? asu ? bairasu, vairasu "virus"; ? K?kasasu "Caucasus"
// /o?/ ?au?; ?eau?; ?eaux?; ?o?; ?oa?; ?oe?; ?oh?; ?ough?; ?ow?; ?owe? ?; ou; o g? "go"; sh? "show"; ? shad?, ? shadou "shadow"; h?mu "home"; souru "soul"; ?? Ohaio "Ohio"; pon? "pony"
/?:(?)/ /?:?/ ?ear?; ?er?; ?ir?; ?olo?; ?ur? ?r ?; a ? ?su "earth"; Sut?ringu "Sterling", "Stirling"; b?charu "virtual"; k?bu "curve", "curb"; ? k?neru "colonel", "kernel"; shatsu "shirt"; ?? orutanatibu "alternative"; f?r? "furry"
/e?/ ?a?; ?ae?; ?ai?; ?ais?; ?ait?; ?al?; ?au?; ?ay?; ?e?; ?ei?; ?eigh?; ?et?; ?ey? ?; ei; e n?mu "name"; g?ji "gauge"; ? doreiku "drake"; ? eito "eight"; Reifu "Ralph"; poteto "potato"; ?? enjeru "angel"; ? enshento "ancient"; ? burez? "blazer"; ? epuron "apron"; redi, ? red? "lady"; beb? "baby"
Exceptions: ?sutoraria "Australia"; Kanadian "Canadian"; rajio "radio"; sutajiamu "stadium"
/f/ ?f?; ?fe?; ?ff?; ?gh?; ?ph?; ?u? f; h f; ff fu; ffu ? fauru "foul"; ? furai "fry", "fly"; ? furaw? "flower"; ? shaffuru "shuffle"; ?? rafu "rough"; heddohon "headphone"; ??? refutenanto "lieutenant"
/?/ ?g?; ?gg?; ?gh?; ?gu?; ?gue? g g; gg gu; ggu gan "gun"; ? baggu "bag"; ? guraind? "grinder"; ? gur? "glue"; ??? Maguru "Muggle"; g?ru "ghoul"; git? "guitar"
/?æ/ ?ga? ga; gya ?? gajetto "gadget"; ? gyarakush? "galaxy"; ? gyaru "gal"
/?z/ ?gs?; ?ggs?; ?x?; ?xh? guz; guj; kiz; kuz guzu; gguzu egujitto "exit"; eguz?dasu "exodus; eguzamin?shon "examination"; ekizochikku "exotic"; ekiz?suto "exhaust"; ? bagguzu "bags"
/?zju:/ /?zu:/ ?xu?; ?xhu? guj? eguj?mu "exhume"
/h/ ?gh?; ?h? h ? hant? "hunter"; ? Habburu "Hubble"
/hu:/; /h?/ ?hoo?; ?who? f? f? "who"; ? fuddo, ? f?do "hood"; ? fukku, ? hokku "hook"
/?/ ?a?; ?ae?; ?e?; ?ei?; ?i?; ?ie?; ?oe? i; ?; e; ? ?? inputto "input"; rimiteddo "limited"; neikiddo "naked"; toiretto "toilet"; ? orenji "orange"; sutekk? "sticker"; desuten? "destiny"; ? dejitaru "digital"; ? aidea "idea"; mess?ji "message"; ? gar?ji "garage"; ? dam?ji "damage"; ? karejji "college"; chokor?to "chocolate"; paresu "palace"; ? arutimetto "ultimate"; nekkach?fu "neckerchief"
/(?)/ // ?aer?; ?e're?; ?ear?; ?eer?; ?er?; ?ere?; ?ier?; ?ir? iar; iyar; ?r; ir; ear ia; iya; ?a; ea gia "gear"; ? m?akyatto "meerkat"; iyahon "earphone"; ? h?r? "hero"; ? hiroin "heroine"; sutearingu "steering"
/i/ ?e?; ?ea?; ?ee?; ?ei?; ?y? i; ?; yi; ? ? komitt? "committee"; ? Yank? "Yankee"; shiti "city"; ? komedi, komed? "comedy"; ? aposutorofi "apostrophe"; ? happ?, ? happyi "happy"; ?? kyandi, ? kyand?, kyand? "candy"
?ay?; ?ey? ?; ?; ei; e Mar?, ? M?rei "Murray"; ? Rinj? "Lindsay"; ? H?b? "Harvey"; ? H?r? "Harley"; ? Ramuzei "Ramsay"; hanem?n, han?m?n "honeymoon"
/i:/ ?ae?; ?e?; ?ea?; ?ee?; ?i?; ?ie?; ?oe? ?; ?; e ch?mu "team"; ? gur?n "green"; p?su "piece", "peace"; takish?do "tuxedo"; ? d?mon "demon"; Noruw?jan "Norwegian"; ?? haiena "hyena"; ??? fenikkusu "phoenix"
/j/ ?y? y; i yangu "young"; Y?ku "York"; ? Y?ru "Yale"; ? ier?, ? ierou "yellow"; ? iesu "yes"
/ju(:)/; /j?/ /ju(:)/; /j?/ ?eu?; ?u?; ?you?; ?yu?; ?ut? y?; yu y? "you", "U"; ? yunion "union"; dabury? "W"; ? Samyueru "Samuel"; ??? f?myura "formula"
/j(?)/; /j/ /j/; /j/ ?eu(r)?; ?u(r)?; ?you(r)?; ?you're?; ?yu(r)?; ?uh(r)? y?r; yur; yuar yua y?ro "euro"; yua "your", "you're"; M?kyur? "Mercury"
/k/ ?c?; ?cc?; ?ch?; ?che?; ?ck?; ?k?; ?ke?; ?kh?; ?qu?; ?que? k k; kk ku; kku; ki; kki kappu "cup"; ? kikku "kick"; ? teiku "take"; ?? sutoraiki "strike"; ? k?ki "cake"; ? sut?ki "steak"; ? dekki "deck"; ? kuraun "clown"; ? sakk? "soccer", "sucker"; ??? kuronikuru "chronicle"
/kæ/ ?ca?; ?cha?; ?ka? ka; kya ? Kanzasu "Kansas"; ? kamera "camera"; Kyameron "Cameron"; ? kyand? "candy"; kyaputen "captain"
/ks/ ?cc?; ?cs?; ?chs?; ?cks?; ?ks?; ?khs?; ?x?; ?xe? kus; kkus; kis; kish kkusu; kisu ? Mekishiko "Mexico"; ? Tekisasu "Texas"; ?? tekisuto "text"; ? purokishi "proxy"; takish?do "tuxedo"; ? shikkusu "six", "sicks"; ? konpurekkusu "complex"
/k?/ ?cti?; ?xi? kush konekushon "connection", "connexion"
/k?u?l/ ?xual? kusharu; kushuaru ? baisekusharu, baisekushuaru "bisexual"
/kw/ ?cho?; ?cqu?; ?qu? ku; kuw; kw; k ? ku?ku, ? kw?ku "quark"; ? ku?n, ? kw?n "queen"; ? kuwaia "choir"; ? suk?ru "squall"; t?koizu "turquoise"
/l/ ?l?; ?le?; ?ll? r r ru r?pu "loop"; ? b?ru "ball"; bur? "bully"
/m/ ?m?; ?mb?; ?me?; ?mm?; ?mn? m m; nm mu; n Mei "May"; samon "summon"; ? g?mu "game"; ??? ranpu "lamp", "lump", "ramp", "rump"; ?? nanb? "number"; ganma "gamma"; ?? bomu "bomb"; ? ?tamu "autumn"
/n/ ?n?; ?nd?; ?ne?; ?nn? n n; nn n; nu ? nain "nine"; ? fan "fan"; banana "banana"; Anna "Anna"; ?? enu "N"; kanningu "cunning"; ?? hansamu "handsome"; ??? hankach?fu "handkerchief"
/nju(:)/ /nu(:)/ ?new?; ?neu?; ?nu? ny? ny? "new"; ny?toron "neutron"
/nj(?)/ /n/ ?newr?; ?neur?; ?nur?; ?nure? ny?r ny?ron "neuron"
/?/; // ?n?; ?ng? ng n; ngu ? sing? "singer"; fing? "finger"; ??? rinku "link"; ? ringu "ring"; B?mingamu, B?minguhamu "Birmingham"; ?? ch?in gamu "chewing gum"; ? Washinton "Washington"; ?? b?meran "boomerang"
/?:/ ?al?; ?au?; ?aw?; ?oa?; ?ough? ?; ou; o t?ku "talk"; ?sutoria "Austria"; kur?, kurou "claw", "craw"; ? sutor? "straw"; sutorober? "strawberry"
/?:l/ ?al?; ?aul?; ?awl? ?r ?ru; oru; aru ku?r? "crawler"; ? orutanatibu "alternative"; warutsu "waltz"; ? asaruto "assault"
/?:(?)/ /?:?/ ?ar?; ?aur?; ?oar?; ?or?; ?our?; ?wor? ?(r); oru; oa; ? b?do "board"; k?su "course"; ? f? "four"; ? sut?mu "storm"; torun?do "tornado"; b?tekkusu, borutekkusu "vortex"; Noruw? "Norway"; ? w? "war"; oa "or", "oar"; dainas?, dainos? "dinosaur"; ? k?rasu "chorus"; s?do "sword"; w?pu "warp"; Hoguw?tsu "Hogwarts"
?oor?; ?ore? oa koa "core"; ? foa "fore"; doa "door"; furoa "floor"
// ?eu?; ?oi?; ?oy? oi koin "coin"; toi "toy"
Exception: b?i "boy"
/(?)/ ?awyer? oiy? ? roiy? "lawyer"
/l/ ?oyal? oi ? roiyaru "royal", "loyal"
/p/ ?p?; ?pe?; ?ph?; ?pp? p p; pp pu; ppu pakku "pack"; ? toppu "top"; ? purankuton "plankton"; ? pur?fu "proof"
/?/; /(?)/ /?/ ?lo?; ?r?; ?re?; ?rh?; ?rps?; ?rr?; ?rt? r r omitted; ru ramu "ram", "RAM", "rum"; Ter? "Terry"; rizumu "rhythm"; b? "bar"; ?? Kariforunia "California"; ? ?ru "R", "are"
/i:/ ?rei? rii; ryi; ri riink?n?shon , ? ryink?n?shon, ? rink?n?shon, ? rink?neishon, ?? rinkan?shon "reincarnation"
/s/ ?'s?; ?c?; ?ce?; ?s?; ?s'?; ?sc?; ?se?; ?ss?; ?st?; ?sw? s; sh s; ss; sh; ssh su; ssu sando "sand"; shinku "sink", "cinque"; ? messenj? "messenger"; k?shingu "casing"; ?? kisu, ? kissu "kiss"; ? kyassuru "castle"; ? sutoppu "stop"; ?? surasshu "slash"; sento "cent"; ?? massuru "muscle"; ??? Kurisumasu "Christmas"
Exception: ? shich? "stew"
/sju:/ /su:/ ?su? sh? konsh?m? "consumer"
/?/ ?ch?; ?che?; ?ci?; ?s?; ?sc?; ?sch?; ?sh?; ?si?; ?sti?; ?ti? sh sh; ssh shu; sshu shippu "ship"; kurassh? "crusher"; furasshu "flash", "flush"; shuraudo "shroud"; ? dimenshon "dimension"; akushon "action"; ? igunisshon "ignition"; supesharu "special"
/?u?l/ ?sual? sharu; shuaru ? konsensharu "consensual"
/t/ ?bt?; ?ct?; ?pt?; ?t?; ?te?; ?th?; ?tt?; ?tte? t; ch; ts t; tt; ts to; tto; tsu; ttsu; do t?pu "tape"; ?? infiniti "infinity"; chippu "tip"; ch?mu "team"; ? such?mu "steam"; chiketto, ? tiketto, ? teketsu "ticket"; tsu? "tour"; ts?, t? "two", "to"; ? Taitan "Titan"; ? suk?to "skate"; ? hittingu "hitting"; ? k?t?n "cartoon"; kyatto, kyattsu "cat"; ? shatsu "shirt"; p?nattsu, ? p?natsu, p?natto "peanut"; ? fur?tsu "fruit"; ? s?tsu, s?to "suit"; ? torampu "trump"; ??? batoru "battle"; Temuzu, ? T?muzu "Thames"; ? Konechikatto "Connecticut"; ? adobansuto, ? adobansudo "advanced"
/tju:/ /tu:/ ?tew?; ?tu?; ?tue? ch?; chuw; ty? ch?n? "tuner"; ? ch?ba, ? ty?ba "tuba"; suchuw?do "steward"; Ch?zud? "Tuesday"
/ts/ ?t's?; ?ts?; ?tts? tsu; ttsu kyattsu "cats"; ? ittsu "it's", "its"
/t?/ ?ch?; ?tch? ch ch; tch chi; tchi chikin, chiken, ? chikken "chicken"; kichin, ? kitchin, ? kitchen "kitchen"; ? matchi "match"
/t(?)/ /t/ ?ture? chua ? machua "mature"
/t?u?l/ ?tual? charu; chuaru b?charu, ? b?chuaru "virtual"
/?/ ?th?; ?the? s; sh s; ss; sh; ssh; j su; ssu S? "Thor"; sh?fu "thief"; ?? basur?mu "bathroom"; ? sureddo "thread"; ? Gossamu "Gotham"; ameshisuto, amejisuto "amethyst"
/?/ ?oo?; ?u? u bukku "book"; buru "bull"
/(?)/; /?:(?)/ // ?oor?; ?our?; ?ure? uar; ?r ua; ?a; u? m?a "moor"; shua "sure"; tsu? "tour"; ts?risuto "tourist"; ? Miz?ri "Missouri"
/u(:)/ ?ew?; ?o?; ?oe?; ?oo?; ?ou?; ?ough?; ?ue?; ?ui? ?; u; y? ? d? "do"; ? kok?n "cocoon"; sh? "shoe"; s?pu "soup"; sur? "through"; bur?m?, ? burum? "bloomer"; ? j?su "juice"; bui "buoy"; kur? "crew"; k?kusukury? "corkscrew"; ? Andory? "Andrew"
Exceptions Doritoru "Dolittle"; ? sutajio "studio"; ak?sutikku "acoustic"
/v/ ?ph?; ?v?; ?ve?; ?w? b; v b; v bu; vu Baikingu, ? Vaikingu "Viking"; ?? rabu, ?? ravu "love"; ??? Sut?vun "Stephen"
/?/ ?o?; ?oo?; ?ou?; ?u? a; o ? mafin, maffin "muffin"; ? buraddo "blood"; purasu "plus"; ? kamingu "coming"; mansur? "monthly"; panchi, ponchi "punch"; Koronbia "Columbia"; ? tonneru "tunnel"; ? furonto "front"; monku "monk"; ? monk? "monkey"; ? Rondon "London"
/w/ ?w?; ?ou? u; w; omitted u; w ?? Guwen "Gwen"; ??? Suw?den "Sweden"; ? w?mu "warm"; w?mu "worm"; tsuin "twin"; ? jag? "jaguar"; ? pengin "penguin"; tinkuru "twinkle"; sandoitchi, ? sandowitchi "sandwich"; ? s?t? "sweater"; ??? aweikun, ??? aueikun "awaken"
?wh? how; ho; u; w ? howaito "white"; ? howattsu "what's"; ? ho?ru "whale"; ? ho?ru "wheel"; ? hoippu, ? uippu, ? wippu "whip"; ? w?to "wheat"
/w?/ ?wo?; ?woo? u; ? ? uddo "wood"; ?man "woman"
/z/ ?'s?; ?s?; ?sc?; ?se?; ?ss?; ?z?; ?ze?; ?zz? z; j z; zz; j; jj zu; zzu; su z?mu "zoom"; ? jipp? "zipper"; raijingu "rising"; ? kur?j? "crazy"; ? feizu "phase"; ??? pazuru "puzzle"; ? dij?, ? diz? "dizzy"; pozesshon "possession"; ? Miz?ri "Missouri"; ? ny?su "news"; ? bur?su "blues"; ? fear?zu, ? fear?su "fairies"; zetto, ?? zi "Z"
/?/ ?g?; ?ge?; ?si?; ?ti?; ?zi? j terebijon "television"; ? iku?jon "equation"; bur?j? "brazier"
/?u?l/ ?sual? juaru ?? bijuaru "visual"

See also

References

  1. ^ See ja:?
  2. ^ Saiga Archived 2017-09-30 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ ":".
  4. ^ "(ANSI Z39.11-1972)-". Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved .
  5. ^ "(BS 4812:1972)-". Archived from the original on 2013-06-03. Retrieved .
  6. ^ ? Archived 2015-09-24 at the Wayback Machine

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Music Scenes