Toyota Avalon Hybrid
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Toyota Avalon Hybrid

Toyota Avalon
2000-2002 Toyota Avalon -- 04-11-2012 2.JPG
2000-2002 Toyota Avalon (US)
Also calledToyota Pronard (Japan, 2000-2004)
Body and chassis
ClassFull-size car[1]
Body style4-door sedan
SuccessorToyota Aurion (Australia)

The Toyota Avalon (, Toyota Abaron) is a full-size car produced by Toyota. It is Toyota's largest front-wheel-drive sedan and serves as its flagship vehicle in the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico, and the Middle East. It was also produced in Australia from April 2000 until June 2005, when it was replaced in November 2006 by the Toyota Aurion. The first production Avalon rolled off the TMMK assembly line in Georgetown, Kentucky, in September 1994.[3] A second-generation model was released in the United States and Japan in 1999.

Toyota marketed the Avalon as a replacement for the Toyota Cressida, a model discontinued for the American market in 1992. While the Cressida was an upper-level midsize rear-wheel-drive car with a straight-six engine, the Avalon is front-wheel-drive, powered by a V6 engine. In recent years, there has been considerable overlapping with its platform mates, the Toyota Camry V6 and the Lexus ES, although the third-generation Avalon was distinguished by offering extra legroom.[4] Since 2013, the Avalon was introduced on a platform that is shared with the Lexus ES.[5]

As of 2013, the Toyota Avalon is available in the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico, South Korea, and the Middle East.

Avalon is a legendary island featured in the Arthurian legend, fitting it in with Toyota's tradition of naming their sedans the word for "crown" in various languages (Crown, Corona, Camry, Corolla), types of crowns (Tiara), or other things associated with royalty (Scepter).

First generation (XX10; 1994-2005)

First generation (XX10)
95-97 Toyota Avalon .jpg
  • September 1994[3] - August 1999
  • April 2000 - June 2005 (Australia)[6]
Model years1995-1999
DesignerKawazu Masahiko (Design Manager: 1991)[7]
Kusama Toshiharu (Design Chief: 1990-93)
Hideaki Otsubo (facelift: 1995)[8]
Engine3.0 L 1MZ-FE V6
Transmission4-speed A541E automatic
Wheelbase107.1 in (2,720 mm)
  • 1994-97: 190.2 in (4,831 mm)
  • 1997-99: 191.9 in (4,874 mm)
  • 1994-97: 70.3 in (1,786 mm)
  • 1997-99: 70.5 in (1,791 mm)
  • 1994-97: 55.9 in (1,420 mm)
  • 1997-99: 56.7 in (1,440 mm)
1998-1999 Toyota Avalon XLS (US)
Rear view

The Avalon was a new model introduced in February 1994 at the Chicago International Auto Show and launched in late 1994 for the 1995 model year. Development began in 1990 under the 299T project code (ending in 1994), with the design phase concluding in 1991 with internal approval of the final design. Design patents were filed with the Japanese Patent Office on 17 February 1992, under patent number 0890183.[9] Built in the same plant as the Camry, the Avalon was based on a stretched XV10 Camry platform featuring a 3.0-liter 1MZ-FE V6 engine making 192 hp (140 kW) and 210 lb?ft (285 N?m) of torque.[10] With almost 121 cu ft (3,426 l) of interior space, the Avalon was the roomiest six-passenger car from a Japanese manufacturer marketed in America,[11][12] despite being three inches shorter than the Mazda 929 and 11 inches shorter than the Dodge Intrepid.[11]

The Avalon was available with a front bench seat for six-passenger seating, and its column shifter was the first such feature in an American Toyota car since the 1982 Corona.[] The XL models were similar to the LE models of other Toyota vehicles, and the XLS models were similar to the XLE models of other Toyota vehicles. Traction control was optional. For 1997 models ABS became standard, power rating increased to 200 hp (150 kW), and torque increased to 214 lb?ft (290 N?m). In 1997 for the 1998 model year a mid-cycle refresh was introduced with minor updates to the front and rear fascias. Also for 1998, the Avalon's structure was modified to improve safety[] while front seat-mounted side airbags became standard.

The first-generation Avalon was also sold in Japan (vehicles were made in the United States and exported to Japan) as a right-hand drive model, and was exclusive to Toyopet Store locations. In Japan, it was the largest front-wheel drive sedan at Toyopet Store locations, and was sold alongside the front-engine, rear-drive Toyota Celsior, and was available in 3.0 and 3.0G grade levels, with the "Coach Edition" available as an option starting in late 1997 (equivalent to the 1998 model year). In Japan it was considered a luxury car due to its exterior dimensions placing it in the "large car" category according to Japanese Government dimension regulations and the engine displacement obligating an expensive, yearly road tax.

Australia (2000-2005)

In 1999, Toyota transferred the old tooling for the Avalon to Toyota Australia, which launched this Avalon as an "all-new" model in June 2000. The new Australian Avalon had an identical body to the original 1994 Avalon.[13] The Australian model was built in the Melbourne suburb of Altona, made in both right-hand drive (for Australia, New Zealand, and some parts of Asia), as well as left-hand drive for the Middle East. The Camry was also made at this plant.[14] The Avalon performed poorly in Australia; critics called the car "boring", and sales were low. The Avalon was front-wheel drive and available only as a sedan with a 3.0-liter V6 and automatic transmission. By contrast, its intended rivals, the Ford Falcon and Holden Commodore, were rear wheel drive and offered a wider range of body styles and engine/transmission options.[15]

Toyota had originally decided to rename the Avalon as the Centaur for the Australian market, named after the mythological creature of the same name. The same name was also used by the AHS Centaur, an Australian hospital ship that was torpedoed and sunk by a Japanese submarine during World War II. When Toyota Australia was made aware of this prior to the release of the car, they organised for the Centaur badges to be destroyed and removed the offending nameplate from all paperwork and advertising. As a result, the original "Avalon" name prevailed for the Australian market.[16]

When the Avalon was updated in 2001 as the "Mark II" (not to be confused with the separate Toyota Mark II), the model range was lightly revised and new hubcaps/alloy wheels were fitted.[17] The "Mark III" designation refers to the 2003 to 2005 facelift models.[18]

Many buyers preferred the V6-powered Camry instead of the Avalon, and the 2003 facelift failed to rectify the lower than expected sales,[19] with many criticizing the new front styling. Because of these sales concerns, Toyota Australia marketed it towards taxi fleets, against the Ford Falcon, with a specially developed dual-fuel (LPG and gasoline)-compatible engine.[20] Avalon production ceased in mid-2005.[21] In November 2006, Toyota introduced its replacement, the Toyota Aurion (XV40).[22]

Toyota X-Runner Concept

At the 2003 Melbourne and Sydney International Motor Shows, Toyota Australia unveiled the X-Runner Concept, a coupe utility version of the Avalon. The suspension AWD parts were borrowed from the contemporary Lexus RX. It was intended for production, but Toyota of Australia could not get approval from the parent company.[23][24]


Second generation (XX20; 1999-2004)

Second generation (XX20)
2000-2002 Toyota Avalon -- 04-11-2012 1.JPG
Also calledToyota Pronard (Japan)
ProductionSeptember 1999[3] - November 2004
Model years2000-2004
AssemblyUnited States: Georgetown, Kentucky (TMMK)
DesignerKevin Hunter and Yo Hiruta (1997)[25][26]
Engine3.0 L 1MZ-FE V6
Transmission4-speed A541E automatic
Wheelbase107.1 in (2,720 mm)
Length191.9 in (4,874 mm)
Width71.7 in (1,821 mm)
  • 1999-2002: 57.7 in (1,466 mm)
  • 2002-2004: 57.1 in (1,450 mm)

The second-generation Avalon grew larger in almost every respect, except wheelbase. It was still based on the stretched Camry platform and was powered by a 3.0-liter 1MZ-FE V6 engine equipped with VVT-i, shared with the Toyota Sienna, Lexus RX300, Lexus ES, and the Toyota Highlander, making 210 hp (157 kW) and 220 lb?ft (298 N?m). of torque and paired to a 4-speed automatic. The coefficient of drag had been reduced to Cd=0.28.

2000-2002 Toyota Avalon (Canada)
2003-2004 Toyota Avalon XLS (US)
2003-2004 Toyota Avalon XLS (US)

This Avalon was available in two trims: the basic XL and the upscale XLS. Standard features include electroluminescent Optitron gauges, 4-wheel disc ABS, front torso side airbags and 15" alloy wheels. Optional were a JBL audio system, a navigation system, Vehicle Stability Control, and a front row bench seat, allowing up to six passengers--a characteristic of large sized cars. However the front center seat is a tight fit for an adult passenger. Dual climate control, larger 16" wheels, and driver's and passenger's power seats were also available.

This second-generation Avalon also featured a built-in 115 V AC power inverter, the first car with such a feature. This was dropped in the third-generation Avalon; yet, the Toyota Matrix, Sienna, and Scion models now offer such an inverter.

The Avalon received a mid-cycle facelift for the 2003 model year, with a new grille and modified headlights and taillights. The minor interior changes included a woodgrain-style trimmed steering wheel for the XLS, slightly modified gauges, and a chrome emblem steering wheel added onto the XL (once only standard for the XLS).

2000-2002 Toyota Pronard (Japan)

This second-generation Avalon was also exported to the Japanese market as the Toyota Pronard, derived from the French word "prôner" for "extol", "commend", or "praise", between 2000 and 2004, replacing the first-generation sold as the Avalon. The Japanese Toyota Pronard was reassigned from Toyopet Store and was now exclusive to the former Vista Store network as Toyota Netz Store locations, slotted between the larger Toyota Aristo and smaller Verossa and Altezza. Some of the optional equipment installed in the Pronard, to enhance its luxury, was the TEMS ride control technology. Due to poor sales, Toyota did not export the third-generation Avalon to Japan; thus, the Toyota Pronard has been discontinued.

In the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) frontal crash test the Avalon received a "Good" overall score with the "Good" in all six measured categories.[27]

There was no Australian production or sales of this or later models.[]

Third generation (XX30; 2004-2012)

Third generation (XX30)
05-07 Toyota-Avalon.jpg
ProductionDecember 2004[3] - October 2012
Model years2005-2012
AssemblyUnited States: Georgetown, Kentucky (TMMK)
DesignerMasanari Sakae, Yoshikazu Harada, Kenta Shimoguchi and Ian Cartabiano (2003)[28][29]
Body and chassis
PlatformToyota K platform
Engine3.5 L 2GR-FE V6
Wheelbase111.0 in (2,820 mm)[30]
  • 2004-2010: 197.2 in (5,009 mm)
  • 2010-2012: 197.6 in (5,020 mm)
Width72.8 in (1,850 mm)
Height58.5 in (1,485 mm)
Curb weight3,560-3,660 lb (1,615-1,660 kg)

The Avalon underwent a redesign for 2005, and was unveiled to the public at the January 2005 North American International Auto Show. It went on sale in February 2005. Toyota reportedly cut the Avalon's production development time down from 29.5 months to 18 months.[31] The third generation Avalon was not sold in Europe or Japan.

The third generation Avalon was larger than previous versions, with Calty styling and drag coefficient of Cd=0.29; the Avalon also became the first Toyota to use a single piece wiper blade design. The redesign dropped the front bench seat option, a feature once common among large American sedans such as Buicks and Cadillacs, and featured a semi-flat rear floor to help increase rear passenger comfort.

The Avalon was the first Toyota to use Dual VVT-i in the US market in an all-new 3.5-liter 2GR-FE V6 engine which met ULEV certification and had a power output of 280 hp (209 kW) with a 0-60 time of 6.0 seconds. The engine was mated to a 5-speed sequential shift automatic. Due to changes in the SAE's testing procedures, power dropped to 268 hp (200 kW) and torque dropped to 248 lb?ft (336 N?m) for the 2006 model year. Actual power output did not change.

The Avalon came in four trims: the standard (base) XL, Touring, XLS, and Limited. The XL model included 16" alloy wheels, while other trims came with larger 17" wheels. Performance-oriented tires were fitted to the Touring and Limited trims.

The XL included dual-climate automatic temperature controls and steering wheel-mounted audio and climate controls. The Touring trim offered faux aluminum and all-black leather interior, a sport-tuned suspension, unique powder-coated gray wheels, and a trunk lip-mounted spoiler. The XLS introduced standard cargo nets, six-disc CD changer, a power sliding-glass moonroof, electrochromic auto dimming rear-view and driver's side-view mirrors, four-way passenger power seat and a HomeLink transceiver. The high-end Limited trim offered air-ventilated seats with a power driver's seat cushion length adjuster, Toyota's Smart Key System with keyless push-button start and entry, a quieter acoustic windshield, rain-sensing windshield wipers, an upgraded 12-speaker JBL audio system, "in-glass" LED turn signals on the side mirrors and a wood-trimmed steering wheel and shift gear lever. A navigation system was optional for every trim level other than the XL version. The Avalon had a flat rear floor design and reclining rear seats. Vehicle Stability Control was optional on all trim levels. Other options included a keyless Remote Engine Start, rear window power sunshade and, on Limited models, a Dynamic Laser Cruise Control system. HID lighting with auto-leveling was standard on Touring and Limited grades.

Model year changes

2008 Toyota Avalon XLS
2008 Toyota Avalon Limited

For the 2006 model year, Toyota expanded the availability of Vehicle Stability Control to XL and Touring trim levels.[32] The 2007 model year had the tire pressure monitoring system standard across all trims and the navigation system made optional for the Touring trim level.[33]

The 2008 model year Avalon released in 2007 received a mild facelift. Rear taillights received subtle tinting, and the front fascia was redesigned. Other changes included a six-speed automatic transmission, chrome exterior door handles for the "Limited" trim, restyled alloy wheels for the "Touring" and "XLS" trims, a built-in remote key, upgraded rear brakes, and Bluetooth integration with all JBL Synthesis audio systems. "Touring" models received a color-keyed grille, "XLS" and "Limited" models had a chrome grille, and all models included an in-dash six-CD changer.

The 2009 model year Avalon offered a few changes: Vehicle Stability Control [VSC] became standard on all trim levels, and the Touring version was no longer offered. XLS and Limited leather seats now offered a Dark Charcoal color, and the Indigo Ink Pearl exterior color was replaced with Cocoa Bean Metallic.

The 2010 model year offered two updates: all passenger windows received an automatic up/down function, as opposed to just the driver and front passenger's side, and a new accelerator pedal was redesigned.

2011 MY Toyota Avalon Limited
2011 MY Toyota Avalon

The Avalon went on sale in April 2010, for the 2011 model year, with revised styling and only two trim lines: a base Avalon model and a more upscale Limited trim. A backup camera became standard using either the rear view mirror or navigation screen for a display, and exterior side mirrors with integrated turn signals now folded in. The updated navigation system now had real-time traffic updates. Other changes included a redesigned instrument cluster and center console, new wood-style trim, new sheetmetal, and a different rear and front fascia design. The front and tail lights included LED piping, and fuel economy was slightly improved to an EPA-estimated 20/29/23 (city/highway/combined) mpg rating. The revised Avalon had a new brake-override control. It had an improved suspension system and a 12-speaker JBL Synthesis system which was only available on the Limited trim. 17" wheels were also standard on both trims although the Limited model has 10 spokes. Other exterior differences on the Limited included HID projector headlamps.[34]


The Avalon came standard with anti-lock brakes, electronic brakeforce distribution, brake assist, dual front airbags, front row side torso airbags, front and rear side curtain airbags, and a driver's knee airbag. For 2009 models Vehicle Stability Control, traction control became standard while active head restraints were added. In 2010, the Star Safety System was added for the 2011 model year.

The Avalon was subject to the 2009-10 Toyota vehicle recalls. 2011 and later model years come standard with a brake-override system.

The Avalon received a "Good" overall score in both the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) frontal offset and side impact tests.[35][36] In 2009, with the new head restraints the IIHS awarded the Avalon its Top Safety Pick accolade.[37]

A "Good" rating in IIHS the roof strength test IIHS earned the 2011 model year the organization's "Top Safety Pick 2010" designation. The 2011 model year also received the "Top Safety Pick 2011" recommendation.

NHTSA crash test ratings (2006):[38]
Frontal Driver: 5/5 stars
Frontal Passenger: 5/5 stars
Side Driver: 5/5 stars
Side Rear Passenger: 5/5 stars
Rollover: 4/5 stars (2006)
5/5 stars (2011)


Car and Driver, which had called previous Avalons "Japanese Buicks," rated it at the top of a group of large premium sedans in 2005.[39], Motor Trend and Automobile Magazine also rated it top in their own comparisons.[40][41][42]Consumer Reports rated the Avalon at the top of its tested group in the large and upscale category, scoring ahead of five other sedans in the January 2010 issue.[43] In 2010, the 2011 model year Avalon competed against the Ford Taurus and received first place awards from Motor Trend.

Fourth generation (XX40; 2012-2018)

Fourth generation (XX40)
2014 Toyota Avalon XLE, front.jpg
Toyota Avalon XLE (GSX40, US)
ProductionNovember 2012 - March 2018
Model years2013-2018
AssemblyUnited States: Georgetown, Kentucky (TMMK)
DesignerKevin Hunter and Ian Cartabiano (2010)[44]
Body and chassis
PlatformToyota K platform
RelatedLexus ES (XV60)
  • 6-speed automatic
  • CVT (hybrid)
Wheelbase111.0 in (2,820 mm)[30]
Length195.3 in (4,960 mm)
Width72.2 in (1,835 mm)
Height57.5 in (1,460 mm)
Curb weight3,472-3,594 lb (1,575-1,630 kg)

The redesigned Avalon was partially revealed at the New York International Auto Show in April 2012, to be based on the same platform as the Lexus ES.[5] A new grille was part of the redesign with redesigned lights that were now similar to the Camry. The interior controls have tap touch technology instead of buttons. In June 2012, Toyota announced the Avalon would offer a hybrid powertrain.[45] The Avalon went on sale in the US at the beginning of December 2012.

Hybrid version

2017 Toyota Avalon Hybrid (US)

The hybrid gasoline-electric model of the 2013 model year Avalon uses the revised version of Toyota's Hybrid Synergy Drive power train, similar to the one powering the 2012 model year Camry Hybrid. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency rated the Avalon Hybrid as 40 mpg‑US (5.9 L/100 km; 48 mpg‑imp) on combined cycle, 40 mpg‑US (5.9 L/100 km; 48 mpg‑imp) on city, and 39 mpg‑US (6.0 L/100 km; 47 mpg‑imp) on highway driving. The hybrid version went on sale in the United States in December 2012.[46] The Avalon Hybrid comes with a 2.5 L inline-4 engine. When combined with the electric motor the system has a total output of 200 bhp (149 kW).[47] The Avalon Hybrid uses a 1.6 kWh sealed nickel-metal hydride traction battery, the same as the Camry Hybrid.[48]

Jump terminal or jump post for the hybrid model is no longer located under the hood. The starting battery must be directly jumped from the trunk. If a dead battery is encountered a reach from the rear middle armrest area to the manual trunk release is accessed inside the trunk.

2012 SEMA concepts (2012)

The 2013 model year TRD Edition is a concept car developed by Toyota Racing Development. It includes a supercharged 3.5-liter V6 engine with Eaton Gen 6 TVS rotor assembly, six-speed automatic transmission, six-piston front & four-piston rear calipers, burgundy body color, tinted taillights, color-keyed grille and dual exhaust with polished mufflers, 19-inch wheels with Michelin 225/40R19 tires, a red stitching touch on the instrument and door panels, seats red stitching and accent piping and a JBL GreenEdge surround-sound system.

2014 Avalon XLE (US)

The 2013 model year HV Edition is based on the hybrid model. It includes 19-inch wheels with Michelin Pilot Super Sport 225/40R19 tires, JBL GreenEdge surround-sound system with 15-speakers, hybrid-blue headlights, turn signals, bright white with electric blue body color and the suspension and braking system from the 2013 model year TRD Edition.

The 2013 model year DUB Edition includes 22-inch-deep concave custom made satin black TIS wheels with Pirelli tires, lower sport suspension, custom body kit, tinted windows, taillights, emblems and plush diamond patterned suede seats. It was built by DUB Magazine.[49]

The vehicles were unveiled at the 2012 SEMA show.[50][51]

Facelift (2015)

Facelift Avalon (US)

In 2015, for the 2016 model year, the Avalon received a facelift which was first shown at the February 2015 Chicago Auto Show. Changes include a new front grille, updated suspension to improve ride comfort, revised wheel designs, and standard Toyota Safety Sense P.[52]

Fifth generation (XX50; 2018-present)

Fifth generation (XX50)
FAW-Toyota Avalon Hybrid XX50 of guangzhou auto show 2018.jpg
FAW Toyota Avalon Hybrid (AXXH50, China)
Also called (literally "Asian Dragon")
ProductionApril 2018 - present
Model years2019-present
DesignerRandy Stephens (2015)
Body and chassis
PlatformTNGA: GA-K[53]
RelatedLexus ES (XZ10)
  • 2.5 L A25A-FKS I4 (petrol, China)[54]
  • 2.5 L A25A-FXS I4 (hybrid)
  • 3.5 L 2GR-FKS V6 (petrol)
  • 8-speed automatic
  • CVT (hybrid)
Wheelbase113.0 in (2,870 mm)[55]
Length196.0 in (4,980 mm)
Width72.8 in (1,850 mm)
Height56.5 in (1,440 mm)
Curb weight3,560-3,715 lb (1,615-1,685 kg)

The redesigned fifth-generation Avalon debuted at the January 2018 North American International Auto Show in Detroit,[55] and went on sale in the US in May 2018.[56] It rides on the TNGA platform, whose 113-inch wheelbase is shared with the 2019 model year Lexus ES (XZ10). It has two Toyota firsts: Apple CarPlay (Android Auto is not offered)[57] and an optional adaptive suspension found in the Touring trim.[58]


2019 Toyota Avalon Touring (GSX50, US)

Two engine choices, shared with the Toyota Camry, are offered: a 3.5 L 2GR-FKS V6 with 301 hp (224 kW), and a hybrid powertrain consisting of a 2.5 L 176 hp (131 kW) A25A-FXS I4 coupled with a 118 hp (88 kW) electric motor; combined power output is 215 hp (160 kW).[59] The hybrid is set up similarly to the redesigned Camry hybrid with a NiMH battery pack, though unlike the Camry hybrid, a li-ion battery is not offered.[60] The EPA rated the V6 at 22 mpg‑US (11 L/100 km; 26 mpg‑imp) on city, 32 mpg‑US (7.4 L/100 km; 38 mpg‑imp) on highway driving, and 25 mpg‑US (9.4 L/100 km; 30 mpg‑imp) on combined cycle. The Avalon Hybrid is rated up to 43 mpg‑US (5.5 L/100 km; 52 mpg‑imp) on city driving and 44 mpg‑US (5.3 L/100 km; 53 mpg‑imp) on both highway driving and combined cycle.[61]

For the first time ever, the Avalon is available in the US with AWD starting with the 2021 MY[62]. It is available only with the 2.5L engine mated to the automatic transmission.


2019 Toyota Avalon Touring (GSX50, USA, rear)

It is equipped with Toyota Safety (TSS-P). The IIHS awarded a Top Safety Pick+ honor to the Avalon, with a "Good" rating in all categories except the passenger-side small overlap test, where it received an "Acceptable" rating. However, Avalons built after September 2018 get a "Good" rating in the passenger-side small overlap test.[63]

IIHS crash test ratings for 2019 Toyota Avalon[63]
Small overlap front Good (driver's side)

Good (passenger side)

Moderate overlap front Good
Side Good
Roof strength Good
Head restraints & seats Good
Front crash prevention Superior
Headlights Good


Calendar year United States[64] Canada Australia
1994 6,559[64] -
1995 66,123 -
1996 73,070 -
1997 71,081 -
1998 77,576 -
1999 67,851 -
2000 104,078 8,788[65]
2001 83,005 11,760[65]
2002 69,029[66] 8,588[65]
2003 50,911 6,064[65]
2004 36,460[67] 187 5,584[65]
2005 95,318 2,115 2,950[65]
2006 88,938[68] 1,408 -
2007 72,945 1,010 -
2008 42,790[69] 380 -
2009 26,935[69] 280 -
2010 28,390[70] 502 -
2011 28,925[71] 496 -
2012 29,556[72] (inc. 747 hybrids)[73] 427 -
2013 70,990[74] (inc. 16,468 hybrids)[73] 1264 -
2014 67,183[75] (inc. 17,048 hybrids)[76] 996 -
2015 60,063[77] (inc. 11,956 hybrids) 765 -
2016 48,080[78] (inc. 8,451 hybrids) 586 -
2017 32,583[79] (inc. 4,990 hybrids) 444 -
2018 33,580[80] 626[81] -


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