Tokyo Subway
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Tokyo Subway
Tokyo subway
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Tokyo Metro logo.svg PrefSymbol-Tokyo.svg
10000x6300 01.jpg
Top: The logos of the Tokyo Metro and Toei Subway
Bottom: Toei 6300 series (left) and Tokyo Metro 10000 series (right) trains at Musashi-Kosugi Station
Overview
LocaleTokyo, Japan
Transit typeRapid transit
Number of lines13
Number of stations285
Daily ridershipTokyo Metro:7.579 million(2018)
Toei Subway:3.207 million(2018)[1]
Operation
Began operationDecember 30, 1927
Operator(s)Tokyo Metro, Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation (Toei)
Technical
System length304.1 km (189.0 mi)
Track gauge , 1,435 mm for Ginza, Marunouchi, Toei Asakusa & Toei ?edo Lines, 1,372 mm for Toei Shinjuku Line
System map

Tokyo Subway Linemap en.svg

The Tokyo subway (, T?ky? no chikatetsu) is a part of the extensive rapid transit system that consists of Tokyo Metro and the Toei Subway in the Greater Tokyo area of Japan. While the subway system itself is largely within the city center, the lines extend far out via extensive through services onto suburban railway lines.

Networks

There are two primary subway operators in Tokyo:

As of 2015, the combined subway network of the Tokyo and Toei metros comprises 278 stations and 13 lines covering a total system length of 304.1 kilometers (189.0 mi). The Tokyo Metro and Toei networks together carry a combined average of over eight million passengers daily.[4] Despite being ranked first in worldwide subway usage, subways make up a small fraction of heavy rail rapid transit in Tokyo alone--only 274 out of 882 railway stations, as of 2007.[5] The Tokyo subway at 8.7 million daily passengers only represents 22% of Tokyo's 40 million daily rail passengers (see Transport in Greater Tokyo).[6] Other urban commuter rail systems include Keihin Electric Express Railway, Keio Corporation, Keisei Electric Railway, Odakyu Electric Railway, Seibu Railway, Tobu Railway and Tokyu Corporation.

Line color Sign Line number Line Japanese
Tokyo Metro
Orange Subway TokyoGinza.png Line 3 Ginza Line
Red Subway TokyoMarunouchi.png Line 4 Marunouchi Line ?
Subway TokyoMarunouchi b.png Marunouchi Line Branch Line ?
Silver Subway TokyoHibiya.png Line 2 Hibiya Line ?
Sky Blue Subway TokyoTozai.png Line 5 T?zai Line
Green Subway TokyoChiyoda.png Line 9 Chiyoda Line ?
Gold Subway TokyoYurakucho.png Line 8 Y?rakuch? Line ?
Purple Subway TokyoHanzomon.png Line 11 Hanz?mon Line ?
Emerald Subway TokyoNamboku.png Line 7 Namboku Line
Brown Subway TokyoFukutoshin.png Line 13 Fukutoshin Line ?
Toei Subway
Rose Subway TokyoAsakusa.png Line 1 Asakusa Line
Blue Subway TokyoMita.png Line 6 Mita Line
Leaf Subway TokyoShinjuku.png Line 10 Shinjuku Line
Ruby Subway TokyoOedo.png Line 12 ?edo Line ?

In addition, but not formally designated as subways:

The Yokohama Subway and the Minatomirai Line also operate in the Greater Tokyo Area, but they are not directly connected to the Tokyo subway network. However, direct through services from the Tokyo Metro Fukutoshin Line regularly run into Yokohama's Minatomirai Line via the T?ky? T?yoko Line railway. On special occasions, typically around holidays, the Tokyo Metro Hibiya Line and Namboku Line operate special Minatomirai (??), formerly known as Yokohama Mirai (?), direct through services to the Minatomirai Line.

History

The history of Tokyo Subway
  • 1915: Japan's first underground railway opened under Tokyo Station. It was only for the railway post office, not for passengers.[]
  • 1927: Tokyo Underground Railway Co., Ltd. (?, T?ky? Chika Tetsud? Kabushiki Gaisha) opened Japan's first underground line of the subway Ginza Line on December 30, 1927, and publicized as "the first underground railway in the Orient." The distance of the line was only 2.2 km between Ueno and Asakusa.
  • 1938: Tokyo Rapid Transit Railway Co., Ltd. (?, T?ky? K?soku Tetsud? Kabushiki Gaisha) opened its subway system between Aoyama 6-chome (present-day Omotesando) and Toranomon.
  • 1939: Tokyo Rapid Transit Railway extended its line from Toranomon to Shimbashi, and started an reciprocal operation with Tokyo Underground Railway.
  • 1941: During World War II, the two subway companies merged under the name Teito Rapid Transit Authority (, Teito K?sokudo K?tsu Eidan) by the local government.
  • 1954: The Marunouchi Line, the first subway line after World War II, opened between Ikebukuro and Ochanomizu.
  • 1960: Toei Subway Line 1, present-day Toei Asakusa Line, opened between Oshiage and Asakusa.
  • 1991: The Tokyo Metro Namboku Line opens.
  • 1995: On March 20, the Tokyo subway sarin attack occurred on the Marunouchi, Hibiya, and Chiyoda Lines during the morning rush hour. Over 5,000 people were injured and 13 people were killed. All three lines ceased operation for the whole day.
  • 2004: Teito Rapid Transit Authority was privatized and renamed Tokyo Metro Co., Ltd.
  • 2008: The Fukutoshin Line opened.

System administration

Both the Tokyo Metro and Toei Subway systems are closely integrated with a unified system of line colors, line codes, and station numbers. However, the separate administration of metro systems has some ramifications:

  • For single rides across Metro and Toei systems, a special transfer ticket is required. It costs 70 yen less than the sum of the Metro fare and the Toei fare, calculated based on the shortest possible route between the origin and destination stations.[8] The Passnet system simplified such ticketing problems, by allowing one stored-fare card to be used on most of the rail operators in the Greater Tokyo Area (with the noticeable exception of JR East which continued to use its own Suica system). The new Pasmo system was introduced in 2007 and completely replaced the Passnet in 2008, finally allowing for one unified stored fare system for most of the Tokyo transit system, including JR East. The fare charged by the stored fare system may be slightly less than for users of paper tickets, as fares are calculated in ¥1 increments on stored fare cards whereas paper tickets are calculated at ¥10 increments.
  • The systems represent the metro network differently in station, train, and customer information diagrams. For example, the Toei map represents the Toei ?edo Line as a circle in the centre, whereas the Tokyo Metro's map saves the central ring line for the Marunouchi Line and the JR Yamanote Line. As well, each system's lines are generally rendered with thicker lines on their respective system maps.

Reciprocal operation

As is common with Japanese subway systems, many above-ground and underground lines in the Greater Tokyo Area operate through services with the Tokyo Metro and Toei lines. In a broader sense they are considered a part of the Tokyo subway network, allowing it to reach farther out into the suburbs.

Tokyo Metro 6000 series and Odakyu 60000 series MSE Romancecar EMUs at Yoyogi-Uehara

Tokyo Metro

Toei Subway

Rolling stock

1995 sarin attack

In 1995, Aum Shinri Kyo, a doomsday cult, attacked the subway system with sarin nerve gas at Kasumigaseki Station and a few others, leading to 13 deaths and over 5,000 people injured.

See also

References

  1. ^ " (20181)" (PDF). . October 2019.
  2. ^ "Corporate Information = Business Contents - Transportation Services - Business Situation". Tokyo Metro Co., Ltd. March 31, 2015. Retrieved .
  3. ^ - ? - - [Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation Home - Management Information - Overview of the Department of Transportation - Toei Subway] (in Japanese). [Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation]. April 1, 2015. Retrieved .
  4. ^ "Subways keep Tokyo on the move". Japan Today. Archived from the original on 2007-10-22. Retrieved .
  5. ^ 19 - (in Japanese).
  6. ^ 17? ?10? [2005 Metropolitan transportation census (10th)] (PDF) (in Japanese). [Land, Infrastructure and Transportation Ministry, Transport Policy Bureau]. March 30, 2007. Retrieved .
  7. ^ http://www.twr.co.jp/enterprise/gaiyou_h22_final_outline.pdf
  8. ^ Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation. "Toei Subway Information - How to Ride the Subway". Archived from the original on 2010-03-27. Retrieved .

Further reading

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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