Titanium-44
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Titanium-44
Main isotopes of titanium (22Ti)
Iso­tope Decay
abun­dance half-life (t1/2) mode pro­duct
44Ti syn 60 y ? 44Sc
? -
46Ti 8.25% stable
47Ti 7.44% stable
48Ti 73.72% stable
49Ti 5.41% stable
50Ti 5.18% stable
Standard atomic weight Ar, standard(Ti)

Naturally occurring titanium (22Ti) is composed of five stable isotopes; 46Ti, 47Ti, 48Ti, 49Ti and 50Ti with 48Ti being the most abundant (73.8% natural abundance). Twenty-one radioisotopes have been characterized, with the most stable being 44Ti with a half-life of 60 years, 45Ti with a half-life of 184.8 minutes, 51Ti with a half-life of 5.76 minutes, and 52Ti with a half-life of 1.7 minutes. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 33 seconds, and the majority of these have half-lives that are less than half a second.[2]

The isotopes of titanium range in atomic mass from 38.01 u (38Ti) to 62.99 u (63Ti). The primary decay mode for isotopes lighter than the stable isotopes (lighter than 46Ti) is ?+ and the primary mode for the heavier ones (heavier than 50Ti) is ?-; their respective decay products are scandium isotopes and the primary products after are vanadium isotopes.[2]

List of isotopes

Nuclide
[n 1]
Z N Isotopic mass (Da)
[n 2][n 3]
Half-life
[n 4]
Decay
mode

[n 5]
Daughter
isotope

[n 6]
Spin and
parity
[n 7][n 4]
Natural abundance (mole fraction)
Excitation energy Normal proportion Range of variation
38Ti 22 16 38.00977(27)# <120 ns 2p 36Ca 0+
39Ti 22 17 39.00161(22)# 31(4) ms
[31(+6-4) ms]
?+, p (85%) 38Ca 3/2+#
?+ (15%) 39Sc
?+, 2p (<.1%) 37K
40Ti 22 18 39.99050(17) 53.3(15) ms ?+ (56.99%) 40Sc 0+
?+, p (43.01%) 39Ca
41Ti 22 19 40.98315(11)# 80.4(9) ms ?+, p (>99.9%) 40Ca 3/2+
?+ (<.1%) 41Sc
42Ti 22 20 41.973031(6) 199(6) ms ?+ 42Sc 0+
43Ti 22 21 42.968522(7) 509(5) ms ?+ 43Sc 7/2-
43m1Ti 313.0(10) keV 12.6(6) ?s (3/2+)
43m2Ti 3066.4(10) keV 560(6) ns (19/2-)
44Ti 22 22 43.9596901(8) 60.0(11) y EC 44Sc 0+
45Ti 22 23 44.9581256(11) 184.8(5) min ?+ 45Sc 7/2-
46Ti 22 24 45.9526316(9) Stable 0+ 0.0825(3)
47Ti 22 25 46.9517631(9) Stable 5/2- 0.0744(2)
48Ti 22 26 47.9479463(9) Stable 0+ 0.7372(3)
49Ti 22 27 48.9478700(9) Stable 7/2- 0.0541(2)
50Ti 22 28 49.9447912(9) Stable 0+ 0.0518(2)
51Ti 22 29 50.946615(1) 5.76(1) min ?- 51V 3/2-
52Ti 22 30 51.946897(8) 1.7(1) min ?- 52V 0+
53Ti 22 31 52.94973(11) 32.7(9) s ?- 53V (3/2)-
54Ti 22 32 53.95105(13) 1.5(4) s ?- 54V 0+
55Ti 22 33 54.95527(16) 490(90) ms ?- 55V 3/2-#
56Ti 22 34 55.95820(21) 164(24) ms ?- (>99.9%) 56V 0+
?-, n (<.1%) 55V
57Ti 22 35 56.96399(49) 60(16) ms ?- (>99.9%) 57V 5/2-#
?-, n (<.1%) 56V
58Ti 22 36 57.96697(75)# 54(7) ms ?- 58V 0+
59Ti 22 37 58.97293(75)# 30(3) ms ?- 59V (5/2-)#
60Ti 22 38 59.97676(86)# 22(2) ms ?- 60V 0+
61Ti 22 39 60.98320(97)# 10# ms
[>300 ns]
?- 61V 1/2-#
?-, n 60V
62Ti 22 40 61.98749(97)# 10# ms 0+
63Ti 22 41 62.99442(107)# 3# ms 1/2-#
  1. ^ mTi – Excited nuclear isomer.
  2. ^ ( ) – Uncertainty (1σ) is given in concise form in parentheses after the corresponding last digits.
  3. ^ # – Atomic mass marked #: value and uncertainty derived not from purely experimental data, but at least partly from trends from the Mass Surface (TMS).
  4. ^ a b # – Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from trends of neighboring nuclides (TNN).
  5. ^ Modes of decay:
  6. ^ Bold symbol as daughter – Daughter product is stable.
  7. ^ ( ) spin value – Indicates spin with weak assignment arguments.

Titanium-44

Titanium-44 (44Ti) is a radioactive isotope of titanium that undergoes electron capture to an excited state of scandium-44 with a half-life of 60 years, before the ground state of 44Sc and ultimately 44Ca are populated.[3] Because titanium-44 can only undergo electron capture, its half-life increases with ionization and it becomes stable in its fully ionized state (that is, having a charge of +22).[4]

Titanium-44 is produced in relative abundance the alpha process in stellar nucleosynthesis and the early stages of supernova explosions. .[5] It is produced when calcium-40 fuses with an alpha particle (helium-4 nucleus) in a star's high-temperature environment; the resulting 44Ti nucleus can then fuse with another alpha particle to form chromium-48. The age of supernovae may be determined through measurements of gamma ray emissions from titanium-44 and its abundance.[4] It was observed in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant and SN 1987A at a relatively high concentration, a consequence of delayed decay resulting from ionizing conditions.[3][4]

References

  1. ^ Meija, Juris; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305.
  2. ^ a b Barbalace, Kenneth L. (2006). "Periodic Table of Elements: Ti - Titanium". Retrieved .
  3. ^ a b Motizuki, Y.; Kumagai, S. (2004). "Radioactivity of the key isotope 44Ti in SN 1987A". AIP Conference Proceedings. 704 (1): 369-374. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.315.8412. doi:10.1063/1.1737130.
  4. ^ a b c Mochizuki, Y.; Takahashi, K.; Janka, H.-Th.; Hillebrandt, W.; Diehl, R. (2008). "Titanium-44: Its effective decay rate in young supernova remnants, and its abundance in Cas A". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 346 (3): 831-842. arXiv:astro-ph/9904378.
  5. ^ Fryer, C.; Dimonte, G.; Ellinger, E.; Hungerford, A.; Kares, B.; Magkotsios, G.; Rockefeller, G.; Timmes, F.; Woodward, P.; Young, P. (2011). Nucleosynthesis in the Universe, Understanding 44Ti (PDF). ADTSC Science Highlights (Report). Los Alamos National Laboratory. pp. 42-43.

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Titanium-44
 



 



 
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