Timi%C8%99oara
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Timi%C8%99oara

Timi?oara
City
Timisoara collage.jpg
Nickname(s): Little Vienna, City of Flowers, Heart of Banat, Strasbourg of East
(Romanian: Mica Vien?, Ora?ul Florilor, Inima Banatului, Strasbourg-ul Estului)[1]
Timi?oara is located in Romania
Timi?oara
Timi?oara
Location of Timi?oara within Romania
Coordinates: 45°45?35?N 21°13?48?E / 45.75972°N 21.23000°E / 45.75972; 21.23000Coordinates: 45°45?35?N 21°13?48?E / 45.75972°N 21.23000°E / 45.75972; 21.23000
Country  Romania
County ROU Timis County CoA.svg Timi?
Status County capital
First official record 1212 (as Temesiense)
Government
 o Mayor Nicolae Robu (PNL)
 o Deputy Mayor Dan Diaconu (PNL)
 o Deputy Mayor Imre Farkas (UDMR)
Area
 o City 130.5 km2 (50.4 sq mi)
 o Metro 1,570 km2 (610 sq mi)
Elevation 90 m (300 ft)
Population (2011 census)[3]
 o City 319,279 Increase
 o Estimate (2016)[4] 332,983
 o Rank 3rd (98th in EU)
 o Density 2,447/km2 (6,340/sq mi)
 o Metro 466,734[2]
Demonym(s) timi?oreantimi?oreanc? (ro)
temesvári (hu)
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
 o Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code 300001-300990
Tel. code 0256 / 0356
Car Plates TM
Climate Cfb
Website www.primariatm.ro
xTimi?oara metropolitan area is a proposed project.

Timi?oara (; German: Temeswar, also formerly Temeschburg or Temeschwar; Hungarian: Temesvár, ['t?mva:r]; Yiddish: ‎; Serbian: / Temi?var; Banat Bulgarian: Timi?vár; Turkish: Teme?var; Slovak: Teme?vár) is the capital city of Timi? County, and the main social, economic and cultural centre in western Romania.

The third most populous city in the country, with 319,279 inhabitants as of the 2011 census,[3] Timi?oara is the informal capital city of the historical region of Banat. In September 2016, Timi?oara was selected as the European Capital of Culture for 2021.[5]

History

Middle Ages

Timi?oara was first mentioned as a place in either 1212 or 1266 as Castrum Temesiensis.[6] The territory later known as Banat was conquered and annexed by the Kingdom of Hungary in 1030. Timi?oara grew considerably during the reign of Charles I, who, upon his visit there in 1307, ordered the fortress to be fortified with stone walls and to build a royal palace.[7][8] Timi?oara's importance also grew due to its strategic location, which facilitated control over the Banat plain. By the middle of the 14th century, Timi?oara was at the forefront of Western Christendom's battle against the Muslim Ottoman Turks. French and Hungarian Crusaders met at the city before engaging in the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396. Beginning in 1443, John Hunyadi used Timi?oara as a military stronghold against the Turks, having built a powerful fortress. The city was repeatedly besieged by the Ottomans in 1462, 1476, 1491, and 1522.

16th-19th centuries

In 1552, a 16,000-strong Ottoman army led by Kara Ahmed Pasha conquered the city and transformed it into a capital city in the region (Teme?var Eyalet). The local military commander, István Losonczy, and other Christians were massacred on 27 July 1552 while escaping the city through the Azapilor Gate.[9]

Timi?oara in 1656, a map by Nicolas Sanson

Timi?oara remained under Ottoman rule for nearly 160 years, controlled directly by the Sultan and enjoying a special status, similar to other cities in the region such as Budapest and Belgrade. During this period, Timi?oara was home to a large Islamic community and produced famous historical figures such as Osman Aga of Temesvar, until Prince Eugene of Savoy conquered it in 1716. Subsequently, the city came under Habsburg rule, and it remained so until the early 20th century, except for the Ottoman occupation between 1788-1789 during the Ottoman-Habsburg war.[10] The city was defortified starting in 1892 up until 1910,[11] and several major road arteries were built to connect the suburbs with the city centre, paving the way for further expansion of the city.[]

It was the first mainland European city and second in the world after New York to be lit by electric street lamps in 1884.[12][13] It was also the second European and the first city in what is now Romania with horse-drawn trams in 1869.[14] It is said that Gustave Eiffel, the creator of the Eiffel Tower in Paris, drew the projects of one of Timi?oara's footbridges over the Bega, the "Metal Bridge", however, it was actually planned by Róbert Tóth, the head of the Bridge Department, at the Re?i?a rail factory.[15]

20th century

Historical image of a streetcar in Timi?oara in 1910

On 31 October 1918, local military and political elites establish the "Banat National Council", together with representatives of the region's main ethnic groups: Romanians, Germans, Serbs and Hungarians. On 1 November they proclaimed in Timi?oara the short-lived Banat Republic. In the aftermath of World War I, the Banat region was divided between the Kingdom of Romania and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, and Timi?oara came under Romanian administration after Serbian occupation between 1918-1919. The city was ceded from Hungary to Romania by the Treaty of Trianon on 4 June 1920. In 1920, King Ferdinand I awarded Timi?oara the status of a University Centre, and the interwar years saw continuous economic and cultural development. A number of anti-fascist and anti-revisionist demonstrations also took place during this time.

During World War II, Timi?oara suffered damage from both Allied and Axis bombing raids, especially during the second half of 1944. On 23 August 1944, Romania, which until then was a member of the Axis, declared war on Nazi Germany and joined the Allies. Surprised, the local Wehrmacht garrison surrendered without a fight,[] and German and Hungarian troops attempted to take the city by force throughout September, without success.

After the war, the People's Republic of Romania was proclaimed, and Timi?oara underwent Sovietization and later, Systematization. The city's population tripled between 1948 and 1992. In December 1989, Timi?oara witnessed a series of mass street protests in what was to become the Romanian Revolution.[] On 20 December, three days after bloodshed began there, Timi?oara was declared the first city free of Communism in Romania.[16]

Geography

Bega canal at night

Timi?oara lies at an altitude of 90 metres (300 feet) on the southeast edge of the Banat plain, part of the Pannonian Plain near the divergence of the Timi? and Bega rivers. The waters of the two rivers form a swampy and frequently flooded land. Timi?oara developed on one of few places where the swamps could be crossed. These constituted a natural protection around the fortress for a very long time, however, they also favoured a wet and insalubrious climate, as well as the proliferation of the plague and cholera, which kept the number of inhabitants at a relatively low number and significantly prevented the development of the city. With time, however, the rivers of the area were drained, dammed and diverted. Due to these hydrographical projects undertaken in the 18th century, the city no longer lies on the Timi? River, but on the Bega canal. This improvement of the land was made irreversible by building the Bega canal (started in 1728) and by the complete draining of the surrounding marshes. However, the land across the city lies above a water table at a depth of only 0.5 to 5 metres (1.6-16.4 feet), a factor which does not allow the construction of tall buildings. The rich black soil and relatively high water table make this a fertile agricultural region.

This is a relatively active seismic area, and earthquakes up to 6 on the Richter scale have been recorded.

Climate

Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year-round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate).[17]

The climate which defines Timi?oara city is the temperate-oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb) and can be regarded as humid continental (Dfb) when using an isotherm of 0 °C (32 °F). The city characterises the South-Eastern part of The Pannonian Basin.

Climate data for Timi?oara, Romania (1961-1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.4
(63.3)
20.5
(68.9)
28.2
(82.8)
32.0
(89.6)
34.5
(94.1)
38.4
(101.1)
41.1
(106)
41.0
(105.8)
39.7
(103.5)
33.8
(92.8)
27.1
(80.8)
20.2
(68.4)
41.1
(106)
Average high °C (°F) 2.3
(36.1)
5.6
(42.1)
11.9
(53.4)
17.6
(63.7)
22.8
(73)
25.7
(78.3)
27.8
(82)
27.6
(81.7)
24.0
(75.2)
18.1
(64.6)
10.3
(50.5)
4.2
(39.6)
16.5
(61.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) -1.6
(29.1)
1.2
(34.2)
5.8
(42.4)
11.2
(52.2)
16.3
(61.3)
19.4
(66.9)
21.1
(70)
20.4
(68.7)
16.5
(61.7)
11.0
(51.8)
5.6
(42.1)
0.8
(33.4)
10.6
(51.1)
Average low °C (°F) -4.8
(23.4)
-2.3
(27.9)
1.2
(34.2)
5.8
(42.4)
10.1
(50.2)
13.4
(56.1)
14.6
(58.3)
14.3
(57.7)
11.2
(52.2)
6.2
(43.2)
2.1
(35.8)
-1.7
(28.9)
5.8
(42.4)
Record low °C (°F) -35.3
(-31.5)
-29.2
(-20.6)
-20.0
(-4)
-5.2
(22.6)
-5.0
(23)
2.2
(36)
5.9
(42.6)
5.0
(41)
-1.9
(28.6)
-6.8
(19.8)
-15.4
(4.3)
-24.8
(-12.6)
-35.3
(-31.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 40
(1.57)
36
(1.42)
37
(1.46)
48
(1.89)
65
(2.56)
76
(2.99)
64
(2.52)
50
(1.97)
40
(1.57)
39
(1.54)
48
(1.89)
50
(1.97)
593
(23.35)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 9.8
(3.86)
9.3
(3.66)
4.4
(1.73)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
3.7
(1.46)
7.2
(2.83)
34.4
(13.54)
Average precipitation days 7 7 7 8 9 10 7 6 6 5 8 9 89
Average relative humidity (%) 90 86 79 73 73 74 73 75 76 81 85 89 79
Mean monthly sunshine hours 72.1 92.2 155.4 186.4 242.4 262.3 300.6 280.2 217.5 177.3 86.4 56.9 2,129.7
Source #1: NOAA,[18]Deutscher Wetterdienst[19]
Source #2: Romanian National Statistic Institute (extremes 1901-2000)[20]
  • Highest recorded temperature: 42 °C (108 °F) - 5 August 2017
  • Lowest recorded temperature: -35.3 °C (-32 °F) - 24 January 1963
  • Snow stays on the ground 30 days a year on average
  • Highest precipitation: June: 91.0 mm(3.589 in)
  • Lowest precipitation: February: 44.5 mm(1.737 in)

Climatic general features consist of various and irregular weather conditions. The dominating temperate air masses during spring and summer are of oceanic origin and come with great precipitations. Frequently, even during winter period, the Atlantic humid air masses bring rainy and snowy weather, rarely cold weather.

From September until February, frequent continental polar air masses coming from the East invade the area. In spite of all that, the Banat climate is also influenced by the presence of cyclones and warm air masses which come from the Adriatic Sea and the Mediterranean. Their characteristic feature is that of complete snow thaw during the winter period and stifling heat during the summer period.

Freak measurable snowfalls have occurred as early as late October and as late as early April, but snow in those months is rare, and significant falls do not usually occur until late November. The median date for the first freeze is 22 October, while that of the last freeze is 15 April.[]

Demographics

Central Timi?oara (November 2012)

As of 2011 census data, Timi?oara has a population of 319,279,[3] while the proposed Timi?oara metropolitan area would have a population of 418,415. As defined by Eurostat, the Timi?oara functional urban area has a population of 359,443 residents (as of 2015).[2]

Of this population, 86.79% were ethnic Romanians, while 5.12% were Hungarians, 1.37% Germans, 1.3% Serbs, 0.69% Romani, 0.18% Ukrainians, 0.17% Slovaks, 0.11% Jews and 0.76% others.[21] 14.2% of the population are under 15 years of age, 4.0% are over 75.

Since 1990, Timi?oara saw a slight population decline owing to migration and a drop in birthrates. Notably, the Hungarian and German communities experienced significant decline, with the latter being reduced by half between 1992 and 2002.[22] On the other hand, the Ukrainian community has grown, partly due to the presence of Ukrainian language educational facilities. In recent years, local investment by Italian companies has spurred the creation of an Italian community,[23] even leading to calls for an Italian Cultural Center.[24]

Historical populations

In 1910, according to the Austro-Hungarian census (based on the first language in daily use), Timi?oara had 72,555 inhabitants. Of these, 31,644 (43.6%) used German language, 28,552 (39.4%) used Hungarian language, 7,566 (10.4%) used Romanian language, 3,482 (4.8%) used Serbian language, and 1,311 (1.8%) used other languages as everyday language.[25]

Economy

The economy of Timi?oara has historic tradition in manufacturing, commerce, transport, education, communications and tourism.

Timi?oara has been an important economic centre since the 18th century when the Habsburg administration was installed. Due to Austrian colonisation, ethnic and religious diversity and innovative laws, the economy began to develop. The technicians and craftsmen that settled in the city established guilds and helped develop the city's economy. In 1717, Timi?oara became host to the first beer factory in Banat.[26]

During the Industrial Revolution, numerous modern innovations were introduced. It was the first city in Austria-Hungary with street lighting, and the first city in mainland Europe illuminated by electric light. The Bega river was also channelled during this time. It was the first navigable canal on current Romanian territory. This way, Timi?oara had contact with Europe, and even with the rest of the world through the Black Sea, leading to the local development of commercialism.[27][28][29] In the 19th century, the railway system of the Hungarian Kingdom reached Timi?oara.

City Business Centre
Regional Business Centre

Timi?oara was the first city in the country with international routes economic boom as the amount of foreign investment, especially in high-tech sectors, has risen. In an article in late 2005, French magazine L'Expansion called Timi?oara Romania's economic showcase, and referred to the increased number of foreign investments as a "second revolution". In 2016, Timi?oara was awarded by Forbes as the most dynamic city and the best city for business in Romania.[30]

Apart from domestic local investment, there has been significant foreign investment from the European Union, particularly from Germany and Italy. Continental AG has produced tires since opening a plant in 1998.[31] In the years that followed, Continental also established an automotive software engineering division in Timi?oara. All in all, as of 2015Continental AG employed about 8000 people in Timi?oara, and the company keeps expanding.[32] The Linde Group produces technical gases, and a part of the wiring moulds for BMW and Audi vehicles are produced by the company Dräxlmaier Group. Wiring for Volkswagen and other vehicles are produced at the German company Kromberg & Schubert. Also, Swiss company FM Logistic, already present in Timi? County for Alcatel-Lucent, Nestlé, P&G, Smithfield and in Bucharest for Cora, L'Oréal, Sanofi Aventis and Yves Rocher, and for companies like PROFI Rom Foods, BIC, Kraft Foods or SCA Packaging--offering them domestic transport services and international transport services for Bricostore, Arctic, Danone, Unilever or Contitech, the growth of FM Logistic in Romania and in Dude?ti through its first warehouse in Romania (Dude?tii Noi gives FM the opportunity). Nestlé produces waffles here.[]

The city has two shopping malls: Iulius Mall Timi?oara[33] and Shopping City Timi?oara.[34] A third one will be completed in 2018, Timi?oara Centrum.[35] A fourth is planned to be built, Timi?oara Plaza.[36]

The USA company Flextronics maintains a workplace in the west of the city for the production of mobile telephony and government inspection department devices. In 2009, the company laid off 640 workers.[37] The American company Procter & Gamble manufactures washing and cleaning agents in Timi?oara. Smithfield Foods--the world's largest pork processor and hog producer--has two subsidiaries in Timi?oara and Timi? County: Smithfield Ferme and Smithfield Prod.

Transport

Tramway and trolleybus routes

Timi?oara has a complex system of regional transportation, providing road, air and rail connections to major cities in Romania and Europe.

Mass transit

Timi?oara's public transport network consists of 9 tram lines, 9 trolleybus lines and 21 bus lines and it is operated by STPT (Societatea de Transport Public Timi?oara), a company owned by the City Hall. The system covers all the important areas of the city and it also connects Timi?oara with some of the communes of the metropolitan area.

In 2015, Timi?oara became the first city in Romania to offer public transport by bike. The bicycle-sharing system has 25 stations and 300 bikes which can be used by locals and tourists for free.[38] Starting from 2016, STPT also offers vaporetto public transport on the Bega canal, resulting in Timi?oara being the only city in Romania with 5 types of public transportation.[39]

Road

Timi?oara is on two European routes (E70 and E671) in the European road network. At a national level, Timi?oara is located on four different national roads: DN6, DN69, DN59 and DN59A. The Romanian Motorway A1, under construction on some sections, will link the city with Bucharest and the eastern part of the country. The A1 is currently the only Romanian motorway that crosses a border, linking Timi?oara with Hungarian motorway M43. The Timi?oara Coach Station (Autogara) is used by several private transport companies to provide coach connections from Timi?oara to a large number of locations from all over the country.[40]

Air

The city is served by Romania's third busiest airport, Traian Vuia International Airport, located 12.3 km (7.6 mi) northeast away from the city centre. It used to be the hub of Romanian airline Carpatair, and it serves now as an operating base for low-cost airlineWizz Air.

Railway

Timi?oara is a major railway centre and is connected to all other major Romanian cities, as well as local destinations, through the national CFR network. Timi?oara is directly linked by train service with Budapest, Belgrade and Vienna. The main railway station of the city is Timi?oara North railway station. More than 130 trains use this station daily. The other three railway stations of the city are mainly used by commuter trains.

Cityscape

Currently, the tallest building is the Timi?oara Orthodox Cathedral, at 91 metres (299 feet) and the tallest office building is the Fructus Tower, at 65 metres (213 feet). Other tall buildings, over 60 metres (200 feet), include: Asirom Financial Centre, Bosch Center, Continental Hotel and United Business Center 2. Another proposed building, the United Business Center 0, should be completed by the end of 2017[] and will be part of the mixed use urban regeneration project: Openville. When completed, the building will have a height of 155 metres (509 feet) becoming the tallest building in Romania.

Government

Nicolae Robu, mayor of Timi?oara
Timi?oara City Hall
Administrative Palace, Timi? Prefecture headquarters

The first free local elections in post-communist Timi?oara took place in 1992. The winner was Viorel Oancea, of the Civic Alliance Party (PAC), which later merged with the Liberal Party. He was the first officer who spoke to the crowd of revolutionaries gathered in Opera Square. The 1996 elections were won by Gheorghe Ciuhandu, of the Christian Democrats. He had four terms, also winning elections in 2000, 2004 and 2008. Meanwhile, Ciuhandu took over the Christian Democratic Party and ran for president of Romania in 2004. Timi?oara's mayor, elected in 2012 and again in 2016, is Nicolae Robu. Deputy mayors are Dan Diaconu (PNL) and Farkas Imre (UDMR).

Like all other local councils in Romania, the Timi?oara local council, the county council and the city's mayor are elected every four years by the population. Decisions are approved and discussed by the local council (consiliu local) made up of 27 elected councillors.[41] Local council composition after 2016 local elections:[42]

    Party Seats Current Council
  National Liberal Party (PNL) 12                        
  Social Democratic Party (PSD) 9                        
  People's Movement Party (PMP) 2                        
  Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania (UDMR/RMDSZ) 2                        
  Alliance of Liberals and Democrats (ALDE) 1                        
  Adrian Orza (independent) 1                        

Additionally, as Timi?oara is the capital of Timi? County, the city hosts the palace of the prefecture, the headquarters of the county council (consiliu jude?ean) and the prefect, who is appointed by Romania's central government. The prefect is not allowed to be a member of a political party, and his role is to represent the national government at the local level, acting as a liaison and facilitating the implementation of National Development Plans and governing programmes at the local level. County council composition after 2016 local elections:[43]

    Party Seats Current Council
  Social Democratic Party (PSD) 16                                
  National Liberal Party (PNL) 14                                
  People's Movement Party (PMP) 5                                
  Alliance of Liberals and Democrats (ALDE) 2                                

Currently, the city is the largest in the West development region, which is equivalent to NUTS-II regions in the European Union and is used by the European Union and the Romanian Government for statistical analysis and regional development. The West development region is not, however, an administrative entity.[41]

Districts

Temesvár kerületei-hu.svg

Timi?oara city traditionally divided into ten parts, but now they have no administrative function.

District Area (ha) Romanian name German name Hungarian name Institution
I 480 Cetate Innere Stadt Belváros 1718
II 1017 Fabric Fabrikstadt Gyárváros 1718
III 668 Elisabetin Elisabethstadt Erzsébetváros 1890
IV 442 Iosefin Josefstadt Józsefváros 1744
V 205 Mehala Mehala Mehala 1910
VI 231 Fratelia Fratelia Újkissoda 1948
VII 156 Freidorf Freidorf Szabadfalu 1950
VIII 67 Plopi Kardos-Kolonie Kardostelep 1951
IX 72 Ghiroda Nou? Neu-Giroda Erzsébetpuszta 1951
X 102 Ciarda Ro?ie Rote Tscharda Vörös Csárda 1953

In the 21st century, Timi?oara city is divided into quarters (cartiere):

Listed alphabetically
  • Aradului vest
  • Badea Câr?an
  • Banat I
  • Bla?covici
  • Braytim
  • Bucovina
  • Calea Aradului
  • Calea Buzia?ului
  • Calea Girocului
  • Calea Lipovei
  • Calea Lugojului
  • Calea ?agului
  • Calea Torontalului I, II
  • Cetate
  • Chi?oda
  • Ciarda Ro?ie
  • Circumvala?iunii I, II, III, IV
  • Complex studen?esc
  • Complex
  • Cri?an
  • Dacia
  • Dâmbovi?a
  • Elisabetin
  • Fabric
  • Fratelia
  • Freidorf
  • Ghiroda Nou?
  • Ion Ionescu de la Brad
  • Iosefin
  • Kuncz
  • Lunei
  • Matei Basarab
  • Mehala I, II
  • Mircea cel B?trân
  • Modern
  • Noua Timi?oar?
  • Olimpia
  • P?durea Verde
  • Pl?v
  • Plopi
  • Polon?
  • Rona?
  • Soarelui
  • Stadion
  • Steaua
  • Tipografilor
  • Traian
  • Zona Odobescu

Culture and contemporary life

St. George Roman Catholic Dome

The city centre largely consists of buildings from the Austrian Empire era. The old city consists of several historic areas. These are: Cetate (Belváros in Hungarian, Innere Stadt in German), Iosefin (Józsefváros, Josephstadt), Elisabetin (Erzsébetváros, Elisabethstadt), Fabric (Gyárváros, Fabrikstadt). Numerous bars, clubs and restaurants have opened in the old Baroque square (Unirii Square).

Religious buildings

Cultural buildings and sites

Performing arts

Festivals and Conferences

  • Plai Festival
  • Revolution Festival - music festival held in June at the Village Museum
  • Timi?oara Jazz Festival (JazzTM) - international jazz festival that takes place outdoors, in Victory Square (and starting from 2016 also in the Civic and Justice parks), in July and brings to the scene international jazz artists
  • Teszt Festival - euroregional theatre festival
  • Timishort- short movie festival held since 2009
  • Ceau, Cinema!- a "pocket-size" independent film festival that takes place in July made by volunteers and film enthusiasts with the support of local companies and cultural partners. It also takes place in Gottlob, which has the first reconditioned cinema in rural Romania.[46]
  • StudentFest - a festival of culture and arts created by the students which has been held ever since 1992.[47]
  • International Festival of Literature from Timi?oara - the festival, held in October since 2012, brings together Romanian and foreign authors, for two days of lectures and open dialogue with the public
  • Street Delivery Festival - Organized in Bucharest, Timi?oara and Ia?i, the festival reaches areas such as architecture, music, theatre, dance and film
  • Timi?oara Tango Festival]- Argentine Tango event
  • ISWin - The International Student Week in Timi?oara
  • TEDxTimi?oara] - an independent conference organised under license from TED Conference[48][49][50][51]
  • SABOTAGE Festival - Indoor Electronic Music and Art Festival held in October

European Capital of Culture

On 16 September 2016, Timi?oara was selected as Romanian host city of European Capital of Culture in 2021.[52] The city will co-host the event with Novi Sad and Eleusis.

Shopping and commerce

Due to high demand for business space, new commercial buildings have been built. The commercial sector is developing very quickly. Timi?oara has two large shopping centres:

A third mall, Timi?oara Centrum, will be completed in 2018.[54]

Education

Timi?oara is the main educational and academic centre in west of Romania. Timi?oara has four public universities and four private universities. The number of students of higher education institutions reached 60,000 in 2015.

Public

Private

Sport

Association football

Historic

Basketball

Handball

Rugby union

International relations

Twin towns - Sister cities

Timi?oara has 17 twin towns and sister cities, as listed below:[55]

Consulates

  • Germany General consulate of Germany[62]
  • Serbia General consulate of Serbia[63]
  • General consulate of Mexico
  • General consulate of Peru
  • General consultate of Italy
  • General consulate of Spain
  • General consulate of The Netherlands
  • General consulate of South Korea

Gallery

Panorama

Timi?oara panorama from City Business Centre in 700 Area of the city in April 2016. See larger picture for landmark labels.

See also

References

  1. ^ Strutz, Rudolf. "Timisoara - City of Roses". issuu.com. 
  2. ^ a b "Population on 1 January by age groups and sex - functional urban areas". Eurostat. Retrieved 2017. 
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