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Digitized cuneiform sign for bad, bat, be, etc., and 5 sumerograms in Epic of Gilgamesh. (see text)
Near Eastern cylinder seal (Walters 42699; see clay impression below) signs read down from top: column left (line no. 1), 3rd sign is the bad sign. Note line no. 1 appears as "line 3", until printed in the clay, and then appearing as "line no. 1".
The cuneiformbad, bat, be, etc. sign is a common multi-use sign in the mid 14th-century BC Amarna letters, and the Epic of Gilgamesh. In the Epic it also has 5 sumerogram uses (capital letter (majuscule)). From Giorgio Buccellati (Buccellati 1979) 'comparative graphemic analysis' (about 360 cuneiform signs, nos. 1 through no. 598E), of 5 categories of letters, the usage numbers of the bad sign are as follows: Old Babylonian Royal letters (71), OB non-Royal letters (392), Mari letters (2108), Amarna letters (334), Ugarit letters (39).
The following linguistic elements are used for the bad sign in the 12 chapter (Tablets I-Tablet XII) Epic of Gilgamesh:
bad (not in Epic)
The following usage numbers for the linguistic elements of sign bad in the Epic are as follows: bad, (0 times), bat, (61), be, (16), mid, (7), mit, (8), sun, (1), til, (11), ziz, (8), BE, (2), IDIM, (2), TIL, (1), Ú?, (2), ZIZ, (1).
Instead of a large horizontal, as seen in the (digitized form, but one type of "bad") , the sign is seen in the Amarna letters as composed of two opposite facing (triangles), the wedges. It can be seen here , Amarna letter EA 153-(lines 153:4, 11), for "King-Lord-mine", "LUGAL, Be-li-ia", or Be-lí-ia", where "b?lu" is Akkadian for "lord".
The vassalcity-state letters to the Pharaoh often reference the King (Pharaoh), as: "King, Lord-mine", where king is represented by LUGAL (king Sumerogram), for Akkadian language?arru-(sometimes LUGAL-ri, represented as "?ÁR-ri", for king, ?ÁR=LUGAL). For the reverse of EA 362, Rib-Hadda to Pharaoh (plus lines 66-69 on clay tablet side), cuneiform sign be is used for "lord", Akkadian "b?lu". In EA 362, be is only used for the spelling of "lord".
The entire topic of EA 362 is developed on the reverse side, (starting halfway on obverse). The listing of be uses, 10-times, on the reverse (and side lines of 66-69), are as follows: