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The Tiberian vocalization, Tiberian pointing, or Tiberian niqqud (Hebrew: ? Nikkud Tveriyani) is a system of diacritics (niqqud) devised by the Masoretes of Tiberias to add to the consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible to produce the Masoretic Text. The system soon became used to vocalize other Hebrew texts, as well.
The Tiberian vocalization marks vowels and stress, makes fine distinctions of consonant quality and length, and serves as punctuation. While the Tiberian system was devised for Tiberian Hebrew, it has become the dominant system for vocalizing all forms of Hebrew and has long since eclipsed the Babylonian and Palestinian vocalization systems.
The sin dot distinguishes between the two values of ?. A dagesh indicates a consonant is geminate or unspirantized, and a raphe indicates spirantization. The mappiq indicates that ? is consonantal, not silent, in syllable-coda position.
The seven vowel qualities of Tiberian Hebrew are indicated straightforwardly by distinct diacritics:
|niqqud with ?|
The diacritics qubutz and shuruq both represent /u/, but shuruq is used when the text uses full spelling (with waw as a mater lectionis). Each of the vowel phonemes could be allophonically lengthened; occasionally, the length is marked with metheg. (Then, metheg also can indirectly indicate when a following shva is vocal.)
The ultrashort vowels are slightly more complicated. There were two graphemes corresponding to the vowel /?/, attested by alternations in manuscripts like ~, ~.. In addition, one of the graphemes could also be silent:
Shva was used both to indicate lack of a vowel (quiescent ?wa, shva nah) and as another symbol to represent the phoneme /?/ (mobile ?wa, shva na), the latter also represented by hataf patah. The phoneme /?/ had a number of allophones; /?/ had to be written with shva rather than hataf patah when it was not pronounced as [?]. Before a laryngeal-pharyngeal, mobile ?wa was pronounced as an ultrashort copy of the following vowel ( [uv?q?]) and as [?] preceding /j/, ( /ðamm?juni/). Using ?ataf vowels was mandatory under gutturals but optional under other letters, and there was considerable variation among manuscripts.
That is referenced specifically by medieval grammarians:
If one argues that the dalet of 'Mordecai' (and other letters in other words) has hatef qames, tell him, 'but this sign is only a device used by some scribes to warn that the consonants should be pronounced fully, and not slurred over'.
The names of the vowel diacritics are iconic and show some variation:
The names of the vowels are mostly taken from the form and action of the mouth in producing the various sounds, as ? opening; a wide parting (of the mouth), also ?=?) breaking, parting (cf. the Arab, kasr); ? (also ) narrow opening; ? closing, according to others fullness, i.e. of the mouth (also fullness of the mouth). also denotes a slighter, as ? and ? (also ? ) a firmer, compression or contraction of the mouth. Segôl ( bunch of grapes) takes its name from its form. So ? (three points) is another name for Qibbú?. Moreover the names were mostly so formed (but only later), that the sound of each vowel is heard in the first syllable ( for , for , for ); in order to carry this out consistently some even write Sägôl, Qome?-?atûf, Qûbbû?.
Cantillation signs mark stress and punctuation. Metheg may mark secondary stress, and maqqaf conjoins words into one stress unit, which normally takes only one cantillation mark on the final word in the unit.